Abstract

We demonstrate the feasibility of the process for fabricating a single-mode waveguide and a large-core multimode waveguide aligned vertically on the same substrate. Using this process, we propose and demonstrate a filter that drops optical signal propagating in a single-mode waveguide to a multimode waveguide in the specific wavelength interval by a long-period grating. We use perfluorocyclobutane and benzocyclobutane for the cladding and core of the single-mode waveguide, respectively. The large core of the multimode waveguide is made of Norland Optical Adhesive 61. For the grating period of 315.9 µm, the fabricated filter has the center wavelength of 1537.7 nm, at which the maximum attenuation is 17.8 dB.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef]
  3. A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhaia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, �??Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters,�?? IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58-65 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J.-K. Yoon, G.-W. Seo, K.-M. Cho, E.-S. Kim, S.-H. Kim, and S.-W. Kang, �??Controllable in-line UV sensor using a side-polished fiber coupler with photofunctional polymer,�?? IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 837-839 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. Harumoto, M. Shigehara, and H. Suganuma, �??Gain-flattening filter using long-period fiber gratings,�?? IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 1027-1033 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  6. B.-T. Lee, M.-S. Kwon, and S.-Y. Shin, �??Fabrication of polymeric large-core waveguides for optical interconnects using a rubber molding process,�?? IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 62-64 (2000).
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Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

J. Hu, R. G. Beck, T. Deng, R. M. Westervelt, K. D. Maranowski, A. C. Gossard, and G. M. Whitesides, �??Using soft lithography to fabricate GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure field effect transistors,�?? Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2020-2022 (1997).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

M. Harumoto, M. Shigehara, and H. Suganuma, �??Gain-flattening filter using long-period fiber gratings,�?? IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 1027-1033 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhaia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, �??Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters,�?? IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58-65 (1996).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

R. A. Soref, J. Schmidtchen, and K. Petermann, �??Large single-mode rib waveguides in GeSi-Si and Si-on-SiO2,�?? IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1971-1974 (1991).
[CrossRef]

F. Heismann and R. C. Alferness,�??Wavelength-tunable electrooptic polarization conversion in birefringent waveguides,�?? IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 83-93 (1988)
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

J.-K. Yoon, G.-W. Seo, K.-M. Cho, E.-S. Kim, S.-H. Kim, and S.-W. Kang, �??Controllable in-line UV sensor using a side-polished fiber coupler with photofunctional polymer,�?? IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 837-839 (2003).
[CrossRef]

B.-T. Lee, M.-S. Kwon, and S.-Y. Shin, �??Fabrication of polymeric large-core waveguides for optical interconnects using a rubber molding process,�?? IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 62-64 (2000).
[CrossRef]

OSA Proceedings Series (1)

M.-S. Kwon and S.-Y. Shin, �??Filter using vertical coupling between a single-mode waveguide and a multimode waveguide,�?? in Integrated Photonics Reseach, Vol. 78 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1900), pp. IFG2-1-IFG2-3.

Other (2)

H. Nishihara, M. Haruna, and T. Suhara, Optical integrated circuits (McGraw-Hill, 1989).

T. Tamir, ed., Guided-wave optoelectronics (Springer-Verlag, 1990).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic view of a gain-flattening filter in the form of an integrated optical device

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Schematic view of the fabricated filter (a) 3-dimensional view, and (b) Its cross-section

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Fabrication of the multimode waveguide aligned to the single-mode waveguide with the PDMS mode (a) Alignment of the PDMS mold with the aligning marks, and (b) Filling the channels with the prepolymer by capillarity

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Microscope picture of the cleaved facet of the fabricated filter

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

The filter response measured with the ASE noise as a light source when the grating-interaction length is (a) 11 mm, and (b) 16 mm

Equations (2)

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N MMW N SMW = m λ 0 Λ
0.8 Λ L [ 1 Λ ( d N MMW d λ d N SMW d λ ) λ = λ 0 ] 1 λ 0 ,

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