Abstract

Color-imaging methods with an integrated compound imaging system called TOMBO (Thin observation module by bound optics) are presented. The TOMBO is a compact optoelectronic imaging system for image capturing based on compound-eye imaging and postdigital processing. First, a general description of the TOMBO system is given, and then two configurations for color imaging are described. Experimental comparison of these configurations is made by use of an experimental TOMBO system. The characteristics and the performance on the proposed methods are briefly discussed.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. Tanida, T. Kumagai, K. Yamada, S. Miyatake, K. Ishida, T. Morimoto, N. Kondou, D. Miyazaki, and Y. Ichioka, “Thin observation module by bound optics (TOMBO): concept and experimental verification,” Appl. Opt. 40, 1806–1813 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  2. J. Tanida, Y. Kitamura, K. Yamada, S. Miyatake, M. Miyamoto, T. Morimoto, Y. Masaki, N. Kondou, D Miyazaki, and Y. Ichioka, “Compact image capturing system based on compound imaging and digital reconstruction,” in Micro- and Nano-optics for Optical Interconnection and Information Processing, Proc. SPIE4455, 34–41 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  3. S. Ogata, J. Ishida, and T. Sasano, “Optical sensor array in an artificial compound eye,” Opt. Eng. 33, 3649–3655 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  4. J. S. Sanders and C. E. Halford, “Design and analysis of apposition compound eye optical sensors,” Opt. Eng. 34, 222–235 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  5. K. Hamanaka and H. Koshi, “An artificial compound eye using a microlens array and its application to scale invariant processing,” Opt. Rev. 3, 264–268 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  6. B. A. Wandell, A. El Gamal, and B. Girod, “Common principles of image acquisition systems and biological vision,” Proc. IEEE 90, 5–17 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  7. J. Tanida, R. Shogenji, K. Yamada, M. Miyamoto, and S. Miyatake, “Functional extension of thin observation module by bound optics (TOMBO),” in Optics in Computing, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, Washington DC, 2003), pp.152–154.
  8. Y. Kitamura, R. Shogenji, K. Yamada, S. Miyatake, M. Miyamoto, T. Morimoto, Y. Masaki, N. Kondou, D. Miyazaki, J. Tanida, and Y. Ichioka, “Reconstruction of high-resolution image on a compound-eye image capturing system,” Appl. Opt. (submitted).

2002 (1)

B. A. Wandell, A. El Gamal, and B. Girod, “Common principles of image acquisition systems and biological vision,” Proc. IEEE 90, 5–17 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

1996 (1)

K. Hamanaka and H. Koshi, “An artificial compound eye using a microlens array and its application to scale invariant processing,” Opt. Rev. 3, 264–268 (1996).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

J. S. Sanders and C. E. Halford, “Design and analysis of apposition compound eye optical sensors,” Opt. Eng. 34, 222–235 (1995).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

S. Ogata, J. Ishida, and T. Sasano, “Optical sensor array in an artificial compound eye,” Opt. Eng. 33, 3649–3655 (1994).
[Crossref]

Gamal, A. El

B. A. Wandell, A. El Gamal, and B. Girod, “Common principles of image acquisition systems and biological vision,” Proc. IEEE 90, 5–17 (2002).
[Crossref]

Girod, B.

B. A. Wandell, A. El Gamal, and B. Girod, “Common principles of image acquisition systems and biological vision,” Proc. IEEE 90, 5–17 (2002).
[Crossref]

Halford, C. E.

J. S. Sanders and C. E. Halford, “Design and analysis of apposition compound eye optical sensors,” Opt. Eng. 34, 222–235 (1995).
[Crossref]

Hamanaka, K.

K. Hamanaka and H. Koshi, “An artificial compound eye using a microlens array and its application to scale invariant processing,” Opt. Rev. 3, 264–268 (1996).
[Crossref]

Ichioka, Y.

J. Tanida, T. Kumagai, K. Yamada, S. Miyatake, K. Ishida, T. Morimoto, N. Kondou, D. Miyazaki, and Y. Ichioka, “Thin observation module by bound optics (TOMBO): concept and experimental verification,” Appl. Opt. 40, 1806–1813 (2001).
[Crossref]

J. Tanida, Y. Kitamura, K. Yamada, S. Miyatake, M. Miyamoto, T. Morimoto, Y. Masaki, N. Kondou, D Miyazaki, and Y. Ichioka, “Compact image capturing system based on compound imaging and digital reconstruction,” in Micro- and Nano-optics for Optical Interconnection and Information Processing, Proc. SPIE4455, 34–41 (2001).
[Crossref]

Y. Kitamura, R. Shogenji, K. Yamada, S. Miyatake, M. Miyamoto, T. Morimoto, Y. Masaki, N. Kondou, D. Miyazaki, J. Tanida, and Y. Ichioka, “Reconstruction of high-resolution image on a compound-eye image capturing system,” Appl. Opt. (submitted).

Ishida, J.

S. Ogata, J. Ishida, and T. Sasano, “Optical sensor array in an artificial compound eye,” Opt. Eng. 33, 3649–3655 (1994).
[Crossref]

Ishida, K.

Kitamura, Y.

J. Tanida, Y. Kitamura, K. Yamada, S. Miyatake, M. Miyamoto, T. Morimoto, Y. Masaki, N. Kondou, D Miyazaki, and Y. Ichioka, “Compact image capturing system based on compound imaging and digital reconstruction,” in Micro- and Nano-optics for Optical Interconnection and Information Processing, Proc. SPIE4455, 34–41 (2001).
[Crossref]

Y. Kitamura, R. Shogenji, K. Yamada, S. Miyatake, M. Miyamoto, T. Morimoto, Y. Masaki, N. Kondou, D. Miyazaki, J. Tanida, and Y. Ichioka, “Reconstruction of high-resolution image on a compound-eye image capturing system,” Appl. Opt. (submitted).

Kondou, N.

J. Tanida, T. Kumagai, K. Yamada, S. Miyatake, K. Ishida, T. Morimoto, N. Kondou, D. Miyazaki, and Y. Ichioka, “Thin observation module by bound optics (TOMBO): concept and experimental verification,” Appl. Opt. 40, 1806–1813 (2001).
[Crossref]

J. Tanida, Y. Kitamura, K. Yamada, S. Miyatake, M. Miyamoto, T. Morimoto, Y. Masaki, N. Kondou, D Miyazaki, and Y. Ichioka, “Compact image capturing system based on compound imaging and digital reconstruction,” in Micro- and Nano-optics for Optical Interconnection and Information Processing, Proc. SPIE4455, 34–41 (2001).
[Crossref]

Y. Kitamura, R. Shogenji, K. Yamada, S. Miyatake, M. Miyamoto, T. Morimoto, Y. Masaki, N. Kondou, D. Miyazaki, J. Tanida, and Y. Ichioka, “Reconstruction of high-resolution image on a compound-eye image capturing system,” Appl. Opt. (submitted).

Koshi, H.

K. Hamanaka and H. Koshi, “An artificial compound eye using a microlens array and its application to scale invariant processing,” Opt. Rev. 3, 264–268 (1996).
[Crossref]

Kumagai, T.

Masaki, Y.

J. Tanida, Y. Kitamura, K. Yamada, S. Miyatake, M. Miyamoto, T. Morimoto, Y. Masaki, N. Kondou, D Miyazaki, and Y. Ichioka, “Compact image capturing system based on compound imaging and digital reconstruction,” in Micro- and Nano-optics for Optical Interconnection and Information Processing, Proc. SPIE4455, 34–41 (2001).
[Crossref]

Y. Kitamura, R. Shogenji, K. Yamada, S. Miyatake, M. Miyamoto, T. Morimoto, Y. Masaki, N. Kondou, D. Miyazaki, J. Tanida, and Y. Ichioka, “Reconstruction of high-resolution image on a compound-eye image capturing system,” Appl. Opt. (submitted).

Miyamoto, M.

Y. Kitamura, R. Shogenji, K. Yamada, S. Miyatake, M. Miyamoto, T. Morimoto, Y. Masaki, N. Kondou, D. Miyazaki, J. Tanida, and Y. Ichioka, “Reconstruction of high-resolution image on a compound-eye image capturing system,” Appl. Opt. (submitted).

J. Tanida, R. Shogenji, K. Yamada, M. Miyamoto, and S. Miyatake, “Functional extension of thin observation module by bound optics (TOMBO),” in Optics in Computing, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, Washington DC, 2003), pp.152–154.

J. Tanida, Y. Kitamura, K. Yamada, S. Miyatake, M. Miyamoto, T. Morimoto, Y. Masaki, N. Kondou, D Miyazaki, and Y. Ichioka, “Compact image capturing system based on compound imaging and digital reconstruction,” in Micro- and Nano-optics for Optical Interconnection and Information Processing, Proc. SPIE4455, 34–41 (2001).
[Crossref]

Miyatake, S.

J. Tanida, T. Kumagai, K. Yamada, S. Miyatake, K. Ishida, T. Morimoto, N. Kondou, D. Miyazaki, and Y. Ichioka, “Thin observation module by bound optics (TOMBO): concept and experimental verification,” Appl. Opt. 40, 1806–1813 (2001).
[Crossref]

J. Tanida, Y. Kitamura, K. Yamada, S. Miyatake, M. Miyamoto, T. Morimoto, Y. Masaki, N. Kondou, D Miyazaki, and Y. Ichioka, “Compact image capturing system based on compound imaging and digital reconstruction,” in Micro- and Nano-optics for Optical Interconnection and Information Processing, Proc. SPIE4455, 34–41 (2001).
[Crossref]

J. Tanida, R. Shogenji, K. Yamada, M. Miyamoto, and S. Miyatake, “Functional extension of thin observation module by bound optics (TOMBO),” in Optics in Computing, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, Washington DC, 2003), pp.152–154.

Y. Kitamura, R. Shogenji, K. Yamada, S. Miyatake, M. Miyamoto, T. Morimoto, Y. Masaki, N. Kondou, D. Miyazaki, J. Tanida, and Y. Ichioka, “Reconstruction of high-resolution image on a compound-eye image capturing system,” Appl. Opt. (submitted).

Miyazaki, D

J. Tanida, Y. Kitamura, K. Yamada, S. Miyatake, M. Miyamoto, T. Morimoto, Y. Masaki, N. Kondou, D Miyazaki, and Y. Ichioka, “Compact image capturing system based on compound imaging and digital reconstruction,” in Micro- and Nano-optics for Optical Interconnection and Information Processing, Proc. SPIE4455, 34–41 (2001).
[Crossref]

Miyazaki, D.

J. Tanida, T. Kumagai, K. Yamada, S. Miyatake, K. Ishida, T. Morimoto, N. Kondou, D. Miyazaki, and Y. Ichioka, “Thin observation module by bound optics (TOMBO): concept and experimental verification,” Appl. Opt. 40, 1806–1813 (2001).
[Crossref]

Y. Kitamura, R. Shogenji, K. Yamada, S. Miyatake, M. Miyamoto, T. Morimoto, Y. Masaki, N. Kondou, D. Miyazaki, J. Tanida, and Y. Ichioka, “Reconstruction of high-resolution image on a compound-eye image capturing system,” Appl. Opt. (submitted).

Morimoto, T.

J. Tanida, T. Kumagai, K. Yamada, S. Miyatake, K. Ishida, T. Morimoto, N. Kondou, D. Miyazaki, and Y. Ichioka, “Thin observation module by bound optics (TOMBO): concept and experimental verification,” Appl. Opt. 40, 1806–1813 (2001).
[Crossref]

J. Tanida, Y. Kitamura, K. Yamada, S. Miyatake, M. Miyamoto, T. Morimoto, Y. Masaki, N. Kondou, D Miyazaki, and Y. Ichioka, “Compact image capturing system based on compound imaging and digital reconstruction,” in Micro- and Nano-optics for Optical Interconnection and Information Processing, Proc. SPIE4455, 34–41 (2001).
[Crossref]

Y. Kitamura, R. Shogenji, K. Yamada, S. Miyatake, M. Miyamoto, T. Morimoto, Y. Masaki, N. Kondou, D. Miyazaki, J. Tanida, and Y. Ichioka, “Reconstruction of high-resolution image on a compound-eye image capturing system,” Appl. Opt. (submitted).

Ogata, S.

S. Ogata, J. Ishida, and T. Sasano, “Optical sensor array in an artificial compound eye,” Opt. Eng. 33, 3649–3655 (1994).
[Crossref]

Sanders, J. S.

J. S. Sanders and C. E. Halford, “Design and analysis of apposition compound eye optical sensors,” Opt. Eng. 34, 222–235 (1995).
[Crossref]

Sasano, T.

S. Ogata, J. Ishida, and T. Sasano, “Optical sensor array in an artificial compound eye,” Opt. Eng. 33, 3649–3655 (1994).
[Crossref]

Shogenji, R.

Y. Kitamura, R. Shogenji, K. Yamada, S. Miyatake, M. Miyamoto, T. Morimoto, Y. Masaki, N. Kondou, D. Miyazaki, J. Tanida, and Y. Ichioka, “Reconstruction of high-resolution image on a compound-eye image capturing system,” Appl. Opt. (submitted).

J. Tanida, R. Shogenji, K. Yamada, M. Miyamoto, and S. Miyatake, “Functional extension of thin observation module by bound optics (TOMBO),” in Optics in Computing, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, Washington DC, 2003), pp.152–154.

Tanida, J.

J. Tanida, T. Kumagai, K. Yamada, S. Miyatake, K. Ishida, T. Morimoto, N. Kondou, D. Miyazaki, and Y. Ichioka, “Thin observation module by bound optics (TOMBO): concept and experimental verification,” Appl. Opt. 40, 1806–1813 (2001).
[Crossref]

J. Tanida, Y. Kitamura, K. Yamada, S. Miyatake, M. Miyamoto, T. Morimoto, Y. Masaki, N. Kondou, D Miyazaki, and Y. Ichioka, “Compact image capturing system based on compound imaging and digital reconstruction,” in Micro- and Nano-optics for Optical Interconnection and Information Processing, Proc. SPIE4455, 34–41 (2001).
[Crossref]

J. Tanida, R. Shogenji, K. Yamada, M. Miyamoto, and S. Miyatake, “Functional extension of thin observation module by bound optics (TOMBO),” in Optics in Computing, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, Washington DC, 2003), pp.152–154.

Y. Kitamura, R. Shogenji, K. Yamada, S. Miyatake, M. Miyamoto, T. Morimoto, Y. Masaki, N. Kondou, D. Miyazaki, J. Tanida, and Y. Ichioka, “Reconstruction of high-resolution image on a compound-eye image capturing system,” Appl. Opt. (submitted).

Wandell, B. A.

B. A. Wandell, A. El Gamal, and B. Girod, “Common principles of image acquisition systems and biological vision,” Proc. IEEE 90, 5–17 (2002).
[Crossref]

Yamada, K.

J. Tanida, T. Kumagai, K. Yamada, S. Miyatake, K. Ishida, T. Morimoto, N. Kondou, D. Miyazaki, and Y. Ichioka, “Thin observation module by bound optics (TOMBO): concept and experimental verification,” Appl. Opt. 40, 1806–1813 (2001).
[Crossref]

J. Tanida, Y. Kitamura, K. Yamada, S. Miyatake, M. Miyamoto, T. Morimoto, Y. Masaki, N. Kondou, D Miyazaki, and Y. Ichioka, “Compact image capturing system based on compound imaging and digital reconstruction,” in Micro- and Nano-optics for Optical Interconnection and Information Processing, Proc. SPIE4455, 34–41 (2001).
[Crossref]

Y. Kitamura, R. Shogenji, K. Yamada, S. Miyatake, M. Miyamoto, T. Morimoto, Y. Masaki, N. Kondou, D. Miyazaki, J. Tanida, and Y. Ichioka, “Reconstruction of high-resolution image on a compound-eye image capturing system,” Appl. Opt. (submitted).

J. Tanida, R. Shogenji, K. Yamada, M. Miyamoto, and S. Miyatake, “Functional extension of thin observation module by bound optics (TOMBO),” in Optics in Computing, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, Washington DC, 2003), pp.152–154.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Opt. Eng. (2)

S. Ogata, J. Ishida, and T. Sasano, “Optical sensor array in an artificial compound eye,” Opt. Eng. 33, 3649–3655 (1994).
[Crossref]

J. S. Sanders and C. E. Halford, “Design and analysis of apposition compound eye optical sensors,” Opt. Eng. 34, 222–235 (1995).
[Crossref]

Opt. Rev. (1)

K. Hamanaka and H. Koshi, “An artificial compound eye using a microlens array and its application to scale invariant processing,” Opt. Rev. 3, 264–268 (1996).
[Crossref]

Proc. IEEE (1)

B. A. Wandell, A. El Gamal, and B. Girod, “Common principles of image acquisition systems and biological vision,” Proc. IEEE 90, 5–17 (2002).
[Crossref]

Other (3)

J. Tanida, R. Shogenji, K. Yamada, M. Miyamoto, and S. Miyatake, “Functional extension of thin observation module by bound optics (TOMBO),” in Optics in Computing, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, Washington DC, 2003), pp.152–154.

Y. Kitamura, R. Shogenji, K. Yamada, S. Miyatake, M. Miyamoto, T. Morimoto, Y. Masaki, N. Kondou, D. Miyazaki, J. Tanida, and Y. Ichioka, “Reconstruction of high-resolution image on a compound-eye image capturing system,” Appl. Opt. (submitted).

J. Tanida, Y. Kitamura, K. Yamada, S. Miyatake, M. Miyamoto, T. Morimoto, Y. Masaki, N. Kondou, D Miyazaki, and Y. Ichioka, “Compact image capturing system based on compound imaging and digital reconstruction,” in Micro- and Nano-optics for Optical Interconnection and Information Processing, Proc. SPIE4455, 34–41 (2001).
[Crossref]

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Hardware configuration of the TOMBO system.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Principle of the pixel rearrange method.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Two methods for color imaging for µ=4 and ν=8. For the color channels, green1, green2, red, and blue are assumed.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Observation direction of individual pixels. Color separation (a) by units and (b) by pixels.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Picture of an experimental TOMBO system.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Experimental result of color imaging with the color separation by units. (a) Compound image, (b) unit images, and (c) reconstructed image.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Experimental result of color imaging with the color separation by pixels. (a) Compound image, (b) unit images, (c) reconstructed image.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Experimental result of color imaging for a color chart: (a) target object, (b) reconstructed image by the method of the color separation by units, (c) reconstructed image by the method of the color separation by pixels.

Tables (1)

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Table 1. SNR for the Nine Parts of the Reconstructed Images *

Equations (1)

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SNR = i S max i E i N

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