Abstract

We propose using electronic equalization technology to allow components typically used in 2.5Gb/s systems to be used at 10Gb/s. We simulate the performance of links exploiting this concept and study the effect of receiver bandwidth on equalized systems in general. Links utilizing transmitters designed for 2.5Gb/s rates are experimentally demonstrated. Experiments also show that photo-receivers with 2.5 GHz bandwidths add minimal penalty when post-detection electronic equalization is employed.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. H. Bulow, F. Buchali, W. Baumert, R. Ballentin, and T. Wehren, �??PMD mitigation at 10Gbit/s using linear and nonlinear integrated electronic equaliser circuits,�?? Electron. Lett. 36, 163-164 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. C. Cartledge, R. G. McKay, and M. C. Nowell, �??Performance of smart lightwave receivers with linear equalization,�?? J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 1105-1109 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  3. X. Zhao, F.S.Choa, �??Demonstration of a 10Gb/s transmissions over a 1.5 km long multimode fiber using equalization techniques,�?? IEEE Photonics Letters 14, 1187-1189 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  4. F. Buchali, H.Bulow, W. Baumert, R. Ballentin, and T. Wehren, �??Reduction of the chromatic dispersion penalty at 10Gbit/s by integerated electronic equalizers,�?? in OFC 2000 Vol 3 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), pp, 268-270.
  5. D. Schlump, B Wedding and H. Bulow, �??Electronic equalization of PMD and chromatic dispersion induced distortion after 100km standard fiber at 10Gb/s,�?? in 24th European Conference on Optical Communication, Vol 1 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 535-536.
  6. Moe Z. Win, Jack H. Winters and Giorgio M. Vitetta, �??Equalization Techniques for mitigating transmission impairments�??, Optical Fiber Telecommunications 1V B, Academic Press 2002, 965-997.
  7. D. L Duttweiler,. J. E. Mazo , and D. G Messerschmitt,.�??Error propagation in Decision-Feedback Equalizers,�?? IEEE Trans. Inform. Theory,. IT-20, .490-497, (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  8. W. A. Sethares, I. M. Y. Mareels, B. D. O. Anderson, and C. R. Johnson, "Excitation conditions for signed regressor least mean squares adaptation," IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst.,. 35, 613�??624, (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. Shoval, D. A. Johns, and W. M. Snelgrove, "Comparison of dc offset effects in four LMS adaptive algorithm," IEEE Tran. Cir. Sys. II: An. Dig. Si. Pi,. 42, (1995).
  10. J. G. Proakis and M. Salehi, Communication Systems Engineering (Prentice Hall, 1994), 570-589

24th European Conf. on Optical Comm.

D. Schlump, B Wedding and H. Bulow, �??Electronic equalization of PMD and chromatic dispersion induced distortion after 100km standard fiber at 10Gb/s,�?? in 24th European Conference on Optical Communication, Vol 1 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 535-536.

Electron. Lett.

H. Bulow, F. Buchali, W. Baumert, R. Ballentin, and T. Wehren, �??PMD mitigation at 10Gbit/s using linear and nonlinear integrated electronic equaliser circuits,�?? Electron. Lett. 36, 163-164 (2000).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photonics Letters

X. Zhao, F.S.Choa, �??Demonstration of a 10Gb/s transmissions over a 1.5 km long multimode fiber using equalization techniques,�?? IEEE Photonics Letters 14, 1187-1189 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Tran. Cir. Sys. II: An. Dig. Si. Pi

A. Shoval, D. A. Johns, and W. M. Snelgrove, "Comparison of dc offset effects in four LMS adaptive algorithm," IEEE Tran. Cir. Sys. II: An. Dig. Si. Pi,. 42, (1995).

IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst.

W. A. Sethares, I. M. Y. Mareels, B. D. O. Anderson, and C. R. Johnson, "Excitation conditions for signed regressor least mean squares adaptation," IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst.,. 35, 613�??624, (1988).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Inform. Theory

D. L Duttweiler,. J. E. Mazo , and D. G Messerschmitt,.�??Error propagation in Decision-Feedback Equalizers,�?? IEEE Trans. Inform. Theory,. IT-20, .490-497, (1974).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

J. C. Cartledge, R. G. McKay, and M. C. Nowell, �??Performance of smart lightwave receivers with linear equalization,�?? J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 1105-1109 (1992).
[CrossRef]

OFC 2000

F. Buchali, H.Bulow, W. Baumert, R. Ballentin, and T. Wehren, �??Reduction of the chromatic dispersion penalty at 10Gbit/s by integerated electronic equalizers,�?? in OFC 2000 Vol 3 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), pp, 268-270.

Optical Fiber Telecommunications 1V B

Moe Z. Win, Jack H. Winters and Giorgio M. Vitetta, �??Equalization Techniques for mitigating transmission impairments�??, Optical Fiber Telecommunications 1V B, Academic Press 2002, 965-997.

Other

J. G. Proakis and M. Salehi, Communication Systems Engineering (Prentice Hall, 1994), 570-589

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Simulated results for transmission using an MZI modulator specified for 10Gb/s data rates (a) Top -Effect of receiver bandwidth on an ASE-noise limited system (b) Center - Effect of filter bandwidth after photo-detection using a wide-band receiver in a power-limited system (c) Bottom - Effect of receiver bandwidth when its noise properties are adjusted to give a constant sensitivity (1E-9) at about 3000 photons per bit (see text).

Fig.2.
Fig.2.

Schematic of the general test system. The low-pass filter (LPF) and FFE (equalizer) may or may not be inserted in the system depending on the particular test. The clock input to the BERT is selected accordingly.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Five tap FFE structure used in experiments with tap spacing at the symbol rate. Equalization and de-multiplexing are simultaneously performed.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Experimental data showing the performance with the 2.5GHz LPF inserted in the system before the FFE (solid lines). For comparison, the performance without the filter/FFE is also shown. Additionally, a data set with the filter and without the EDC is shown at a data rate of 8.5Gb/s - black dashed line (all other data is at 9.953 Gb/s). This demonstrates the poor performance the LPF causes without compensation.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) Left - Eye diagram after the 2.5GHz LPF before (top) and after (bottom) the FFE. The received power is -19.4dBm. (b) Right - Eye diagrams after the 2.5GHz filter with -16dBm input power at 9.953 Gb/s (top) and 10.664 Gb/s (bottom). The fully closed eye at the FEC compatible rate suggests that FEC would not be an alternative to equalization.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Simulations showing the sensitivity results for various modulators at a BER of 1e-12. SMF fiber has a dispersion coefficient of 17ps/nm.km.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

(a) Top - Experimental data using OC-48 and OC-192 MZI modulators (b) Bottom - Data for the OC-48 EAM. The OC-192 MZI uncompensated case is shown as a reference.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

The effect of received power on performance (simulated) for transmission at 10Gb/s using (a) Top - 2.5G MZI and 2.5GHz receiver (b) Bottom - 2.5G EAM and 2.5GHz receiver. The unequalized system is inoperable.

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

Table 1 (a): Parameters used for various transmitters

Tables Icon

Table 1 (b): Parameters used for various receivers (without post-compensation)

Tables Icon

Table 2. Eye diagrams of the various modulators using a fast photo-detector (14 GHz) at high input power.

Tables Icon

Table 3: Summary of penalties for various transmitter and receiver configurations

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