Abstract

We describe a new approach to the internal refractive index modification of glass by a femtosecond (fs) laser. The glass we used is a photosensitive glass Foturan which contains trace amounts of silver. Silver nanoparticles, which is responsible for the refractive index change, can be formed in the glass after exposed to the fs laser and then postbaked at an appropriate temperature between 500°C and 550°C. In this work, latent images of grating structures are first inscribed into the photosensitive glass by photochemical reaction of a tightly focused fs laser beam with an intensity much lower than the threshold of optical breakdown. After this step, no measurable diffraction can be observed by irradiating the gratings with a He-Ne laser beam. The samples are then baked at 520°C for various durations from 3h to 18h. Diffraction of the optical grating embedded in the glass can now be observed, and the diffraction efficiency increases with postbaking duration, indicating that a refractive index change occurs in the modified regions. The relationship between the refractive index change and the postbaking duration is systematically investigated.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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References

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Appl. Phys.

M. Masuda, K. Sugioka, Y. Cheng, N. Aoki, M. Kawachi, K. Shihoyama, K. Toyoda, H. Helvajian, and K. Midorikawa, �??3-D microstructuring inside photosensitive glass by femtosecond laser excitation,�?? Appl. Phys. A76, 857-860 (2003).

Appl. Phys. Lett.

N. Garcia, E. V. Ponizovskaya, and J. Q. Xiao, �??Zero permittivity materials: Band gaps at the visible,�?? Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 1120-1122 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. Li, W. Watanabe, K. Yamada, T. Shinagawa, K. Itoh, J. Nishii, and Y. Jiang, �??Holographic fabrication of multiple layers of grating inside soda-lime glass with femsecond laser pulses,�?? Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 1508-1510 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Chan, T. R. Huser, S. H. Risbud, J. S. Hayden, and D. M. Krol, �??Waveguide fabrication in phosphate glasses using femtoscond laser pulses,�?? Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2371-2373 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. N. Glezer and E. Mazur, �??Ultrafast-laser driven micro-explosions in transparent materials,�?? Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 882-884 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Qiu, M. Shirai, T. Makaya, J. Si, X. Jiang, C. Zhu, and K. Hirao, �??Space-selective precipitation of metal nanoparticles inside glasses,�?? Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3040-3042 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Kawamura, M. Hirano, T. Kamiya, and H. Hosono, �??Holographic writing of volume-type microgratings in silica glass by a single chirped laser pulse,�?? Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1137-1139 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B

S.H.Cho, H. Kumagai, and K. Midorikawa, �??Fabrication of internal diffraction gratings in planar silica plates using low-density plasma formation induced by a femtosecond laser,�?? Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 197, 73-82 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

R. F. Madrigal, L. C. S. Blaya, M. Ulibarrena, A. Belendez, and A. Fimia, �??Diffraction efficiency of unbleached phase and amplitude holograms as a function of volumn fraction of metallic silver,�?? Opt. Commun. 201, 279-282 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

RIKEN Review

H. Helvajian, P. D. Fuqua, W. W. Hansen, and S. Janson, �??Laser microprocessing for nanosatellite microthruster applications,�?? RIKEN Review 32, 57-63 (2001), http://www.riken.go.jp/labwww/library/publication/review/pdf/No_32/32_057.pdf

SPIE Proc.

M. Masuda, K. Sugioka, Y. Cheng, N. Aoki, M. Kawachi, K. Shihoyama, K. Toyoda, and K. Midorikawa, �??3D microfabrication in photosensitive glass by femtosecond laser,�?? SPIE Proc. 4830, 576-580 (2002).

Other

<a href="http://www.design.caltech.edu/micropropulsion/foturan.html">http://www.design.caltech.edu/micropropulsion/foturan.html</a>.

H. Helvajian, private discussion.

<a href="http://www.mikroglas.com/foturane.htm">http://www.mikroglas.com/foturane.htm</a>.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Optical micrograph of a grating structure embedded in the photosensitive glass. The sample was baked for 3h. (b) Diffraction pattern of the grating with a He-Ne laser beam.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Optical micrograph of a grating structure embedded in the photosensitive glass. The sample was baked for 18h. (b) Diffraction pattern of the grating with a He-Ne laser beam.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

The averaged first-order diffraction efficiency as a function of postbaking duration.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

The refractive index change (square) and the volume fraction of metallic silver (circle) as functions of postbaking duration.

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