Abstract

We report a new plunger and pivot hybrid stylus system suitable for point-by-point form measurement for large optical surfaces up to 1m in diameter. The geometric stylus model was established to predict the height measurement error. The ‘Height Difference Variation (HDV)’ technique was developed for minimizing the stylus pivot motion error. The laboratory stylus system exhibited the repeatability of less than 10 nm for up to 8.1 degrees in slope and the form departure of 26 nm from the calibration sphere. The hybrid stylus may offer an efficient form metrology solution to the mass production of optical surfaces of 1–2m in diameter.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. CELT, The California Extremely Large Telescope, <a href="http://celt.ucolick.org/">http://celt.ucolick.org/</a>
  2. National Physical Laboratory, NPL and the EURO50 telescope, <a href="http://www.npl.co.uk/length/dmet/euro50.html"> http://www.npl.co.uk/length/dmet/euro50.html</a>
  3. OWL, 100 m OWL telescope concept, <a href="http://www.eso.org/projects/owl/owl_design.html"> http://www.eso.org/projects/owl/owl_design.html</a>
  4. D.D. Walker et al., �??The primary and secondary mirrors for the proposed Euro50 telescope,�?? Design Study Report (2002).
  5. H.S. Yang, S.W. Kim, D.D. Walker, �??A novel laser datum system for nanometric profilometry for large optical surfaces,�?? Opt. Express 11, 624-631 (2003), <a href="http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-6-624">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-6-624</a>
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. P.S. Huang, X.R. Xu, �??Design of an optical probe for surface profile measurement,�?? Opt. Eng. 38, 1223-1228 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S.H. Wang, C.J. Jin, C.J. Tay, C. Quan, H.M. Shang, �??Design of an optical probe for testing surface roughness and micro-displacement,�?? Pre. Eng. 25, 258-265 (2001) .
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. Qian, G. Sostero, P.Z. Takacs, �??Precision calibration and systematic error reduction in the long trace profiler, �?? Opt. Eng. 39, 304-310 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  9. Alpha Step 500, KLA-Tencor, <a href="http://www.kla-tencor.com/products/alpha-step_500/alpha-step_500.html"> http://www.kla-tencor.com/products/alpha-step_500/alpha-step_500.html</a>
  10. Form Talysurf, Rank Taylor Hobson, <a href="http://www.taylor-hobson.com/pdf/uk/FTSS2.PDF">http://www.taylor-hobson.com/pdf/uk/FTSS2.PDF</a>
  11. D.S. Anderson, J.H. Burge, �??Swing-arm Profilometry of Aspherics,�?? in Optical manufacturing and testing, V.J. Doherty and H. Stahl, Proc. SPIE 2536, 169-179 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  12. F.M.M. Chan, E.J. Davis, T.G. King and K.J. Stout, �??Some performance characteristics of a multi-axis touch trigger probe�??, Meas.Sci.Technol. 8, 837-848 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  13. P.B. Leadbeater, W.J. Wills-Moren, �??Stylus profilometry of large optics,�?? in Advanced optical manufacturing and testing, Lionel R. Baker et al., Proc. SPIE 1333, 183-194 (1990).
  14. M. Kearny, B.J. Furman, �??Electrostatically actuated stylus profiler with capacitive displacement sensing in vertical and lateral directions,�?? in Flatness, Roughness, and Discrete Defects Characterization for Computer Disks, Wafers, and Flat Panel Displays II, John C. Stover, Proc. SPIE 3275, 20-25 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  15. M. Dobosz, �??New stylus probe with interferometric transducer for surface roughness and form profiling,�?? Opt. Eng. 33, 902-907 (1994).
    [CrossRef]

Meas.Sci.Technol. (1)

F.M.M. Chan, E.J. Davis, T.G. King and K.J. Stout, �??Some performance characteristics of a multi-axis touch trigger probe�??, Meas.Sci.Technol. 8, 837-848 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (3)

P.S. Huang, X.R. Xu, �??Design of an optical probe for surface profile measurement,�?? Opt. Eng. 38, 1223-1228 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Dobosz, �??New stylus probe with interferometric transducer for surface roughness and form profiling,�?? Opt. Eng. 33, 902-907 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. Qian, G. Sostero, P.Z. Takacs, �??Precision calibration and systematic error reduction in the long trace profiler, �?? Opt. Eng. 39, 304-310 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Pre. Eng. (1)

S.H. Wang, C.J. Jin, C.J. Tay, C. Quan, H.M. Shang, �??Design of an optical probe for testing surface roughness and micro-displacement,�?? Pre. Eng. 25, 258-265 (2001) .
[CrossRef]

Other (9)

P.B. Leadbeater, W.J. Wills-Moren, �??Stylus profilometry of large optics,�?? in Advanced optical manufacturing and testing, Lionel R. Baker et al., Proc. SPIE 1333, 183-194 (1990).

M. Kearny, B.J. Furman, �??Electrostatically actuated stylus profiler with capacitive displacement sensing in vertical and lateral directions,�?? in Flatness, Roughness, and Discrete Defects Characterization for Computer Disks, Wafers, and Flat Panel Displays II, John C. Stover, Proc. SPIE 3275, 20-25 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Alpha Step 500, KLA-Tencor, <a href="http://www.kla-tencor.com/products/alpha-step_500/alpha-step_500.html"> http://www.kla-tencor.com/products/alpha-step_500/alpha-step_500.html</a>

Form Talysurf, Rank Taylor Hobson, <a href="http://www.taylor-hobson.com/pdf/uk/FTSS2.PDF">http://www.taylor-hobson.com/pdf/uk/FTSS2.PDF</a>

D.S. Anderson, J.H. Burge, �??Swing-arm Profilometry of Aspherics,�?? in Optical manufacturing and testing, V.J. Doherty and H. Stahl, Proc. SPIE 2536, 169-179 (1995).
[CrossRef]

CELT, The California Extremely Large Telescope, <a href="http://celt.ucolick.org/">http://celt.ucolick.org/</a>

National Physical Laboratory, NPL and the EURO50 telescope, <a href="http://www.npl.co.uk/length/dmet/euro50.html"> http://www.npl.co.uk/length/dmet/euro50.html</a>

OWL, 100 m OWL telescope concept, <a href="http://www.eso.org/projects/owl/owl_design.html"> http://www.eso.org/projects/owl/owl_design.html</a>

D.D. Walker et al., �??The primary and secondary mirrors for the proposed Euro50 telescope,�?? Design Study Report (2002).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Plunger-Pivot hybrid stylus system.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Geometric stylus model and height error. The solid line shows the stylus in contact with the surface. The dotted line depicts the probe tip location after the stylus pre-travel motion has been completely stopped on the surface.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

DSP height signal at four stylus speeds i.e. 30 µm/sec (▪), 120 µm/sec (●), 170 µm/sec (▲), and 260 µm/sec (▼). The arrows indicate the Phase B.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Measurement summary

Tables Icon

Table 2. Repeatability (i.e. measurement standard deviation) from 20 measurements at slope angle 0 and 8.1 degree.

Equations (3)

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z o = ( p 1 + e ) sin ( α ϕ ) z i = ( ( p 1 + e ) l 1 2 ) ( h 1 x o h 1 p 1 + p 1 z i ) z i
e x = x o x i = x o p 1 = l 1 2 ( h 1 z i ) 2 p 1
δ R H i + 1 H i

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