Abstract

We have investigated the properties of TM polarized light in planar photonic crystal waveguide structures, which exhibit photonic band gaps for TE polarized light. Straight and bent photonic crystal waveguides and couplers have been fabricated in silicon-on-insulator material and modelled using a 3D finite-difference-time-domain method. The simulated spectra are in excellent agreement with the experimental results, which show a propagation loss as low as 2.5±4 dB/mm around 1525 nm and bend losses at 2.9±0.2 dB for TM polarized light. We demonstrate a high coupling for TM polarized light in a simple photonic crystal coupler with a size of ~ 20 µm×20 µm. These promising features may open for the realization of ultra-compact photonic crystal omponents, which are easily integrated in optical communication networks.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |

  1. J. Arentoft, T. Søndergaard, M. Kristensen, A. Boltasseva, M. Thorhauge and L. Frandsen, �??Low-loss silicon-on-insulator photonic crystal waveguides,�?? Electron. Lett. 38, 274-275 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. Notomi, A. Shinya, K. Yamada, J. Takahashi, C. Takahashi, and I. Yokohama, �??Singlemode transmission within photonic bandgap of width-varied single-line-defect photonic crystal waveguides on SOI substrates,�?? Electron. Lett. 37, 293-295 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  3. T. Søndergaard, J. Arentoft, and M. Kristensen,�??Theoretical Analysis of Finite-Height Semiconductor-on- Insulator-Based Planar Photonic Crystal Waveguides,�?? J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 1619-1626 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. J. Ward and J. B. Pendry, �??A program for calculating photonic band structures, Green's functions and transmission/reflection coefficients using a non-orthogonal FDTD method,�?? Comput. Phys. Commun. 128, 590-621 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. Lavrinenko et al., �??Comprehensive FDTD modeling of photonic crystal waveguide components,�?? in preparation (2003).
  6. L. H. Frandsen, P. I. Borel, M. Thorhauge, J. Cheng, M. Kampanis, M. Kristensen, A. Lavrinenko, Y. Zhuang, �??Propagation of TE and TM polarised light through smoothed sixty degree bends in planar photonic crystal waveguides,�?? (accepted for publication in Proceedings of CLEO-Europe 2003)
  7. M. Tokushima and H. Yamada, �??Photonic crystal line defect directional coupler,�?? Electron. Lett. 37, 1454-1455 (2001).
    [CrossRef]

Comput. Phys. Commun. (1)

A. J. Ward and J. B. Pendry, �??A program for calculating photonic band structures, Green's functions and transmission/reflection coefficients using a non-orthogonal FDTD method,�?? Comput. Phys. Commun. 128, 590-621 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (3)

J. Arentoft, T. Søndergaard, M. Kristensen, A. Boltasseva, M. Thorhauge and L. Frandsen, �??Low-loss silicon-on-insulator photonic crystal waveguides,�?? Electron. Lett. 38, 274-275 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Notomi, A. Shinya, K. Yamada, J. Takahashi, C. Takahashi, and I. Yokohama, �??Singlemode transmission within photonic bandgap of width-varied single-line-defect photonic crystal waveguides on SOI substrates,�?? Electron. Lett. 37, 293-295 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Tokushima and H. Yamada, �??Photonic crystal line defect directional coupler,�?? Electron. Lett. 37, 1454-1455 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Other (2)

A. Lavrinenko et al., �??Comprehensive FDTD modeling of photonic crystal waveguide components,�?? in preparation (2003).

L. H. Frandsen, P. I. Borel, M. Thorhauge, J. Cheng, M. Kampanis, M. Kristensen, A. Lavrinenko, Y. Zhuang, �??Propagation of TE and TM polarised light through smoothed sixty degree bends in planar photonic crystal waveguides,�?? (accepted for publication in Proceedings of CLEO-Europe 2003)

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Scanning electron micrographs of (a) a 10 µm long straight PhCW and (b) a 150 µm long PhCW containing two modified 60° bends, which are separated by a 20Λ long straight PhCW. The black spots are the air holes.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Experimental setup used to characterize the waveguide samples.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

The measured (gray) and calculated (dashed red) transmission spectra for TM polarized light through a straight 10 µm (23Λ) long PhCW.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) The un-normalized experimental spectra recorded using the LED centered at 1544 nm for a ridge waveguide and straight PhCWs of various lengths. (b) 3D FDTD calculations of the transmission through PhCWs of various lengths.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

The measured (black) with the uncertainty (gray) and calculated (dashed red) propagation loss for TM polarized light in straight PhCWs.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

The measured (black and gray) and calculated (dashed red) transmission for TM polarized light through a PhCW containing two consecutive 60° bends each having one hole displaced as shown in Fig. 1(b).

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

The directional coupler based on photonic crystals. (a) Scanning electron micrograph of the fabricated coupler. The fabricated coupler has a larger separation between the two output channels compared to the modelled coupler. (b) The measured (gray) and simulated (dashed red) transmission spectra for TM polarized light in the coupled channel.

Metrics