Abstract

We report the first observation of Stimulated Raman Scattering (SRS) in silicon waveguides. Amplification of the Stokes signal, at 1542.3 nm, of up to 0.25 dB has been observed in Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) waveguides, using a 1427 nm pump laser with a CW power of 1.6 W, measured before the waveguide. Two-Photon-Absorption (TPA) measurements on these waveguides are also reported, and found to be negligible at the pump power where SRS was observed.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. S. Coffa, “ST sets world record for silicon light emission”, ST Press Release, Issue No. 3, November (2002).
  3. H.S. Han, S.Y. Seo, J.H. Shin, and N. Park, “Coefficient determination related to optical gain in erbium-doped silicon-rich silicon oxide waveguide amplifier,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3720–3722 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  4. K. Dovidenko, J.C. Lofgren, F. de Freitas, Y.J. Seo, and R. Tsu, “Structure and optoelectronic properties of Si/O superlattice,” Physica E 16, 509–516 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  5. T. Stoica, L. Vescan, A. Muck, B. Hollander, and G. Schope, “Electroluminescence on electron hole plasma in strained SiGe epitaxial layers,” Physica E 16, 359–365 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  6. T. Trupke, J. Zhao, A. Wang, R. Corkish, and M. A. Green, “Very efficient light emission from bulk crystalline silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2996–2998 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  7. L. Dal Negro, M. Cazanelli, N. Daldosso, Z. Gaburro, L. Pavesi, F. Priolo, D. Pacifici, G. Franzo, and F. Iacona, “Stimulated emission in plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposited silicon nanocrystals,” Physica E 16, 297–308 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. Claps, D. Dimitropoulos, and B. Jalali, “Stimulated Raman Scattering in Silicon Waveguides,” IEE Electron. Lett. 38, 1352–1354 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. P.A. Temple and C.E. Hathaway, “Multiphonon Raman Spectrum of Silicon,” Phys. Rev. B 7, 3685–3697 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  11. D. Dimitropoulos, B. Houshmand, R. Claps, and B. Jalali, “Coupled-mode theory of the Raman effect in Silicon-On-Insulator waveguides,” Optics Letters, accepted for publication (2003).
  12. D. Dimitropoulos, R. Claps, Y. Han, and B. Jalali, “Nonlinear Optics in Silicon Waveguides: Stimulated Raman Scattering and Two-Photon Absorption,” Integrated Optics: Devices, Materials, and Technologies VII, Y. S. Sidorin and Ari Tervonen, Editors, Proceedings of SPIE Vol. 4987140–148 (2003).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  20. F. Reintjes and J.C. McGroddy, “Indirect Two-Photon Transitions in Si at 1.06 µm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 30, 901–903 (1973).
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  21. Chris Xu and Winfried Denk, “Two-photon optical beam induced current imaging through the backside of integrated circuits,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 712578–2580 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  22. K. Kikuchi, “Optical sampling system at 1.5 µm using two photon absorption in Si avalanche photodiode,” IEE Elecron. Lett. 34, 1354–1355 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  23. M. Grimsditch and M. Cardona, “Absolute Cross-Section for Raman Scattering by Phonons in Silicon,” Phys. Stat. Sol. B 102, 155 (1980).
    [CrossRef]

2003 (5)

K. Dovidenko, J.C. Lofgren, F. de Freitas, Y.J. Seo, and R. Tsu, “Structure and optoelectronic properties of Si/O superlattice,” Physica E 16, 509–516 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Stoica, L. Vescan, A. Muck, B. Hollander, and G. Schope, “Electroluminescence on electron hole plasma in strained SiGe epitaxial layers,” Physica E 16, 359–365 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Trupke, J. Zhao, A. Wang, R. Corkish, and M. A. Green, “Very efficient light emission from bulk crystalline silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2996–2998 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. Dal Negro, M. Cazanelli, N. Daldosso, Z. Gaburro, L. Pavesi, F. Priolo, D. Pacifici, G. Franzo, and F. Iacona, “Stimulated emission in plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposited silicon nanocrystals,” Physica E 16, 297–308 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Dinu, F. Quochi, and H. Garcia, “Third-order nonlinearities in silicon at telecom wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2954–2956 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (4)

H.S. Han, S.Y. Seo, J.H. Shin, and N. Park, “Coefficient determination related to optical gain in erbium-doped silicon-rich silicon oxide waveguide amplifier,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3720–3722 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H.K. Tsang, C.S. Wong, T.K. Lang, I.E. Day, S.W. Roberts, A. Harpin, J. Drake, and M. Asghari, “Optical dispersion, two-photon absorption and self-phase modulation in silicon waveguides at 1.5 µm wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 416–418 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Claps, D. Dimitropoulos, and B. Jalali, “Stimulated Raman Scattering in Silicon Waveguides,” IEE Electron. Lett. 38, 1352–1354 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Claps, D. Dimitropoulos, Y. Han, and B. Jalali, “Observation of Raman emission in silicon waveguides at 1.54 µm,” Opt. Express 10, 1305–1313 (2002). http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-10-22-1305
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

L. Pavesi, L. Dal Negro, C. Mazzoleni, G. Franzo, and F. Priolo, “Optical gain in silicon nanocrystals,” Nature 408, 440–444 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

K. Kikuchi, “Optical sampling system at 1.5 µm using two photon absorption in Si avalanche photodiode,” IEE Elecron. Lett. 34, 1354–1355 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

Chris Xu and Winfried Denk, “Two-photon optical beam induced current imaging through the backside of integrated circuits,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 712578–2580 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

E.A. Golovchenko, P.V. Mamyshev, A.N. Pilipetskii, and E.M. Dianov, “Mutual Influence of the Parametric Effects and Stimulated Raman Scattering in Optical Fibers,” IEEE J. of Quant. Elect. 26, 1815–1820 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

M. Grimsditch and M. Cardona, “Absolute Cross-Section for Raman Scattering by Phonons in Silicon,” Phys. Stat. Sol. B 102, 155 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1973 (2)

F. Reintjes and J.C. McGroddy, “Indirect Two-Photon Transitions in Si at 1.06 µm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 30, 901–903 (1973).
[CrossRef]

P.A. Temple and C.E. Hathaway, “Multiphonon Raman Spectrum of Silicon,” Phys. Rev. B 7, 3685–3697 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1970 (1)

J.M. Ralston and R.K. Chang, “Spontaneous-Raman-scattering efficiency and stimulated scattering in silicon,” Phys. Rev. B 2, 1858–1862 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Agrawal, G.P.

G.P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, (Academic Press, San Diego, 2001) ISBN 0-12-045143-3.

Asghari, M.

H.K. Tsang, C.S. Wong, T.K. Lang, I.E. Day, S.W. Roberts, A. Harpin, J. Drake, and M. Asghari, “Optical dispersion, two-photon absorption and self-phase modulation in silicon waveguides at 1.5 µm wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 416–418 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cardona, M.

M. Grimsditch and M. Cardona, “Absolute Cross-Section for Raman Scattering by Phonons in Silicon,” Phys. Stat. Sol. B 102, 155 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Cazanelli, M.

L. Dal Negro, M. Cazanelli, N. Daldosso, Z. Gaburro, L. Pavesi, F. Priolo, D. Pacifici, G. Franzo, and F. Iacona, “Stimulated emission in plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposited silicon nanocrystals,” Physica E 16, 297–308 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chang, R.K.

J.M. Ralston and R.K. Chang, “Spontaneous-Raman-scattering efficiency and stimulated scattering in silicon,” Phys. Rev. B 2, 1858–1862 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Claps, R.

R. Claps, D. Dimitropoulos, Y. Han, and B. Jalali, “Observation of Raman emission in silicon waveguides at 1.54 µm,” Opt. Express 10, 1305–1313 (2002). http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-10-22-1305
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Claps, D. Dimitropoulos, and B. Jalali, “Stimulated Raman Scattering in Silicon Waveguides,” IEE Electron. Lett. 38, 1352–1354 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Dimitropoulos, R. Claps, Y. Han, and B. Jalali, “Nonlinear Optics in Silicon Waveguides: Stimulated Raman Scattering and Two-Photon Absorption,” Integrated Optics: Devices, Materials, and Technologies VII, Y. S. Sidorin and Ari Tervonen, Editors, Proceedings of SPIE Vol. 4987140–148 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. Dimitropoulos, B. Houshmand, R. Claps, and B. Jalali, “Coupled-mode theory of the Raman effect in Silicon-On-Insulator waveguides,” Optics Letters, accepted for publication (2003).

Coffa, S.

S. Coffa, “ST sets world record for silicon light emission”, ST Press Release, Issue No. 3, November (2002).

Corkish, R.

T. Trupke, J. Zhao, A. Wang, R. Corkish, and M. A. Green, “Very efficient light emission from bulk crystalline silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2996–2998 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Daldosso, N.

L. Dal Negro, M. Cazanelli, N. Daldosso, Z. Gaburro, L. Pavesi, F. Priolo, D. Pacifici, G. Franzo, and F. Iacona, “Stimulated emission in plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposited silicon nanocrystals,” Physica E 16, 297–308 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Day, I.E.

H.K. Tsang, C.S. Wong, T.K. Lang, I.E. Day, S.W. Roberts, A. Harpin, J. Drake, and M. Asghari, “Optical dispersion, two-photon absorption and self-phase modulation in silicon waveguides at 1.5 µm wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 416–418 (2002).
[CrossRef]

de Freitas, F.

K. Dovidenko, J.C. Lofgren, F. de Freitas, Y.J. Seo, and R. Tsu, “Structure and optoelectronic properties of Si/O superlattice,” Physica E 16, 509–516 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Denk, Winfried

Chris Xu and Winfried Denk, “Two-photon optical beam induced current imaging through the backside of integrated circuits,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 712578–2580 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Dianov, E.M.

E.A. Golovchenko, P.V. Mamyshev, A.N. Pilipetskii, and E.M. Dianov, “Mutual Influence of the Parametric Effects and Stimulated Raman Scattering in Optical Fibers,” IEEE J. of Quant. Elect. 26, 1815–1820 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Dimitropoulos, D.

R. Claps, D. Dimitropoulos, Y. Han, and B. Jalali, “Observation of Raman emission in silicon waveguides at 1.54 µm,” Opt. Express 10, 1305–1313 (2002). http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-10-22-1305
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Claps, D. Dimitropoulos, and B. Jalali, “Stimulated Raman Scattering in Silicon Waveguides,” IEE Electron. Lett. 38, 1352–1354 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Dimitropoulos, B. Houshmand, R. Claps, and B. Jalali, “Coupled-mode theory of the Raman effect in Silicon-On-Insulator waveguides,” Optics Letters, accepted for publication (2003).

D. Dimitropoulos, R. Claps, Y. Han, and B. Jalali, “Nonlinear Optics in Silicon Waveguides: Stimulated Raman Scattering and Two-Photon Absorption,” Integrated Optics: Devices, Materials, and Technologies VII, Y. S. Sidorin and Ari Tervonen, Editors, Proceedings of SPIE Vol. 4987140–148 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dinu, M.

M. Dinu, F. Quochi, and H. Garcia, “Third-order nonlinearities in silicon at telecom wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2954–2956 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dovidenko, K.

K. Dovidenko, J.C. Lofgren, F. de Freitas, Y.J. Seo, and R. Tsu, “Structure and optoelectronic properties of Si/O superlattice,” Physica E 16, 509–516 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Drake, J.

H.K. Tsang, C.S. Wong, T.K. Lang, I.E. Day, S.W. Roberts, A. Harpin, J. Drake, and M. Asghari, “Optical dispersion, two-photon absorption and self-phase modulation in silicon waveguides at 1.5 µm wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 416–418 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Franzo, G.

L. Dal Negro, M. Cazanelli, N. Daldosso, Z. Gaburro, L. Pavesi, F. Priolo, D. Pacifici, G. Franzo, and F. Iacona, “Stimulated emission in plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposited silicon nanocrystals,” Physica E 16, 297–308 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. Pavesi, L. Dal Negro, C. Mazzoleni, G. Franzo, and F. Priolo, “Optical gain in silicon nanocrystals,” Nature 408, 440–444 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gaburro, Z.

L. Dal Negro, M. Cazanelli, N. Daldosso, Z. Gaburro, L. Pavesi, F. Priolo, D. Pacifici, G. Franzo, and F. Iacona, “Stimulated emission in plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposited silicon nanocrystals,” Physica E 16, 297–308 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Garcia, H.

M. Dinu, F. Quochi, and H. Garcia, “Third-order nonlinearities in silicon at telecom wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2954–2956 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Golovchenko, E.A.

E.A. Golovchenko, P.V. Mamyshev, A.N. Pilipetskii, and E.M. Dianov, “Mutual Influence of the Parametric Effects and Stimulated Raman Scattering in Optical Fibers,” IEEE J. of Quant. Elect. 26, 1815–1820 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Green, M. A.

T. Trupke, J. Zhao, A. Wang, R. Corkish, and M. A. Green, “Very efficient light emission from bulk crystalline silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2996–2998 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Grimsditch, M.

M. Grimsditch and M. Cardona, “Absolute Cross-Section for Raman Scattering by Phonons in Silicon,” Phys. Stat. Sol. B 102, 155 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Han, H.S.

H.S. Han, S.Y. Seo, J.H. Shin, and N. Park, “Coefficient determination related to optical gain in erbium-doped silicon-rich silicon oxide waveguide amplifier,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3720–3722 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Han, Y.

R. Claps, D. Dimitropoulos, Y. Han, and B. Jalali, “Observation of Raman emission in silicon waveguides at 1.54 µm,” Opt. Express 10, 1305–1313 (2002). http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-10-22-1305
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Dimitropoulos, R. Claps, Y. Han, and B. Jalali, “Nonlinear Optics in Silicon Waveguides: Stimulated Raman Scattering and Two-Photon Absorption,” Integrated Optics: Devices, Materials, and Technologies VII, Y. S. Sidorin and Ari Tervonen, Editors, Proceedings of SPIE Vol. 4987140–148 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Harpin, A.

H.K. Tsang, C.S. Wong, T.K. Lang, I.E. Day, S.W. Roberts, A. Harpin, J. Drake, and M. Asghari, “Optical dispersion, two-photon absorption and self-phase modulation in silicon waveguides at 1.5 µm wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 416–418 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hathaway, C.E.

P.A. Temple and C.E. Hathaway, “Multiphonon Raman Spectrum of Silicon,” Phys. Rev. B 7, 3685–3697 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Hollander, B.

T. Stoica, L. Vescan, A. Muck, B. Hollander, and G. Schope, “Electroluminescence on electron hole plasma in strained SiGe epitaxial layers,” Physica E 16, 359–365 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Houshmand, B.

D. Dimitropoulos, B. Houshmand, R. Claps, and B. Jalali, “Coupled-mode theory of the Raman effect in Silicon-On-Insulator waveguides,” Optics Letters, accepted for publication (2003).

Iacona, F.

L. Dal Negro, M. Cazanelli, N. Daldosso, Z. Gaburro, L. Pavesi, F. Priolo, D. Pacifici, G. Franzo, and F. Iacona, “Stimulated emission in plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposited silicon nanocrystals,” Physica E 16, 297–308 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jalali, B.

R. Claps, D. Dimitropoulos, and B. Jalali, “Stimulated Raman Scattering in Silicon Waveguides,” IEE Electron. Lett. 38, 1352–1354 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Claps, D. Dimitropoulos, Y. Han, and B. Jalali, “Observation of Raman emission in silicon waveguides at 1.54 µm,” Opt. Express 10, 1305–1313 (2002). http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-10-22-1305
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Dimitropoulos, R. Claps, Y. Han, and B. Jalali, “Nonlinear Optics in Silicon Waveguides: Stimulated Raman Scattering and Two-Photon Absorption,” Integrated Optics: Devices, Materials, and Technologies VII, Y. S. Sidorin and Ari Tervonen, Editors, Proceedings of SPIE Vol. 4987140–148 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. Dimitropoulos, B. Houshmand, R. Claps, and B. Jalali, “Coupled-mode theory of the Raman effect in Silicon-On-Insulator waveguides,” Optics Letters, accepted for publication (2003).

Kikuchi, K.

K. Kikuchi, “Optical sampling system at 1.5 µm using two photon absorption in Si avalanche photodiode,” IEE Elecron. Lett. 34, 1354–1355 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lang, T.K.

H.K. Tsang, C.S. Wong, T.K. Lang, I.E. Day, S.W. Roberts, A. Harpin, J. Drake, and M. Asghari, “Optical dispersion, two-photon absorption and self-phase modulation in silicon waveguides at 1.5 µm wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 416–418 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lofgren, J.C.

K. Dovidenko, J.C. Lofgren, F. de Freitas, Y.J. Seo, and R. Tsu, “Structure and optoelectronic properties of Si/O superlattice,” Physica E 16, 509–516 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mamyshev, P.V.

E.A. Golovchenko, P.V. Mamyshev, A.N. Pilipetskii, and E.M. Dianov, “Mutual Influence of the Parametric Effects and Stimulated Raman Scattering in Optical Fibers,” IEEE J. of Quant. Elect. 26, 1815–1820 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Mazzoleni, C.

L. Pavesi, L. Dal Negro, C. Mazzoleni, G. Franzo, and F. Priolo, “Optical gain in silicon nanocrystals,” Nature 408, 440–444 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McGroddy, J.C.

F. Reintjes and J.C. McGroddy, “Indirect Two-Photon Transitions in Si at 1.06 µm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 30, 901–903 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Muck, A.

T. Stoica, L. Vescan, A. Muck, B. Hollander, and G. Schope, “Electroluminescence on electron hole plasma in strained SiGe epitaxial layers,” Physica E 16, 359–365 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Negro, L. Dal

L. Dal Negro, M. Cazanelli, N. Daldosso, Z. Gaburro, L. Pavesi, F. Priolo, D. Pacifici, G. Franzo, and F. Iacona, “Stimulated emission in plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposited silicon nanocrystals,” Physica E 16, 297–308 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. Pavesi, L. Dal Negro, C. Mazzoleni, G. Franzo, and F. Priolo, “Optical gain in silicon nanocrystals,” Nature 408, 440–444 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pacifici, D.

L. Dal Negro, M. Cazanelli, N. Daldosso, Z. Gaburro, L. Pavesi, F. Priolo, D. Pacifici, G. Franzo, and F. Iacona, “Stimulated emission in plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposited silicon nanocrystals,” Physica E 16, 297–308 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Park, N.

H.S. Han, S.Y. Seo, J.H. Shin, and N. Park, “Coefficient determination related to optical gain in erbium-doped silicon-rich silicon oxide waveguide amplifier,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3720–3722 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Pavesi, L.

L. Dal Negro, M. Cazanelli, N. Daldosso, Z. Gaburro, L. Pavesi, F. Priolo, D. Pacifici, G. Franzo, and F. Iacona, “Stimulated emission in plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposited silicon nanocrystals,” Physica E 16, 297–308 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. Pavesi, L. Dal Negro, C. Mazzoleni, G. Franzo, and F. Priolo, “Optical gain in silicon nanocrystals,” Nature 408, 440–444 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pilipetskii, A.N.

E.A. Golovchenko, P.V. Mamyshev, A.N. Pilipetskii, and E.M. Dianov, “Mutual Influence of the Parametric Effects and Stimulated Raman Scattering in Optical Fibers,” IEEE J. of Quant. Elect. 26, 1815–1820 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Priolo, F.

L. Dal Negro, M. Cazanelli, N. Daldosso, Z. Gaburro, L. Pavesi, F. Priolo, D. Pacifici, G. Franzo, and F. Iacona, “Stimulated emission in plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposited silicon nanocrystals,” Physica E 16, 297–308 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. Pavesi, L. Dal Negro, C. Mazzoleni, G. Franzo, and F. Priolo, “Optical gain in silicon nanocrystals,” Nature 408, 440–444 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Quochi, F.

M. Dinu, F. Quochi, and H. Garcia, “Third-order nonlinearities in silicon at telecom wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2954–2956 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ralston, J.M.

J.M. Ralston and R.K. Chang, “Spontaneous-Raman-scattering efficiency and stimulated scattering in silicon,” Phys. Rev. B 2, 1858–1862 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Reintjes, F.

F. Reintjes and J.C. McGroddy, “Indirect Two-Photon Transitions in Si at 1.06 µm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 30, 901–903 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Roberts, S.W.

H.K. Tsang, C.S. Wong, T.K. Lang, I.E. Day, S.W. Roberts, A. Harpin, J. Drake, and M. Asghari, “Optical dispersion, two-photon absorption and self-phase modulation in silicon waveguides at 1.5 µm wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 416–418 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Schope, G.

T. Stoica, L. Vescan, A. Muck, B. Hollander, and G. Schope, “Electroluminescence on electron hole plasma in strained SiGe epitaxial layers,” Physica E 16, 359–365 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Seo, S.Y.

H.S. Han, S.Y. Seo, J.H. Shin, and N. Park, “Coefficient determination related to optical gain in erbium-doped silicon-rich silicon oxide waveguide amplifier,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3720–3722 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Seo, Y.J.

K. Dovidenko, J.C. Lofgren, F. de Freitas, Y.J. Seo, and R. Tsu, “Structure and optoelectronic properties of Si/O superlattice,” Physica E 16, 509–516 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shin, J.H.

H.S. Han, S.Y. Seo, J.H. Shin, and N. Park, “Coefficient determination related to optical gain in erbium-doped silicon-rich silicon oxide waveguide amplifier,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3720–3722 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Stoica, T.

T. Stoica, L. Vescan, A. Muck, B. Hollander, and G. Schope, “Electroluminescence on electron hole plasma in strained SiGe epitaxial layers,” Physica E 16, 359–365 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Temple, P.A.

P.A. Temple and C.E. Hathaway, “Multiphonon Raman Spectrum of Silicon,” Phys. Rev. B 7, 3685–3697 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Trupke, T.

T. Trupke, J. Zhao, A. Wang, R. Corkish, and M. A. Green, “Very efficient light emission from bulk crystalline silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2996–2998 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tsang, H.K.

H.K. Tsang, C.S. Wong, T.K. Lang, I.E. Day, S.W. Roberts, A. Harpin, J. Drake, and M. Asghari, “Optical dispersion, two-photon absorption and self-phase modulation in silicon waveguides at 1.5 µm wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 416–418 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tsu, R.

K. Dovidenko, J.C. Lofgren, F. de Freitas, Y.J. Seo, and R. Tsu, “Structure and optoelectronic properties of Si/O superlattice,” Physica E 16, 509–516 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Vescan, L.

T. Stoica, L. Vescan, A. Muck, B. Hollander, and G. Schope, “Electroluminescence on electron hole plasma in strained SiGe epitaxial layers,” Physica E 16, 359–365 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wang, A.

T. Trupke, J. Zhao, A. Wang, R. Corkish, and M. A. Green, “Very efficient light emission from bulk crystalline silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2996–2998 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wong, C.S.

H.K. Tsang, C.S. Wong, T.K. Lang, I.E. Day, S.W. Roberts, A. Harpin, J. Drake, and M. Asghari, “Optical dispersion, two-photon absorption and self-phase modulation in silicon waveguides at 1.5 µm wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 416–418 (2002).
[CrossRef]

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Chris Xu and Winfried Denk, “Two-photon optical beam induced current imaging through the backside of integrated circuits,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 712578–2580 (1997).
[CrossRef]

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T. Trupke, J. Zhao, A. Wang, R. Corkish, and M. A. Green, “Very efficient light emission from bulk crystalline silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2996–2998 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

H.S. Han, S.Y. Seo, J.H. Shin, and N. Park, “Coefficient determination related to optical gain in erbium-doped silicon-rich silicon oxide waveguide amplifier,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3720–3722 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Trupke, J. Zhao, A. Wang, R. Corkish, and M. A. Green, “Very efficient light emission from bulk crystalline silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2996–2998 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H.K. Tsang, C.S. Wong, T.K. Lang, I.E. Day, S.W. Roberts, A. Harpin, J. Drake, and M. Asghari, “Optical dispersion, two-photon absorption and self-phase modulation in silicon waveguides at 1.5 µm wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 416–418 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Dinu, F. Quochi, and H. Garcia, “Third-order nonlinearities in silicon at telecom wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2954–2956 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chris Xu and Winfried Denk, “Two-photon optical beam induced current imaging through the backside of integrated circuits,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 712578–2580 (1997).
[CrossRef]

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K. Kikuchi, “Optical sampling system at 1.5 µm using two photon absorption in Si avalanche photodiode,” IEE Elecron. Lett. 34, 1354–1355 (1998).
[CrossRef]

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R. Claps, D. Dimitropoulos, and B. Jalali, “Stimulated Raman Scattering in Silicon Waveguides,” IEE Electron. Lett. 38, 1352–1354 (2002).
[CrossRef]

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E.A. Golovchenko, P.V. Mamyshev, A.N. Pilipetskii, and E.M. Dianov, “Mutual Influence of the Parametric Effects and Stimulated Raman Scattering in Optical Fibers,” IEEE J. of Quant. Elect. 26, 1815–1820 (1990).
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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

T. Stoica, L. Vescan, A. Muck, B. Hollander, and G. Schope, “Electroluminescence on electron hole plasma in strained SiGe epitaxial layers,” Physica E 16, 359–365 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Experimental setup: Pump-CRC fiber laser; Ch-Chopper; PBS-Polarization Beam Splitter; LIA- Lock-in amplifier; ECDL-External cavity diode laser (tunable); FG-Function generator (60 GHz freq. range); VOA-Variable optical attenuator; PD-optically-broadband photodetector. Thick lines represent electrical connections and wiring, thin lines represent free-space optical beams, and colored lines represent optical fiber.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Measured spectral characteristic of the Stimulated Raman Scattering (SRS) in the silicon waveguide. The error bars are the standard deviation from this average. The pump power was 0.64 W at the front facet of the waveguide. SRS Net Gain is the ratio of the amplitude of the LIA output to the average signal power throughput. (b) Spontaneous Raman Spectra of the same waveguide with the same pump power as in (a).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

The maxima from each spectral scan are plotted against effective pump power coupled into the front facet of the waveguide. A maximum of 0.25 dB (6%) amplification is obtained.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Experimental setup for measuring TPA. The waveguide in this case is different from the one used for SRS. PC-Polarization controller; VOA-Variable optical attenuator; PBS - Polarization beam splitter; PD1 and PD2 photo-detectors (identical, Newport 1830-C).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Output power vs. input power results, using a mode-locked laser, and depicting a nonlinear relationship.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

TPA measurement result. The input power, Pin, is not corrected for coupling losses. The linear behavior is maintained up to ~ 400 W.

Equations (5)

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R 1 = 1 2 ( 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 ) ; R 2 = 1 2 ( 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 ) ; R 3 = ( 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 ) .
S = S o j = 1 , 2 , 3 e ̂ s · R j · e ̂ i 2 , S o = k o 4 32 π 2 n V χ R 2
g s = 8 π c 2 ω p ħ ω s 4 n 2 ( ω s ) ( N + 1 ) Δ ω S
P S ( L ) = P S ( 0 ) exp ( γ L + g s P p ( 0 ) A · ( 1 + Δ ν p ( P p ) Δ ν R ) L eff ) .
P in P out = e γ L ( 1 + β L eff A P in ) .

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