Abstract

In this paper, we present a novel reflow technique for the fabrication of an elliptical microlens array in sol-gel glass. The fabricated refractive microlens array has a very smooth surface, and structural and dimensional conformity with the designed parameters. It is shown that the microlens array can provide high coupling efficiency of a laser diode to a single mode fiber, and relax the lateral and axial misalignment tolerance. The microlens coupling technique has the advantages of low coupling loss, large misalignment tolerances, and small package volume.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
Related Articles
Coupling characteristics of laser diode to multimode fiber using separate lens methods

Kenji Kawano and Osamu Mitomi
Appl. Opt. 25(1) 136-141 (1986)

Cost-effective fabrication of microlenses on hybrid sol-gel glass with a high-energy beam–sensitive gray-scale mask

X.-C. Yuan, W. X. Yu, N. Q. Ngo, and W. C. Cheong
Opt. Express 10(7) 303-308 (2002)

Simple reflow technique for fabrication of a microlens array in solgel glass

M. He, X.-C. Yuan, N. Q. Ngo, J. Bu, and V. Kudryashov
Opt. Lett. 28(9) 731-733 (2003)

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. W. Unziker, “Low-cost packaging of semiconductor laser arrays,” Circ. Devices 13, 19–25 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  2. J. Yamashita, A. Adachi, S. Kaneko, and T. Hashimoto, “High efficient and small sized coupling optics for monolithic array LD module,” IECE Trans. Electron. E77-C, 1776–1780 (1994).
  3. H. L. An, “Theoretical investigation on the effective coupling from laser diode to tapered lensed single-mode optical fiber,” Opt. Commun. 181, 89–95 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  4. K. Shiraishi, “A fiber with a long working distance for integrated coupling between laser diodes and single-mode fibers,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 1736–1744 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  5. H. Sakaguchi, N. Sakaguchi, N. Seki, and S. Yamamoto, “Power coupling from laser diodes into single-mode fibres quadrangular pyramid-shaped hemiellipsodal ends,” Electron. Lett. 17, 425–426 (1981).
    [Crossref]
  6. V. S. Shah, L. Curtis, R. S. Vodhabel, D. P. Bour, and W. C. Young, “Effective power coupling from a 980 nm, broad-area laser to a single-mode fiber using a wedge-shaped fiber endface,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 1313–1318 (1990).
    [Crossref]
  7. P. Chanclou, M. Thual, J. Lostec, D. Pavy, and M. Gadonna, “Focusing and coupling properties of collective micro-optics on fiber ribbons,” Opt. Eng. 39, 387–392 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  8. P. Chanclou, M. Thual, J. Lostec, D Pavy, M. Gadonna, and A. Poudoulec, “Collective micro-optics on fiber ribbon for optical interconnecting devices,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 924–928 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  9. F. A. Rahman, K. Takahashi, and C. H. Teik, “A scheme to improve the coupling efficiency and working distance between laser diode and single mode fiber,” Opt. Commun. 208, 103–110 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  10. D. Blac, S. Pelissier, K. Saravanamuttu, S.I. Najafi, and M. P. Andrews, “Self-processing of surface-relief gratings in photosensitive sol-gel glasses,” Adv. Mater. 11, 1508–1511 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  11. X. -C. Yuan, W. X. Yu, N. Q. Ngo, and W. C. Cheong, “Cost-effective fabrication of microlenses on hybrid sol-gel glass with a high-energy beam-sensitive gray-scale mask,” Opt. Express 10, 303–308 (2002), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-10-7-303.
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. J. T. Rantala, N. Nordman, O. Nordman, J. Vahakangas, S. Honkannen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Sol-gel hybrid glass diffractive element by electron-beam exposure,” Electronics Lett. 34, 455–456 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  13. K. Kintaka, J. Nishii, and N. Tohge, “Diffraction gratings of photosensitive ZrO2 gel films fabricated with the two-ultraviolet-beam interference method,” Appl. Opt. 39, 489–493 (2000).
    [Crossref]

2002 (2)

2000 (3)

K. Kintaka, J. Nishii, and N. Tohge, “Diffraction gratings of photosensitive ZrO2 gel films fabricated with the two-ultraviolet-beam interference method,” Appl. Opt. 39, 489–493 (2000).
[Crossref]

P. Chanclou, M. Thual, J. Lostec, D. Pavy, and M. Gadonna, “Focusing and coupling properties of collective micro-optics on fiber ribbons,” Opt. Eng. 39, 387–392 (2000).
[Crossref]

H. L. An, “Theoretical investigation on the effective coupling from laser diode to tapered lensed single-mode optical fiber,” Opt. Commun. 181, 89–95 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (2)

P. Chanclou, M. Thual, J. Lostec, D Pavy, M. Gadonna, and A. Poudoulec, “Collective micro-optics on fiber ribbon for optical interconnecting devices,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 924–928 (1999).
[Crossref]

D. Blac, S. Pelissier, K. Saravanamuttu, S.I. Najafi, and M. P. Andrews, “Self-processing of surface-relief gratings in photosensitive sol-gel glasses,” Adv. Mater. 11, 1508–1511 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

J. T. Rantala, N. Nordman, O. Nordman, J. Vahakangas, S. Honkannen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Sol-gel hybrid glass diffractive element by electron-beam exposure,” Electronics Lett. 34, 455–456 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

W. Unziker, “Low-cost packaging of semiconductor laser arrays,” Circ. Devices 13, 19–25 (1997).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

K. Shiraishi, “A fiber with a long working distance for integrated coupling between laser diodes and single-mode fibers,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 1736–1744 (1995).
[Crossref]

1990 (1)

V. S. Shah, L. Curtis, R. S. Vodhabel, D. P. Bour, and W. C. Young, “Effective power coupling from a 980 nm, broad-area laser to a single-mode fiber using a wedge-shaped fiber endface,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 1313–1318 (1990).
[Crossref]

1981 (1)

H. Sakaguchi, N. Sakaguchi, N. Seki, and S. Yamamoto, “Power coupling from laser diodes into single-mode fibres quadrangular pyramid-shaped hemiellipsodal ends,” Electron. Lett. 17, 425–426 (1981).
[Crossref]

Adachi, A.

J. Yamashita, A. Adachi, S. Kaneko, and T. Hashimoto, “High efficient and small sized coupling optics for monolithic array LD module,” IECE Trans. Electron. E77-C, 1776–1780 (1994).

An, H. L.

H. L. An, “Theoretical investigation on the effective coupling from laser diode to tapered lensed single-mode optical fiber,” Opt. Commun. 181, 89–95 (2000).
[Crossref]

Andrews, M. P.

D. Blac, S. Pelissier, K. Saravanamuttu, S.I. Najafi, and M. P. Andrews, “Self-processing of surface-relief gratings in photosensitive sol-gel glasses,” Adv. Mater. 11, 1508–1511 (1999).
[Crossref]

Blac, D.

D. Blac, S. Pelissier, K. Saravanamuttu, S.I. Najafi, and M. P. Andrews, “Self-processing of surface-relief gratings in photosensitive sol-gel glasses,” Adv. Mater. 11, 1508–1511 (1999).
[Crossref]

Bour, D. P.

V. S. Shah, L. Curtis, R. S. Vodhabel, D. P. Bour, and W. C. Young, “Effective power coupling from a 980 nm, broad-area laser to a single-mode fiber using a wedge-shaped fiber endface,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 1313–1318 (1990).
[Crossref]

Chanclou, P.

P. Chanclou, M. Thual, J. Lostec, D. Pavy, and M. Gadonna, “Focusing and coupling properties of collective micro-optics on fiber ribbons,” Opt. Eng. 39, 387–392 (2000).
[Crossref]

P. Chanclou, M. Thual, J. Lostec, D Pavy, M. Gadonna, and A. Poudoulec, “Collective micro-optics on fiber ribbon for optical interconnecting devices,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 924–928 (1999).
[Crossref]

Cheong, W. C.

Curtis, L.

V. S. Shah, L. Curtis, R. S. Vodhabel, D. P. Bour, and W. C. Young, “Effective power coupling from a 980 nm, broad-area laser to a single-mode fiber using a wedge-shaped fiber endface,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 1313–1318 (1990).
[Crossref]

Gadonna, M.

P. Chanclou, M. Thual, J. Lostec, D. Pavy, and M. Gadonna, “Focusing and coupling properties of collective micro-optics on fiber ribbons,” Opt. Eng. 39, 387–392 (2000).
[Crossref]

P. Chanclou, M. Thual, J. Lostec, D Pavy, M. Gadonna, and A. Poudoulec, “Collective micro-optics on fiber ribbon for optical interconnecting devices,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 924–928 (1999).
[Crossref]

Hashimoto, T.

J. Yamashita, A. Adachi, S. Kaneko, and T. Hashimoto, “High efficient and small sized coupling optics for monolithic array LD module,” IECE Trans. Electron. E77-C, 1776–1780 (1994).

Honkannen, S.

J. T. Rantala, N. Nordman, O. Nordman, J. Vahakangas, S. Honkannen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Sol-gel hybrid glass diffractive element by electron-beam exposure,” Electronics Lett. 34, 455–456 (1998).
[Crossref]

Kaneko, S.

J. Yamashita, A. Adachi, S. Kaneko, and T. Hashimoto, “High efficient and small sized coupling optics for monolithic array LD module,” IECE Trans. Electron. E77-C, 1776–1780 (1994).

Kintaka, K.

Lostec, J.

P. Chanclou, M. Thual, J. Lostec, D. Pavy, and M. Gadonna, “Focusing and coupling properties of collective micro-optics on fiber ribbons,” Opt. Eng. 39, 387–392 (2000).
[Crossref]

P. Chanclou, M. Thual, J. Lostec, D Pavy, M. Gadonna, and A. Poudoulec, “Collective micro-optics on fiber ribbon for optical interconnecting devices,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 924–928 (1999).
[Crossref]

Najafi, S.I.

D. Blac, S. Pelissier, K. Saravanamuttu, S.I. Najafi, and M. P. Andrews, “Self-processing of surface-relief gratings in photosensitive sol-gel glasses,” Adv. Mater. 11, 1508–1511 (1999).
[Crossref]

Ngo, N. Q.

Nishii, J.

Nordman, N.

J. T. Rantala, N. Nordman, O. Nordman, J. Vahakangas, S. Honkannen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Sol-gel hybrid glass diffractive element by electron-beam exposure,” Electronics Lett. 34, 455–456 (1998).
[Crossref]

Nordman, O.

J. T. Rantala, N. Nordman, O. Nordman, J. Vahakangas, S. Honkannen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Sol-gel hybrid glass diffractive element by electron-beam exposure,” Electronics Lett. 34, 455–456 (1998).
[Crossref]

Pavy, D

P. Chanclou, M. Thual, J. Lostec, D Pavy, M. Gadonna, and A. Poudoulec, “Collective micro-optics on fiber ribbon for optical interconnecting devices,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 924–928 (1999).
[Crossref]

Pavy, D.

P. Chanclou, M. Thual, J. Lostec, D. Pavy, and M. Gadonna, “Focusing and coupling properties of collective micro-optics on fiber ribbons,” Opt. Eng. 39, 387–392 (2000).
[Crossref]

Pelissier, S.

D. Blac, S. Pelissier, K. Saravanamuttu, S.I. Najafi, and M. P. Andrews, “Self-processing of surface-relief gratings in photosensitive sol-gel glasses,” Adv. Mater. 11, 1508–1511 (1999).
[Crossref]

Peyghambarian, N.

J. T. Rantala, N. Nordman, O. Nordman, J. Vahakangas, S. Honkannen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Sol-gel hybrid glass diffractive element by electron-beam exposure,” Electronics Lett. 34, 455–456 (1998).
[Crossref]

Poudoulec, A.

P. Chanclou, M. Thual, J. Lostec, D Pavy, M. Gadonna, and A. Poudoulec, “Collective micro-optics on fiber ribbon for optical interconnecting devices,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 924–928 (1999).
[Crossref]

Rahman, F. A.

F. A. Rahman, K. Takahashi, and C. H. Teik, “A scheme to improve the coupling efficiency and working distance between laser diode and single mode fiber,” Opt. Commun. 208, 103–110 (2002).
[Crossref]

Rantala, J. T.

J. T. Rantala, N. Nordman, O. Nordman, J. Vahakangas, S. Honkannen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Sol-gel hybrid glass diffractive element by electron-beam exposure,” Electronics Lett. 34, 455–456 (1998).
[Crossref]

Sakaguchi, H.

H. Sakaguchi, N. Sakaguchi, N. Seki, and S. Yamamoto, “Power coupling from laser diodes into single-mode fibres quadrangular pyramid-shaped hemiellipsodal ends,” Electron. Lett. 17, 425–426 (1981).
[Crossref]

Sakaguchi, N.

H. Sakaguchi, N. Sakaguchi, N. Seki, and S. Yamamoto, “Power coupling from laser diodes into single-mode fibres quadrangular pyramid-shaped hemiellipsodal ends,” Electron. Lett. 17, 425–426 (1981).
[Crossref]

Saravanamuttu, K.

D. Blac, S. Pelissier, K. Saravanamuttu, S.I. Najafi, and M. P. Andrews, “Self-processing of surface-relief gratings in photosensitive sol-gel glasses,” Adv. Mater. 11, 1508–1511 (1999).
[Crossref]

Seki, N.

H. Sakaguchi, N. Sakaguchi, N. Seki, and S. Yamamoto, “Power coupling from laser diodes into single-mode fibres quadrangular pyramid-shaped hemiellipsodal ends,” Electron. Lett. 17, 425–426 (1981).
[Crossref]

Shah, V. S.

V. S. Shah, L. Curtis, R. S. Vodhabel, D. P. Bour, and W. C. Young, “Effective power coupling from a 980 nm, broad-area laser to a single-mode fiber using a wedge-shaped fiber endface,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 1313–1318 (1990).
[Crossref]

Shiraishi, K.

K. Shiraishi, “A fiber with a long working distance for integrated coupling between laser diodes and single-mode fibers,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 1736–1744 (1995).
[Crossref]

Takahashi, K.

F. A. Rahman, K. Takahashi, and C. H. Teik, “A scheme to improve the coupling efficiency and working distance between laser diode and single mode fiber,” Opt. Commun. 208, 103–110 (2002).
[Crossref]

Teik, C. H.

F. A. Rahman, K. Takahashi, and C. H. Teik, “A scheme to improve the coupling efficiency and working distance between laser diode and single mode fiber,” Opt. Commun. 208, 103–110 (2002).
[Crossref]

Thual, M.

P. Chanclou, M. Thual, J. Lostec, D. Pavy, and M. Gadonna, “Focusing and coupling properties of collective micro-optics on fiber ribbons,” Opt. Eng. 39, 387–392 (2000).
[Crossref]

P. Chanclou, M. Thual, J. Lostec, D Pavy, M. Gadonna, and A. Poudoulec, “Collective micro-optics on fiber ribbon for optical interconnecting devices,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 924–928 (1999).
[Crossref]

Tohge, N.

Unziker, W.

W. Unziker, “Low-cost packaging of semiconductor laser arrays,” Circ. Devices 13, 19–25 (1997).
[Crossref]

Vahakangas, J.

J. T. Rantala, N. Nordman, O. Nordman, J. Vahakangas, S. Honkannen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Sol-gel hybrid glass diffractive element by electron-beam exposure,” Electronics Lett. 34, 455–456 (1998).
[Crossref]

Vodhabel, R. S.

V. S. Shah, L. Curtis, R. S. Vodhabel, D. P. Bour, and W. C. Young, “Effective power coupling from a 980 nm, broad-area laser to a single-mode fiber using a wedge-shaped fiber endface,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 1313–1318 (1990).
[Crossref]

Yamamoto, S.

H. Sakaguchi, N. Sakaguchi, N. Seki, and S. Yamamoto, “Power coupling from laser diodes into single-mode fibres quadrangular pyramid-shaped hemiellipsodal ends,” Electron. Lett. 17, 425–426 (1981).
[Crossref]

Yamashita, J.

J. Yamashita, A. Adachi, S. Kaneko, and T. Hashimoto, “High efficient and small sized coupling optics for monolithic array LD module,” IECE Trans. Electron. E77-C, 1776–1780 (1994).

Young, W. C.

V. S. Shah, L. Curtis, R. S. Vodhabel, D. P. Bour, and W. C. Young, “Effective power coupling from a 980 nm, broad-area laser to a single-mode fiber using a wedge-shaped fiber endface,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 1313–1318 (1990).
[Crossref]

Yu, W. X.

Yuan, X. -C.

Adv. Mater. (1)

D. Blac, S. Pelissier, K. Saravanamuttu, S.I. Najafi, and M. P. Andrews, “Self-processing of surface-relief gratings in photosensitive sol-gel glasses,” Adv. Mater. 11, 1508–1511 (1999).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Circ. Devices (1)

W. Unziker, “Low-cost packaging of semiconductor laser arrays,” Circ. Devices 13, 19–25 (1997).
[Crossref]

Electron. Lett. (1)

H. Sakaguchi, N. Sakaguchi, N. Seki, and S. Yamamoto, “Power coupling from laser diodes into single-mode fibres quadrangular pyramid-shaped hemiellipsodal ends,” Electron. Lett. 17, 425–426 (1981).
[Crossref]

Electronics Lett. (1)

J. T. Rantala, N. Nordman, O. Nordman, J. Vahakangas, S. Honkannen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Sol-gel hybrid glass diffractive element by electron-beam exposure,” Electronics Lett. 34, 455–456 (1998).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. (3)

V. S. Shah, L. Curtis, R. S. Vodhabel, D. P. Bour, and W. C. Young, “Effective power coupling from a 980 nm, broad-area laser to a single-mode fiber using a wedge-shaped fiber endface,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 1313–1318 (1990).
[Crossref]

P. Chanclou, M. Thual, J. Lostec, D Pavy, M. Gadonna, and A. Poudoulec, “Collective micro-optics on fiber ribbon for optical interconnecting devices,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 924–928 (1999).
[Crossref]

K. Shiraishi, “A fiber with a long working distance for integrated coupling between laser diodes and single-mode fibers,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 1736–1744 (1995).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (2)

H. L. An, “Theoretical investigation on the effective coupling from laser diode to tapered lensed single-mode optical fiber,” Opt. Commun. 181, 89–95 (2000).
[Crossref]

F. A. Rahman, K. Takahashi, and C. H. Teik, “A scheme to improve the coupling efficiency and working distance between laser diode and single mode fiber,” Opt. Commun. 208, 103–110 (2002).
[Crossref]

Opt. Eng. (1)

P. Chanclou, M. Thual, J. Lostec, D. Pavy, and M. Gadonna, “Focusing and coupling properties of collective micro-optics on fiber ribbons,” Opt. Eng. 39, 387–392 (2000).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (1)

Other (1)

J. Yamashita, A. Adachi, S. Kaneko, and T. Hashimoto, “High efficient and small sized coupling optics for monolithic array LD module,” IECE Trans. Electron. E77-C, 1776–1780 (1994).

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Surface characterization of the 16×16 elliptical microlens array in sol-gel material (a) SEM image, (b) profile along the long-axis of elliptical aperture (unit: µm), (c) profile along the short-axis of elliptical aperture (unit: µm)

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Characteristic parameters of an elliptical microlens array

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Schematic diagram of the microlens coupling scheme

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Laser output power from the SMF pigtail as a function of the laser diode drive current of the two coupling methods

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Normalized measured coupling efficiency as a function of (a) lateral misalignment, (b) axial offset, (c) angular misalignment

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

R ¯ i = D i 2 + 4 h ¯ 2 8 h ¯
f ¯ i = R ¯ i ( n 1 )
F ¯ # i = f ¯ i D i
H = h ¯ ( 1 h ¯ 3 c ) 2 ( 1 h ¯ 2 c ) h ¯ 2

Metrics