Abstract

In this paper, we present a novel reflow technique for the fabrication of an elliptical microlens array in sol-gel glass. The fabricated refractive microlens array has a very smooth surface, and structural and dimensional conformity with the designed parameters. It is shown that the microlens array can provide high coupling efficiency of a laser diode to a single mode fiber, and relax the lateral and axial misalignment tolerance. The microlens coupling technique has the advantages of low coupling loss, large misalignment tolerances, and small package volume.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef]
  2. J. Yamashita, A. Adachi, S. Kaneko, and T. Hashimoto, �??High efficient and small sized coupling optics for monolithic array LD module,�?? IECE Trans. Electron. E77-C, 1776-1780 (1994).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  12. J. T. Rantala, N. Nordman, O. Nordman, J. Vahakangas, S. Honkannen, and N.Peyghambarian, �??Sol-gel hybrid glass diffractive element by electron-beam exposure,�?? Electronics Lett. 34, 455-456 (1998).
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  13. K. Kintaka, J. Nishii, and N. Tohge, �??Diffraction gratings of photosensitive ZrO2 gel films fabricated with the two-ultraviolet-beam interference method,�?? Appl. Opt. 39, 489-493 (2000).
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Adv. Mater. (1)

D. Blac, S. Pelissier, and K. Saravanamuttu, S.I. Najafi and M. P. Andrews, �??Self-processing of surface-relief gratings in photosensitive sol-gel glasses,�?? Adv. Mater. 11, 1508-1511 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Circ. Devices (1)

W. Unziker, �??Low-cost packaging of semiconductor laser arrays,�?? Circ. Devices 13, 19-25 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

H. Sakaguchi, N. Sakaguchi, N. Seki, and S. Yamamoto, �??Power coupling from laser diodes into single-mode fibres quadrangular pyramid-shaped hemiellipsodal ends,�?? Electron. Lett. 17, 425-426 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Electronics Lett. (1)

J. T. Rantala, N. Nordman, O. Nordman, J. Vahakangas, S. Honkannen, and N.Peyghambarian, �??Sol-gel hybrid glass diffractive element by electron-beam exposure,�?? Electronics Lett. 34, 455-456 (1998).
[CrossRef]

IECE Trans. Electron. (1)

J. Yamashita, A. Adachi, S. Kaneko, and T. Hashimoto, �??High efficient and small sized coupling optics for monolithic array LD module,�?? IECE Trans. Electron. E77-C, 1776-1780 (1994).

IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. (3)

V. S. Shah, L. Curtis, R. S. Vodhabel, D. P. Bour, and W. C. Young, �??Effective power coupling from a 980 nm, broad-area laser to a single-mode fiber using a wedge-shaped fiber endface,�?? IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 1313-1318 (1990).
[CrossRef]

P. Chanclou, M. Thual, J. Lostec, D.Pavy, M. Gadonna, and A. Poudoulec, �??Collective micro-optics on fiber ribbon for optical interconnecting devices,�?? IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 924-928 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Shiraishi, �??A fiber with a long working distance for integrated coupling between laser diodes and single-mode fibers,�?? IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 1736-1744 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (2)

F. A. Rahman, K. Takahashi, C. H. Teik, �??A scheme to improve the coupling efficiency and working distance between laser diode and single mode fiber,�?? Opt. Commun. 208, 103-110 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. L. An, �??Theoretical investigation on the effective coupling from laser diode to tapered lensed single-mode optical fiber,�?? Opt. Commun. 181, 89-95 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

P. Chanclou, M. Thual, J. Lostec, D. Pavy, and M. Gadonna, �??Focusing and coupling properties of collective micro-optics on fiber ribbons,�?? Opt. Eng. 39, 387-392 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Surface characterization of the 16×16 elliptical microlens array in sol-gel material (a) SEM image, (b) profile along the long-axis of elliptical aperture (unit: µm), (c) profile along the short-axis of elliptical aperture (unit: µm)

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Characteristic parameters of an elliptical microlens array

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Schematic diagram of the microlens coupling scheme

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Laser output power from the SMF pigtail as a function of the laser diode drive current of the two coupling methods

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Normalized measured coupling efficiency as a function of (a) lateral misalignment, (b) axial offset, (c) angular misalignment

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

R ¯ i = D i 2 + 4 h ¯ 2 8 h ¯
f ¯ i = R ¯ i ( n 1 )
F ¯ # i = f ¯ i D i
H = h ¯ ( 1 h ¯ 3 c ) 2 ( 1 h ¯ 2 c ) h ¯ 2

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