Abstract

This letter presents a method to fabricate high quality, high refractive index titanium oxide thin films by applying liquid phase spin-on deposition combined with low temperature annealing. The synthesis of the liquid form titanium oxide material is carried out using a sol-gel synthesis technique. The material can be annealed at low temperature (150 C°) to achieve relatively high refractive index of 1.94 at 632.8 nm wavelength, whereas annealing at 350 C° results in index of 2.03 at 632.8 nm. Film depositions are demonstrated on silicon substrates with 0.5% uniformity in thickness. Refractive indices and extinction coefficients are characterized over a broad wavelength range to demonstrate the optical performance of this novel aqueous phase spin-on deposited hybrid titanium oxide material.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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References

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Adv. Mat.

A. H. O. Kärkkäinen, J. T. Rantala, A. Maaninen, G. E. Jabbour and M. R. Descour, ???Siloxane based hybrid glass materials for binary and gray-scale mask photoimaging,??? Adv. Mat. 14, 535 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

M. R. Descour, A. H. O. Kärkkäinen, J. D. Rogers, C. Liang, B. Kilic, E. Madenci and J. T. Rantala; R. R. Richards-Kortum, E. V. Anslyn and R. D. Dupuis, ???Toward the development of miniaturized imaging systems for detection of pre-cancer,??? IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 122 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids

R. R. A. Syms, A. S. Holmes, ???Deposition of thick silica-titania sol-gel films on Si substrates,??? J. Non-Cryst. Solids 170, 223 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Sol-gel Sci. Tech.

M. Langlet, M. Burgos, C. Coutier, C. Jimenez, C. Morant, M. Manzo, ???Low temperature preparation of high refractive index and mechanically resistant sol-gel TiO2 films for multilayer antireflective coating applications,??? J. Sol-gel Sci. Tech. 22, 139 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Thin Solid Films

S. Toyoda, N. Ooba, M. Hikita, T. Kurihara, S. Imamura, ???Propagation loss and birefringence properties around 1.55 µm of polymeric optical waveguides fabricated with cross-linked silicone,??? Thin Solid Films 370, 311 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Other

P. Belleville, P. Prené, B. Lambert, ???A UV-cured sol-gel broadband antireflective and scratch-resistant coating for CRT,??? Proc. SPIE - Int. Soc. Opt. Eng. 3943, 67 (2000).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Extinction co-efficiency of titanium oxide films annealed at 150 °C and 350 °C. The extinction co-efficiency saturates to “zero-level” at 390 nm range (see insert) and no attenuation is detectable at visible and NIR regions.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Refractive index of titanium oxide films as a function of wavelength for 150 C° (solid) and 350 C° (dashed) annealed films.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Surface-topography measurement of the deposited films. Part (a) shows a 3D image of the film treated at 150 °C. The rms surface roughness was measured to be 1.43nm. Part (b) shows a 3D image of the film treated at 350 °C. The rms surface roughness was measured to be 0.97nm. See text for measurement details.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Refractive indices (at 633 nm) of the film at various processing temperatures and corresponding film thicknesses based on reflectomer measurements.

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