Abstract

We present results of experiments and simulations of the interaction between a high intensity, femtosecond laser pulse and an atomic cluster that show the temporal profile of the laser pulse plays a crucial role in the expansion dynamics of the cluster. Experiments were conducted in rare gas clusters of Xe, Kr and Ar of radius 30 – 80 Å with a laser pulse of duration 70 – 240 fs and a peak intensity of ~1016 Wcm-2. The shape of the laser pulse was a Gaussian with a shoulder of intensity 0.02 times the peak pulse intensity appearing on either the rising or falling edge of the main pulse depending on the sign of chirp applied to the laser pulse. Significant differences (up to a factor of 2) in the energies of the ions obtained from the laser-cluster interaction were measured when the shape of the laser pulse was varied.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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  1. T. Ditmire, R.A. Smith, J.W.G. Tisch, and M.H.R. Hutchinson, “High Intensity Laser Absorption by Gases of Atomic Clusters,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3121 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  2. Y.L. Shao, T. Ditmire, J.W.G. Tisch, E. Springate, J.P. Marangos, and M.H.R. Hutchinson, “Multi-keV Electron Generation in the Interaction of Intense Laser Pulses with Xe Clusters,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3343 (1996).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. T. Ditmire, J.W.G. Tisch, E. Springate, M.B. Mason, N. Hay, R.A. Smith, J.P. Marangos, and M.H.R. Hutchinson, “High-Energy Ions Produced in Explosions of Superheated Atomic Clusters,” Nature 386, 54 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  4. T. Ditmire, T. Donnelly, A.M. Rubenchik, R.W. Falcone, and M.D. Perry, “Interaction of Intense Laser Pulses with Atomic Clusters,” Phys. Rev. A 53, 3379 (1996).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. T. Ditmire, J. Zweiback, V.P. Yanovsky, T.E. Cowan, G. Hays, and K.B. Wharton, “Nuclear Fusion from Explosions of Femtosecond Laser-Heated Deuterium Clusters,” Nature (London)  398, 489 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  6. E. Parra, I. Alexeev, J. Fan, K.Y. Kim, S.J. McNaught, and H.M. Milchberg, “X-Ray and Extreme Ultraviolet Emission Induced by Variable Pulse-Width Irradiation of Ar and Kr Clusters and Droplets,” Phys. Rev. E 62, R5931 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  7. J. Zweiback, T. Ditmire, and M.D. Perry, “Femtosecond Time-Resolved Studies of the Dynamics of Noble-Gas Cluster Explosions,” Phys. Rev. A 59, R3166 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  8. E. Springate, N. Hay, J.W.G. Tisch, M.B. Mason, T. Ditmire, M.H.R. Hutchinson, and J P. Marangos, “Explosion of Atomic Clusters Irradiated by High-Intensity Laser Pulses: Scaling of Ion Energies with Cluster and Laser parameters,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 063201 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  9. K.J. Mendham, N. Hay, M.B. Mason, J.W.G. Tisch, and J.P. Marangos, “Cluster Size Distribution Effects in Laser-Cluster Interaction Experiments,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 055201 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  10. J. Zweiback, T. Ditmire, and M.D. Perry, “Resonance in Scattering and Absorption from Large Noble Gas Clusters,” Opt. Express 6, No.12, 236 (2000) http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-6-12-236
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. M. Schnürer, S. Ter-Avetisyan, H. Stiel, U. Vogt, W. Radloff, M. Kalashnikov, W. Sandner, and P.V. Nickles, “Influence of Laser Pulse Width on Absolute EUV-Yield from Xe Clusters,” Eur. Phys. J. D 14, 331 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  12. T. Mocek, C.M. Kim, H.J. Shin, D.G. Lee, Y.H. Cha, K.H. Kong, and C.H. Nam, “Soft X-Ray Emission from Small-Sized Ne Clusters Heated by Intense, Femtosecond Laser Pulses,” Phys. Rev. E 62, 4461 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  13. P.A. Golovinski, “Laser Wavelength Dependence for Strong-Field-Induced Excitation in Clusters,” Laser Phys. 9, 1048 (1999).
  14. T. Ditmire, E. Springate, J.W.G. Tisch, Y.L. Shao, M.B. Mason, N. Hay, J.P. Marangos, and M.H.R. Hutchinson, “Explosion of Atomic Clusters Heated by High-Intensity Femtosecond Laser Pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 57, 369 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  15. V. Kumarappan, M. Krishnamurthy, D. Mathur, and L.C. Tribedi, “Effect of Laser Polarisation on X-Ray Emission from Arn (n=200-104) Clusters in Intense Laser Fields,” Phys. Rev. A 63, 023203 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  16. V. Kumarappan, M. Krishnamurthy, and D. Mathur, “Asymmetric High-Energy Ion Emission from Argon Clusters in Intense Laser Fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 085005 (2001).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. T. Auguste, P. D’Oliveĭra, S. Hulin, P. Monot, J. Abdallah, Jr, A.Ya. Faenov, I.Yu. Skobelev, A.I. Magunov, and T.A. Pikuz, “The Role of the Prepulse in Cluster Heating by a High-Power Femtosecond Laser Pulse,” JETP Letters,  72, 38 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  18. E. Springate, N. Hay, J.W.G. Tisch, M.B. Mason, T. Ditmire, J.P. Marangos, and M.H.R. Hutchinson, “Enhanced Explosion of Atomic Clusters Irradiated by a Sequence of Two High-Intensity laser Pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 044101 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  19. K.J. Mendham, J.W.G Tisch, M.B. Mason, N. Hay, R.A. Smith, and J.P. Marangos, “Multi-keV Proton Energies from Exploding Hydrogen Clusters,” J. Phys. B 35, 663 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  20. O.F. Hagena, in Rarefied Gas Dynamics, edited by H. Oguchi (University of Tokyo, Tokyo, 1984), pp. 721–732.
  21. J.W.G. Tisch, N. Hay, E. Springate, E.T. Gumbrell, M.H.R. Hutchinson, and J.P. Marangos, “Measurements of Ion Energies from the Explosion of Large Hydrogen Iodide Clusters Irradiated by Intense Femtosecond Laser Pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 60, 3076 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  22. K.J. Mendham, “Energetic Cluster Explosions in Intense Femtosecond Laser Fields,” PhD. Thesis, University of London (2002).

2002 (1)

K.J. Mendham, J.W.G Tisch, M.B. Mason, N. Hay, R.A. Smith, and J.P. Marangos, “Multi-keV Proton Energies from Exploding Hydrogen Clusters,” J. Phys. B 35, 663 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (4)

K.J. Mendham, N. Hay, M.B. Mason, J.W.G. Tisch, and J.P. Marangos, “Cluster Size Distribution Effects in Laser-Cluster Interaction Experiments,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 055201 (2001).
[Crossref]

M. Schnürer, S. Ter-Avetisyan, H. Stiel, U. Vogt, W. Radloff, M. Kalashnikov, W. Sandner, and P.V. Nickles, “Influence of Laser Pulse Width on Absolute EUV-Yield from Xe Clusters,” Eur. Phys. J. D 14, 331 (2001).
[Crossref]

V. Kumarappan, M. Krishnamurthy, D. Mathur, and L.C. Tribedi, “Effect of Laser Polarisation on X-Ray Emission from Arn (n=200-104) Clusters in Intense Laser Fields,” Phys. Rev. A 63, 023203 (2001).
[Crossref]

V. Kumarappan, M. Krishnamurthy, and D. Mathur, “Asymmetric High-Energy Ion Emission from Argon Clusters in Intense Laser Fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 085005 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (6)

T. Auguste, P. D’Oliveĭra, S. Hulin, P. Monot, J. Abdallah, Jr, A.Ya. Faenov, I.Yu. Skobelev, A.I. Magunov, and T.A. Pikuz, “The Role of the Prepulse in Cluster Heating by a High-Power Femtosecond Laser Pulse,” JETP Letters,  72, 38 (2000).
[Crossref]

E. Springate, N. Hay, J.W.G. Tisch, M.B. Mason, T. Ditmire, J.P. Marangos, and M.H.R. Hutchinson, “Enhanced Explosion of Atomic Clusters Irradiated by a Sequence of Two High-Intensity laser Pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 044101 (2000).
[Crossref]

T. Mocek, C.M. Kim, H.J. Shin, D.G. Lee, Y.H. Cha, K.H. Kong, and C.H. Nam, “Soft X-Ray Emission from Small-Sized Ne Clusters Heated by Intense, Femtosecond Laser Pulses,” Phys. Rev. E 62, 4461 (2000).
[Crossref]

E. Parra, I. Alexeev, J. Fan, K.Y. Kim, S.J. McNaught, and H.M. Milchberg, “X-Ray and Extreme Ultraviolet Emission Induced by Variable Pulse-Width Irradiation of Ar and Kr Clusters and Droplets,” Phys. Rev. E 62, R5931 (2000).
[Crossref]

E. Springate, N. Hay, J.W.G. Tisch, M.B. Mason, T. Ditmire, M.H.R. Hutchinson, and J P. Marangos, “Explosion of Atomic Clusters Irradiated by High-Intensity Laser Pulses: Scaling of Ion Energies with Cluster and Laser parameters,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 063201 (2000).
[Crossref]

J. Zweiback, T. Ditmire, and M.D. Perry, “Resonance in Scattering and Absorption from Large Noble Gas Clusters,” Opt. Express 6, No.12, 236 (2000) http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-6-12-236
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1999 (4)

J.W.G. Tisch, N. Hay, E. Springate, E.T. Gumbrell, M.H.R. Hutchinson, and J.P. Marangos, “Measurements of Ion Energies from the Explosion of Large Hydrogen Iodide Clusters Irradiated by Intense Femtosecond Laser Pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 60, 3076 (1999).
[Crossref]

T. Ditmire, J. Zweiback, V.P. Yanovsky, T.E. Cowan, G. Hays, and K.B. Wharton, “Nuclear Fusion from Explosions of Femtosecond Laser-Heated Deuterium Clusters,” Nature (London)  398, 489 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. Zweiback, T. Ditmire, and M.D. Perry, “Femtosecond Time-Resolved Studies of the Dynamics of Noble-Gas Cluster Explosions,” Phys. Rev. A 59, R3166 (1999).
[Crossref]

P.A. Golovinski, “Laser Wavelength Dependence for Strong-Field-Induced Excitation in Clusters,” Laser Phys. 9, 1048 (1999).

1998 (1)

T. Ditmire, E. Springate, J.W.G. Tisch, Y.L. Shao, M.B. Mason, N. Hay, J.P. Marangos, and M.H.R. Hutchinson, “Explosion of Atomic Clusters Heated by High-Intensity Femtosecond Laser Pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 57, 369 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (2)

T. Ditmire, R.A. Smith, J.W.G. Tisch, and M.H.R. Hutchinson, “High Intensity Laser Absorption by Gases of Atomic Clusters,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3121 (1997).
[Crossref]

T. Ditmire, J.W.G. Tisch, E. Springate, M.B. Mason, N. Hay, R.A. Smith, J.P. Marangos, and M.H.R. Hutchinson, “High-Energy Ions Produced in Explosions of Superheated Atomic Clusters,” Nature 386, 54 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (2)

T. Ditmire, T. Donnelly, A.M. Rubenchik, R.W. Falcone, and M.D. Perry, “Interaction of Intense Laser Pulses with Atomic Clusters,” Phys. Rev. A 53, 3379 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y.L. Shao, T. Ditmire, J.W.G. Tisch, E. Springate, J.P. Marangos, and M.H.R. Hutchinson, “Multi-keV Electron Generation in the Interaction of Intense Laser Pulses with Xe Clusters,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3343 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Abdallah, Jr, J.

T. Auguste, P. D’Oliveĭra, S. Hulin, P. Monot, J. Abdallah, Jr, A.Ya. Faenov, I.Yu. Skobelev, A.I. Magunov, and T.A. Pikuz, “The Role of the Prepulse in Cluster Heating by a High-Power Femtosecond Laser Pulse,” JETP Letters,  72, 38 (2000).
[Crossref]

Alexeev, I.

E. Parra, I. Alexeev, J. Fan, K.Y. Kim, S.J. McNaught, and H.M. Milchberg, “X-Ray and Extreme Ultraviolet Emission Induced by Variable Pulse-Width Irradiation of Ar and Kr Clusters and Droplets,” Phys. Rev. E 62, R5931 (2000).
[Crossref]

Auguste, T.

T. Auguste, P. D’Oliveĭra, S. Hulin, P. Monot, J. Abdallah, Jr, A.Ya. Faenov, I.Yu. Skobelev, A.I. Magunov, and T.A. Pikuz, “The Role of the Prepulse in Cluster Heating by a High-Power Femtosecond Laser Pulse,” JETP Letters,  72, 38 (2000).
[Crossref]

Cha, Y.H.

T. Mocek, C.M. Kim, H.J. Shin, D.G. Lee, Y.H. Cha, K.H. Kong, and C.H. Nam, “Soft X-Ray Emission from Small-Sized Ne Clusters Heated by Intense, Femtosecond Laser Pulses,” Phys. Rev. E 62, 4461 (2000).
[Crossref]

Cowan, T.E.

T. Ditmire, J. Zweiback, V.P. Yanovsky, T.E. Cowan, G. Hays, and K.B. Wharton, “Nuclear Fusion from Explosions of Femtosecond Laser-Heated Deuterium Clusters,” Nature (London)  398, 489 (1999).
[Crossref]

D’Oliveira, P.

T. Auguste, P. D’Oliveĭra, S. Hulin, P. Monot, J. Abdallah, Jr, A.Ya. Faenov, I.Yu. Skobelev, A.I. Magunov, and T.A. Pikuz, “The Role of the Prepulse in Cluster Heating by a High-Power Femtosecond Laser Pulse,” JETP Letters,  72, 38 (2000).
[Crossref]

Ditmire, T.

E. Springate, N. Hay, J.W.G. Tisch, M.B. Mason, T. Ditmire, J.P. Marangos, and M.H.R. Hutchinson, “Enhanced Explosion of Atomic Clusters Irradiated by a Sequence of Two High-Intensity laser Pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 044101 (2000).
[Crossref]

J. Zweiback, T. Ditmire, and M.D. Perry, “Resonance in Scattering and Absorption from Large Noble Gas Clusters,” Opt. Express 6, No.12, 236 (2000) http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-6-12-236
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Springate, N. Hay, J.W.G. Tisch, M.B. Mason, T. Ditmire, M.H.R. Hutchinson, and J P. Marangos, “Explosion of Atomic Clusters Irradiated by High-Intensity Laser Pulses: Scaling of Ion Energies with Cluster and Laser parameters,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 063201 (2000).
[Crossref]

J. Zweiback, T. Ditmire, and M.D. Perry, “Femtosecond Time-Resolved Studies of the Dynamics of Noble-Gas Cluster Explosions,” Phys. Rev. A 59, R3166 (1999).
[Crossref]

T. Ditmire, J. Zweiback, V.P. Yanovsky, T.E. Cowan, G. Hays, and K.B. Wharton, “Nuclear Fusion from Explosions of Femtosecond Laser-Heated Deuterium Clusters,” Nature (London)  398, 489 (1999).
[Crossref]

T. Ditmire, E. Springate, J.W.G. Tisch, Y.L. Shao, M.B. Mason, N. Hay, J.P. Marangos, and M.H.R. Hutchinson, “Explosion of Atomic Clusters Heated by High-Intensity Femtosecond Laser Pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 57, 369 (1998).
[Crossref]

T. Ditmire, R.A. Smith, J.W.G. Tisch, and M.H.R. Hutchinson, “High Intensity Laser Absorption by Gases of Atomic Clusters,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3121 (1997).
[Crossref]

T. Ditmire, J.W.G. Tisch, E. Springate, M.B. Mason, N. Hay, R.A. Smith, J.P. Marangos, and M.H.R. Hutchinson, “High-Energy Ions Produced in Explosions of Superheated Atomic Clusters,” Nature 386, 54 (1997).
[Crossref]

Y.L. Shao, T. Ditmire, J.W.G. Tisch, E. Springate, J.P. Marangos, and M.H.R. Hutchinson, “Multi-keV Electron Generation in the Interaction of Intense Laser Pulses with Xe Clusters,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3343 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Ditmire, T. Donnelly, A.M. Rubenchik, R.W. Falcone, and M.D. Perry, “Interaction of Intense Laser Pulses with Atomic Clusters,” Phys. Rev. A 53, 3379 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Donnelly, T.

T. Ditmire, T. Donnelly, A.M. Rubenchik, R.W. Falcone, and M.D. Perry, “Interaction of Intense Laser Pulses with Atomic Clusters,” Phys. Rev. A 53, 3379 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Faenov, A.Ya.

T. Auguste, P. D’Oliveĭra, S. Hulin, P. Monot, J. Abdallah, Jr, A.Ya. Faenov, I.Yu. Skobelev, A.I. Magunov, and T.A. Pikuz, “The Role of the Prepulse in Cluster Heating by a High-Power Femtosecond Laser Pulse,” JETP Letters,  72, 38 (2000).
[Crossref]

Falcone, R.W.

T. Ditmire, T. Donnelly, A.M. Rubenchik, R.W. Falcone, and M.D. Perry, “Interaction of Intense Laser Pulses with Atomic Clusters,” Phys. Rev. A 53, 3379 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fan, J.

E. Parra, I. Alexeev, J. Fan, K.Y. Kim, S.J. McNaught, and H.M. Milchberg, “X-Ray and Extreme Ultraviolet Emission Induced by Variable Pulse-Width Irradiation of Ar and Kr Clusters and Droplets,” Phys. Rev. E 62, R5931 (2000).
[Crossref]

Golovinski, P.A.

P.A. Golovinski, “Laser Wavelength Dependence for Strong-Field-Induced Excitation in Clusters,” Laser Phys. 9, 1048 (1999).

Gumbrell, E.T.

J.W.G. Tisch, N. Hay, E. Springate, E.T. Gumbrell, M.H.R. Hutchinson, and J.P. Marangos, “Measurements of Ion Energies from the Explosion of Large Hydrogen Iodide Clusters Irradiated by Intense Femtosecond Laser Pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 60, 3076 (1999).
[Crossref]

Hagena, O.F.

O.F. Hagena, in Rarefied Gas Dynamics, edited by H. Oguchi (University of Tokyo, Tokyo, 1984), pp. 721–732.

Hay, N.

K.J. Mendham, J.W.G Tisch, M.B. Mason, N. Hay, R.A. Smith, and J.P. Marangos, “Multi-keV Proton Energies from Exploding Hydrogen Clusters,” J. Phys. B 35, 663 (2002).
[Crossref]

K.J. Mendham, N. Hay, M.B. Mason, J.W.G. Tisch, and J.P. Marangos, “Cluster Size Distribution Effects in Laser-Cluster Interaction Experiments,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 055201 (2001).
[Crossref]

E. Springate, N. Hay, J.W.G. Tisch, M.B. Mason, T. Ditmire, M.H.R. Hutchinson, and J P. Marangos, “Explosion of Atomic Clusters Irradiated by High-Intensity Laser Pulses: Scaling of Ion Energies with Cluster and Laser parameters,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 063201 (2000).
[Crossref]

E. Springate, N. Hay, J.W.G. Tisch, M.B. Mason, T. Ditmire, J.P. Marangos, and M.H.R. Hutchinson, “Enhanced Explosion of Atomic Clusters Irradiated by a Sequence of Two High-Intensity laser Pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 044101 (2000).
[Crossref]

J.W.G. Tisch, N. Hay, E. Springate, E.T. Gumbrell, M.H.R. Hutchinson, and J.P. Marangos, “Measurements of Ion Energies from the Explosion of Large Hydrogen Iodide Clusters Irradiated by Intense Femtosecond Laser Pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 60, 3076 (1999).
[Crossref]

T. Ditmire, E. Springate, J.W.G. Tisch, Y.L. Shao, M.B. Mason, N. Hay, J.P. Marangos, and M.H.R. Hutchinson, “Explosion of Atomic Clusters Heated by High-Intensity Femtosecond Laser Pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 57, 369 (1998).
[Crossref]

T. Ditmire, J.W.G. Tisch, E. Springate, M.B. Mason, N. Hay, R.A. Smith, J.P. Marangos, and M.H.R. Hutchinson, “High-Energy Ions Produced in Explosions of Superheated Atomic Clusters,” Nature 386, 54 (1997).
[Crossref]

Hays, G.

T. Ditmire, J. Zweiback, V.P. Yanovsky, T.E. Cowan, G. Hays, and K.B. Wharton, “Nuclear Fusion from Explosions of Femtosecond Laser-Heated Deuterium Clusters,” Nature (London)  398, 489 (1999).
[Crossref]

Hulin, S.

T. Auguste, P. D’Oliveĭra, S. Hulin, P. Monot, J. Abdallah, Jr, A.Ya. Faenov, I.Yu. Skobelev, A.I. Magunov, and T.A. Pikuz, “The Role of the Prepulse in Cluster Heating by a High-Power Femtosecond Laser Pulse,” JETP Letters,  72, 38 (2000).
[Crossref]

Hutchinson, M.H.R.

E. Springate, N. Hay, J.W.G. Tisch, M.B. Mason, T. Ditmire, J.P. Marangos, and M.H.R. Hutchinson, “Enhanced Explosion of Atomic Clusters Irradiated by a Sequence of Two High-Intensity laser Pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 044101 (2000).
[Crossref]

E. Springate, N. Hay, J.W.G. Tisch, M.B. Mason, T. Ditmire, M.H.R. Hutchinson, and J P. Marangos, “Explosion of Atomic Clusters Irradiated by High-Intensity Laser Pulses: Scaling of Ion Energies with Cluster and Laser parameters,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 063201 (2000).
[Crossref]

J.W.G. Tisch, N. Hay, E. Springate, E.T. Gumbrell, M.H.R. Hutchinson, and J.P. Marangos, “Measurements of Ion Energies from the Explosion of Large Hydrogen Iodide Clusters Irradiated by Intense Femtosecond Laser Pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 60, 3076 (1999).
[Crossref]

T. Ditmire, E. Springate, J.W.G. Tisch, Y.L. Shao, M.B. Mason, N. Hay, J.P. Marangos, and M.H.R. Hutchinson, “Explosion of Atomic Clusters Heated by High-Intensity Femtosecond Laser Pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 57, 369 (1998).
[Crossref]

T. Ditmire, J.W.G. Tisch, E. Springate, M.B. Mason, N. Hay, R.A. Smith, J.P. Marangos, and M.H.R. Hutchinson, “High-Energy Ions Produced in Explosions of Superheated Atomic Clusters,” Nature 386, 54 (1997).
[Crossref]

T. Ditmire, R.A. Smith, J.W.G. Tisch, and M.H.R. Hutchinson, “High Intensity Laser Absorption by Gases of Atomic Clusters,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3121 (1997).
[Crossref]

Y.L. Shao, T. Ditmire, J.W.G. Tisch, E. Springate, J.P. Marangos, and M.H.R. Hutchinson, “Multi-keV Electron Generation in the Interaction of Intense Laser Pulses with Xe Clusters,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3343 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kalashnikov, M.

M. Schnürer, S. Ter-Avetisyan, H. Stiel, U. Vogt, W. Radloff, M. Kalashnikov, W. Sandner, and P.V. Nickles, “Influence of Laser Pulse Width on Absolute EUV-Yield from Xe Clusters,” Eur. Phys. J. D 14, 331 (2001).
[Crossref]

Kim, C.M.

T. Mocek, C.M. Kim, H.J. Shin, D.G. Lee, Y.H. Cha, K.H. Kong, and C.H. Nam, “Soft X-Ray Emission from Small-Sized Ne Clusters Heated by Intense, Femtosecond Laser Pulses,” Phys. Rev. E 62, 4461 (2000).
[Crossref]

Kim, K.Y.

E. Parra, I. Alexeev, J. Fan, K.Y. Kim, S.J. McNaught, and H.M. Milchberg, “X-Ray and Extreme Ultraviolet Emission Induced by Variable Pulse-Width Irradiation of Ar and Kr Clusters and Droplets,” Phys. Rev. E 62, R5931 (2000).
[Crossref]

Kong, K.H.

T. Mocek, C.M. Kim, H.J. Shin, D.G. Lee, Y.H. Cha, K.H. Kong, and C.H. Nam, “Soft X-Ray Emission from Small-Sized Ne Clusters Heated by Intense, Femtosecond Laser Pulses,” Phys. Rev. E 62, 4461 (2000).
[Crossref]

Krishnamurthy, M.

V. Kumarappan, M. Krishnamurthy, D. Mathur, and L.C. Tribedi, “Effect of Laser Polarisation on X-Ray Emission from Arn (n=200-104) Clusters in Intense Laser Fields,” Phys. Rev. A 63, 023203 (2001).
[Crossref]

V. Kumarappan, M. Krishnamurthy, and D. Mathur, “Asymmetric High-Energy Ion Emission from Argon Clusters in Intense Laser Fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 085005 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kumarappan, V.

V. Kumarappan, M. Krishnamurthy, and D. Mathur, “Asymmetric High-Energy Ion Emission from Argon Clusters in Intense Laser Fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 085005 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Kumarappan, M. Krishnamurthy, D. Mathur, and L.C. Tribedi, “Effect of Laser Polarisation on X-Ray Emission from Arn (n=200-104) Clusters in Intense Laser Fields,” Phys. Rev. A 63, 023203 (2001).
[Crossref]

Lee, D.G.

T. Mocek, C.M. Kim, H.J. Shin, D.G. Lee, Y.H. Cha, K.H. Kong, and C.H. Nam, “Soft X-Ray Emission from Small-Sized Ne Clusters Heated by Intense, Femtosecond Laser Pulses,” Phys. Rev. E 62, 4461 (2000).
[Crossref]

Magunov, A.I.

T. Auguste, P. D’Oliveĭra, S. Hulin, P. Monot, J. Abdallah, Jr, A.Ya. Faenov, I.Yu. Skobelev, A.I. Magunov, and T.A. Pikuz, “The Role of the Prepulse in Cluster Heating by a High-Power Femtosecond Laser Pulse,” JETP Letters,  72, 38 (2000).
[Crossref]

Marangos, J P.

E. Springate, N. Hay, J.W.G. Tisch, M.B. Mason, T. Ditmire, M.H.R. Hutchinson, and J P. Marangos, “Explosion of Atomic Clusters Irradiated by High-Intensity Laser Pulses: Scaling of Ion Energies with Cluster and Laser parameters,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 063201 (2000).
[Crossref]

Marangos, J.P.

K.J. Mendham, J.W.G Tisch, M.B. Mason, N. Hay, R.A. Smith, and J.P. Marangos, “Multi-keV Proton Energies from Exploding Hydrogen Clusters,” J. Phys. B 35, 663 (2002).
[Crossref]

K.J. Mendham, N. Hay, M.B. Mason, J.W.G. Tisch, and J.P. Marangos, “Cluster Size Distribution Effects in Laser-Cluster Interaction Experiments,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 055201 (2001).
[Crossref]

E. Springate, N. Hay, J.W.G. Tisch, M.B. Mason, T. Ditmire, J.P. Marangos, and M.H.R. Hutchinson, “Enhanced Explosion of Atomic Clusters Irradiated by a Sequence of Two High-Intensity laser Pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 044101 (2000).
[Crossref]

J.W.G. Tisch, N. Hay, E. Springate, E.T. Gumbrell, M.H.R. Hutchinson, and J.P. Marangos, “Measurements of Ion Energies from the Explosion of Large Hydrogen Iodide Clusters Irradiated by Intense Femtosecond Laser Pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 60, 3076 (1999).
[Crossref]

T. Ditmire, E. Springate, J.W.G. Tisch, Y.L. Shao, M.B. Mason, N. Hay, J.P. Marangos, and M.H.R. Hutchinson, “Explosion of Atomic Clusters Heated by High-Intensity Femtosecond Laser Pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 57, 369 (1998).
[Crossref]

T. Ditmire, J.W.G. Tisch, E. Springate, M.B. Mason, N. Hay, R.A. Smith, J.P. Marangos, and M.H.R. Hutchinson, “High-Energy Ions Produced in Explosions of Superheated Atomic Clusters,” Nature 386, 54 (1997).
[Crossref]

Y.L. Shao, T. Ditmire, J.W.G. Tisch, E. Springate, J.P. Marangos, and M.H.R. Hutchinson, “Multi-keV Electron Generation in the Interaction of Intense Laser Pulses with Xe Clusters,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3343 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mason, M.B.

K.J. Mendham, J.W.G Tisch, M.B. Mason, N. Hay, R.A. Smith, and J.P. Marangos, “Multi-keV Proton Energies from Exploding Hydrogen Clusters,” J. Phys. B 35, 663 (2002).
[Crossref]

K.J. Mendham, N. Hay, M.B. Mason, J.W.G. Tisch, and J.P. Marangos, “Cluster Size Distribution Effects in Laser-Cluster Interaction Experiments,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 055201 (2001).
[Crossref]

E. Springate, N. Hay, J.W.G. Tisch, M.B. Mason, T. Ditmire, M.H.R. Hutchinson, and J P. Marangos, “Explosion of Atomic Clusters Irradiated by High-Intensity Laser Pulses: Scaling of Ion Energies with Cluster and Laser parameters,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 063201 (2000).
[Crossref]

E. Springate, N. Hay, J.W.G. Tisch, M.B. Mason, T. Ditmire, J.P. Marangos, and M.H.R. Hutchinson, “Enhanced Explosion of Atomic Clusters Irradiated by a Sequence of Two High-Intensity laser Pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 044101 (2000).
[Crossref]

T. Ditmire, E. Springate, J.W.G. Tisch, Y.L. Shao, M.B. Mason, N. Hay, J.P. Marangos, and M.H.R. Hutchinson, “Explosion of Atomic Clusters Heated by High-Intensity Femtosecond Laser Pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 57, 369 (1998).
[Crossref]

T. Ditmire, J.W.G. Tisch, E. Springate, M.B. Mason, N. Hay, R.A. Smith, J.P. Marangos, and M.H.R. Hutchinson, “High-Energy Ions Produced in Explosions of Superheated Atomic Clusters,” Nature 386, 54 (1997).
[Crossref]

Mathur, D.

V. Kumarappan, M. Krishnamurthy, D. Mathur, and L.C. Tribedi, “Effect of Laser Polarisation on X-Ray Emission from Arn (n=200-104) Clusters in Intense Laser Fields,” Phys. Rev. A 63, 023203 (2001).
[Crossref]

V. Kumarappan, M. Krishnamurthy, and D. Mathur, “Asymmetric High-Energy Ion Emission from Argon Clusters in Intense Laser Fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 085005 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McNaught, S.J.

E. Parra, I. Alexeev, J. Fan, K.Y. Kim, S.J. McNaught, and H.M. Milchberg, “X-Ray and Extreme Ultraviolet Emission Induced by Variable Pulse-Width Irradiation of Ar and Kr Clusters and Droplets,” Phys. Rev. E 62, R5931 (2000).
[Crossref]

Mendham, K.J.

K.J. Mendham, J.W.G Tisch, M.B. Mason, N. Hay, R.A. Smith, and J.P. Marangos, “Multi-keV Proton Energies from Exploding Hydrogen Clusters,” J. Phys. B 35, 663 (2002).
[Crossref]

K.J. Mendham, N. Hay, M.B. Mason, J.W.G. Tisch, and J.P. Marangos, “Cluster Size Distribution Effects in Laser-Cluster Interaction Experiments,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 055201 (2001).
[Crossref]

K.J. Mendham, “Energetic Cluster Explosions in Intense Femtosecond Laser Fields,” PhD. Thesis, University of London (2002).

Milchberg, H.M.

E. Parra, I. Alexeev, J. Fan, K.Y. Kim, S.J. McNaught, and H.M. Milchberg, “X-Ray and Extreme Ultraviolet Emission Induced by Variable Pulse-Width Irradiation of Ar and Kr Clusters and Droplets,” Phys. Rev. E 62, R5931 (2000).
[Crossref]

Mocek, T.

T. Mocek, C.M. Kim, H.J. Shin, D.G. Lee, Y.H. Cha, K.H. Kong, and C.H. Nam, “Soft X-Ray Emission from Small-Sized Ne Clusters Heated by Intense, Femtosecond Laser Pulses,” Phys. Rev. E 62, 4461 (2000).
[Crossref]

Monot, P.

T. Auguste, P. D’Oliveĭra, S. Hulin, P. Monot, J. Abdallah, Jr, A.Ya. Faenov, I.Yu. Skobelev, A.I. Magunov, and T.A. Pikuz, “The Role of the Prepulse in Cluster Heating by a High-Power Femtosecond Laser Pulse,” JETP Letters,  72, 38 (2000).
[Crossref]

Nam, C.H.

T. Mocek, C.M. Kim, H.J. Shin, D.G. Lee, Y.H. Cha, K.H. Kong, and C.H. Nam, “Soft X-Ray Emission from Small-Sized Ne Clusters Heated by Intense, Femtosecond Laser Pulses,” Phys. Rev. E 62, 4461 (2000).
[Crossref]

Nickles, P.V.

M. Schnürer, S. Ter-Avetisyan, H. Stiel, U. Vogt, W. Radloff, M. Kalashnikov, W. Sandner, and P.V. Nickles, “Influence of Laser Pulse Width on Absolute EUV-Yield from Xe Clusters,” Eur. Phys. J. D 14, 331 (2001).
[Crossref]

Parra, E.

E. Parra, I. Alexeev, J. Fan, K.Y. Kim, S.J. McNaught, and H.M. Milchberg, “X-Ray and Extreme Ultraviolet Emission Induced by Variable Pulse-Width Irradiation of Ar and Kr Clusters and Droplets,” Phys. Rev. E 62, R5931 (2000).
[Crossref]

Perry, M.D.

J. Zweiback, T. Ditmire, and M.D. Perry, “Resonance in Scattering and Absorption from Large Noble Gas Clusters,” Opt. Express 6, No.12, 236 (2000) http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-6-12-236
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Zweiback, T. Ditmire, and M.D. Perry, “Femtosecond Time-Resolved Studies of the Dynamics of Noble-Gas Cluster Explosions,” Phys. Rev. A 59, R3166 (1999).
[Crossref]

T. Ditmire, T. Donnelly, A.M. Rubenchik, R.W. Falcone, and M.D. Perry, “Interaction of Intense Laser Pulses with Atomic Clusters,” Phys. Rev. A 53, 3379 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pikuz, T.A.

T. Auguste, P. D’Oliveĭra, S. Hulin, P. Monot, J. Abdallah, Jr, A.Ya. Faenov, I.Yu. Skobelev, A.I. Magunov, and T.A. Pikuz, “The Role of the Prepulse in Cluster Heating by a High-Power Femtosecond Laser Pulse,” JETP Letters,  72, 38 (2000).
[Crossref]

Radloff, W.

M. Schnürer, S. Ter-Avetisyan, H. Stiel, U. Vogt, W. Radloff, M. Kalashnikov, W. Sandner, and P.V. Nickles, “Influence of Laser Pulse Width on Absolute EUV-Yield from Xe Clusters,” Eur. Phys. J. D 14, 331 (2001).
[Crossref]

Rubenchik, A.M.

T. Ditmire, T. Donnelly, A.M. Rubenchik, R.W. Falcone, and M.D. Perry, “Interaction of Intense Laser Pulses with Atomic Clusters,” Phys. Rev. A 53, 3379 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sandner, W.

M. Schnürer, S. Ter-Avetisyan, H. Stiel, U. Vogt, W. Radloff, M. Kalashnikov, W. Sandner, and P.V. Nickles, “Influence of Laser Pulse Width on Absolute EUV-Yield from Xe Clusters,” Eur. Phys. J. D 14, 331 (2001).
[Crossref]

Schnürer, M.

M. Schnürer, S. Ter-Avetisyan, H. Stiel, U. Vogt, W. Radloff, M. Kalashnikov, W. Sandner, and P.V. Nickles, “Influence of Laser Pulse Width on Absolute EUV-Yield from Xe Clusters,” Eur. Phys. J. D 14, 331 (2001).
[Crossref]

Shao, Y.L.

T. Ditmire, E. Springate, J.W.G. Tisch, Y.L. Shao, M.B. Mason, N. Hay, J.P. Marangos, and M.H.R. Hutchinson, “Explosion of Atomic Clusters Heated by High-Intensity Femtosecond Laser Pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 57, 369 (1998).
[Crossref]

Y.L. Shao, T. Ditmire, J.W.G. Tisch, E. Springate, J.P. Marangos, and M.H.R. Hutchinson, “Multi-keV Electron Generation in the Interaction of Intense Laser Pulses with Xe Clusters,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3343 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shin, H.J.

T. Mocek, C.M. Kim, H.J. Shin, D.G. Lee, Y.H. Cha, K.H. Kong, and C.H. Nam, “Soft X-Ray Emission from Small-Sized Ne Clusters Heated by Intense, Femtosecond Laser Pulses,” Phys. Rev. E 62, 4461 (2000).
[Crossref]

Skobelev, I.Yu.

T. Auguste, P. D’Oliveĭra, S. Hulin, P. Monot, J. Abdallah, Jr, A.Ya. Faenov, I.Yu. Skobelev, A.I. Magunov, and T.A. Pikuz, “The Role of the Prepulse in Cluster Heating by a High-Power Femtosecond Laser Pulse,” JETP Letters,  72, 38 (2000).
[Crossref]

Smith, R.A.

K.J. Mendham, J.W.G Tisch, M.B. Mason, N. Hay, R.A. Smith, and J.P. Marangos, “Multi-keV Proton Energies from Exploding Hydrogen Clusters,” J. Phys. B 35, 663 (2002).
[Crossref]

T. Ditmire, R.A. Smith, J.W.G. Tisch, and M.H.R. Hutchinson, “High Intensity Laser Absorption by Gases of Atomic Clusters,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3121 (1997).
[Crossref]

T. Ditmire, J.W.G. Tisch, E. Springate, M.B. Mason, N. Hay, R.A. Smith, J.P. Marangos, and M.H.R. Hutchinson, “High-Energy Ions Produced in Explosions of Superheated Atomic Clusters,” Nature 386, 54 (1997).
[Crossref]

Springate, E.

E. Springate, N. Hay, J.W.G. Tisch, M.B. Mason, T. Ditmire, M.H.R. Hutchinson, and J P. Marangos, “Explosion of Atomic Clusters Irradiated by High-Intensity Laser Pulses: Scaling of Ion Energies with Cluster and Laser parameters,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 063201 (2000).
[Crossref]

E. Springate, N. Hay, J.W.G. Tisch, M.B. Mason, T. Ditmire, J.P. Marangos, and M.H.R. Hutchinson, “Enhanced Explosion of Atomic Clusters Irradiated by a Sequence of Two High-Intensity laser Pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 044101 (2000).
[Crossref]

J.W.G. Tisch, N. Hay, E. Springate, E.T. Gumbrell, M.H.R. Hutchinson, and J.P. Marangos, “Measurements of Ion Energies from the Explosion of Large Hydrogen Iodide Clusters Irradiated by Intense Femtosecond Laser Pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 60, 3076 (1999).
[Crossref]

T. Ditmire, E. Springate, J.W.G. Tisch, Y.L. Shao, M.B. Mason, N. Hay, J.P. Marangos, and M.H.R. Hutchinson, “Explosion of Atomic Clusters Heated by High-Intensity Femtosecond Laser Pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 57, 369 (1998).
[Crossref]

T. Ditmire, J.W.G. Tisch, E. Springate, M.B. Mason, N. Hay, R.A. Smith, J.P. Marangos, and M.H.R. Hutchinson, “High-Energy Ions Produced in Explosions of Superheated Atomic Clusters,” Nature 386, 54 (1997).
[Crossref]

Y.L. Shao, T. Ditmire, J.W.G. Tisch, E. Springate, J.P. Marangos, and M.H.R. Hutchinson, “Multi-keV Electron Generation in the Interaction of Intense Laser Pulses with Xe Clusters,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3343 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stiel, H.

M. Schnürer, S. Ter-Avetisyan, H. Stiel, U. Vogt, W. Radloff, M. Kalashnikov, W. Sandner, and P.V. Nickles, “Influence of Laser Pulse Width on Absolute EUV-Yield from Xe Clusters,” Eur. Phys. J. D 14, 331 (2001).
[Crossref]

Ter-Avetisyan, S.

M. Schnürer, S. Ter-Avetisyan, H. Stiel, U. Vogt, W. Radloff, M. Kalashnikov, W. Sandner, and P.V. Nickles, “Influence of Laser Pulse Width on Absolute EUV-Yield from Xe Clusters,” Eur. Phys. J. D 14, 331 (2001).
[Crossref]

Tisch, J.W.G

K.J. Mendham, J.W.G Tisch, M.B. Mason, N. Hay, R.A. Smith, and J.P. Marangos, “Multi-keV Proton Energies from Exploding Hydrogen Clusters,” J. Phys. B 35, 663 (2002).
[Crossref]

Tisch, J.W.G.

K.J. Mendham, N. Hay, M.B. Mason, J.W.G. Tisch, and J.P. Marangos, “Cluster Size Distribution Effects in Laser-Cluster Interaction Experiments,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 055201 (2001).
[Crossref]

E. Springate, N. Hay, J.W.G. Tisch, M.B. Mason, T. Ditmire, M.H.R. Hutchinson, and J P. Marangos, “Explosion of Atomic Clusters Irradiated by High-Intensity Laser Pulses: Scaling of Ion Energies with Cluster and Laser parameters,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 063201 (2000).
[Crossref]

E. Springate, N. Hay, J.W.G. Tisch, M.B. Mason, T. Ditmire, J.P. Marangos, and M.H.R. Hutchinson, “Enhanced Explosion of Atomic Clusters Irradiated by a Sequence of Two High-Intensity laser Pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 044101 (2000).
[Crossref]

J.W.G. Tisch, N. Hay, E. Springate, E.T. Gumbrell, M.H.R. Hutchinson, and J.P. Marangos, “Measurements of Ion Energies from the Explosion of Large Hydrogen Iodide Clusters Irradiated by Intense Femtosecond Laser Pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 60, 3076 (1999).
[Crossref]

T. Ditmire, E. Springate, J.W.G. Tisch, Y.L. Shao, M.B. Mason, N. Hay, J.P. Marangos, and M.H.R. Hutchinson, “Explosion of Atomic Clusters Heated by High-Intensity Femtosecond Laser Pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 57, 369 (1998).
[Crossref]

T. Ditmire, R.A. Smith, J.W.G. Tisch, and M.H.R. Hutchinson, “High Intensity Laser Absorption by Gases of Atomic Clusters,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3121 (1997).
[Crossref]

T. Ditmire, J.W.G. Tisch, E. Springate, M.B. Mason, N. Hay, R.A. Smith, J.P. Marangos, and M.H.R. Hutchinson, “High-Energy Ions Produced in Explosions of Superheated Atomic Clusters,” Nature 386, 54 (1997).
[Crossref]

Y.L. Shao, T. Ditmire, J.W.G. Tisch, E. Springate, J.P. Marangos, and M.H.R. Hutchinson, “Multi-keV Electron Generation in the Interaction of Intense Laser Pulses with Xe Clusters,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3343 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tribedi, L.C.

V. Kumarappan, M. Krishnamurthy, D. Mathur, and L.C. Tribedi, “Effect of Laser Polarisation on X-Ray Emission from Arn (n=200-104) Clusters in Intense Laser Fields,” Phys. Rev. A 63, 023203 (2001).
[Crossref]

Vogt, U.

M. Schnürer, S. Ter-Avetisyan, H. Stiel, U. Vogt, W. Radloff, M. Kalashnikov, W. Sandner, and P.V. Nickles, “Influence of Laser Pulse Width on Absolute EUV-Yield from Xe Clusters,” Eur. Phys. J. D 14, 331 (2001).
[Crossref]

Wharton, K.B.

T. Ditmire, J. Zweiback, V.P. Yanovsky, T.E. Cowan, G. Hays, and K.B. Wharton, “Nuclear Fusion from Explosions of Femtosecond Laser-Heated Deuterium Clusters,” Nature (London)  398, 489 (1999).
[Crossref]

Yanovsky, V.P.

T. Ditmire, J. Zweiback, V.P. Yanovsky, T.E. Cowan, G. Hays, and K.B. Wharton, “Nuclear Fusion from Explosions of Femtosecond Laser-Heated Deuterium Clusters,” Nature (London)  398, 489 (1999).
[Crossref]

Zweiback, J.

J. Zweiback, T. Ditmire, and M.D. Perry, “Resonance in Scattering and Absorption from Large Noble Gas Clusters,” Opt. Express 6, No.12, 236 (2000) http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-6-12-236
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Ditmire, J. Zweiback, V.P. Yanovsky, T.E. Cowan, G. Hays, and K.B. Wharton, “Nuclear Fusion from Explosions of Femtosecond Laser-Heated Deuterium Clusters,” Nature (London)  398, 489 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. Zweiback, T. Ditmire, and M.D. Perry, “Femtosecond Time-Resolved Studies of the Dynamics of Noble-Gas Cluster Explosions,” Phys. Rev. A 59, R3166 (1999).
[Crossref]

Eur. Phys. J. D (1)

M. Schnürer, S. Ter-Avetisyan, H. Stiel, U. Vogt, W. Radloff, M. Kalashnikov, W. Sandner, and P.V. Nickles, “Influence of Laser Pulse Width on Absolute EUV-Yield from Xe Clusters,” Eur. Phys. J. D 14, 331 (2001).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. B (1)

K.J. Mendham, J.W.G Tisch, M.B. Mason, N. Hay, R.A. Smith, and J.P. Marangos, “Multi-keV Proton Energies from Exploding Hydrogen Clusters,” J. Phys. B 35, 663 (2002).
[Crossref]

JETP Letters (1)

T. Auguste, P. D’Oliveĭra, S. Hulin, P. Monot, J. Abdallah, Jr, A.Ya. Faenov, I.Yu. Skobelev, A.I. Magunov, and T.A. Pikuz, “The Role of the Prepulse in Cluster Heating by a High-Power Femtosecond Laser Pulse,” JETP Letters,  72, 38 (2000).
[Crossref]

Laser Phys. (1)

P.A. Golovinski, “Laser Wavelength Dependence for Strong-Field-Induced Excitation in Clusters,” Laser Phys. 9, 1048 (1999).

Nature (2)

T. Ditmire, J.W.G. Tisch, E. Springate, M.B. Mason, N. Hay, R.A. Smith, J.P. Marangos, and M.H.R. Hutchinson, “High-Energy Ions Produced in Explosions of Superheated Atomic Clusters,” Nature 386, 54 (1997).
[Crossref]

T. Ditmire, J. Zweiback, V.P. Yanovsky, T.E. Cowan, G. Hays, and K.B. Wharton, “Nuclear Fusion from Explosions of Femtosecond Laser-Heated Deuterium Clusters,” Nature (London)  398, 489 (1999).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (1)

Phys. Rev. A (8)

J.W.G. Tisch, N. Hay, E. Springate, E.T. Gumbrell, M.H.R. Hutchinson, and J.P. Marangos, “Measurements of Ion Energies from the Explosion of Large Hydrogen Iodide Clusters Irradiated by Intense Femtosecond Laser Pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 60, 3076 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. Zweiback, T. Ditmire, and M.D. Perry, “Femtosecond Time-Resolved Studies of the Dynamics of Noble-Gas Cluster Explosions,” Phys. Rev. A 59, R3166 (1999).
[Crossref]

E. Springate, N. Hay, J.W.G. Tisch, M.B. Mason, T. Ditmire, M.H.R. Hutchinson, and J P. Marangos, “Explosion of Atomic Clusters Irradiated by High-Intensity Laser Pulses: Scaling of Ion Energies with Cluster and Laser parameters,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 063201 (2000).
[Crossref]

K.J. Mendham, N. Hay, M.B. Mason, J.W.G. Tisch, and J.P. Marangos, “Cluster Size Distribution Effects in Laser-Cluster Interaction Experiments,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 055201 (2001).
[Crossref]

T. Ditmire, T. Donnelly, A.M. Rubenchik, R.W. Falcone, and M.D. Perry, “Interaction of Intense Laser Pulses with Atomic Clusters,” Phys. Rev. A 53, 3379 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Ditmire, E. Springate, J.W.G. Tisch, Y.L. Shao, M.B. Mason, N. Hay, J.P. Marangos, and M.H.R. Hutchinson, “Explosion of Atomic Clusters Heated by High-Intensity Femtosecond Laser Pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 57, 369 (1998).
[Crossref]

V. Kumarappan, M. Krishnamurthy, D. Mathur, and L.C. Tribedi, “Effect of Laser Polarisation on X-Ray Emission from Arn (n=200-104) Clusters in Intense Laser Fields,” Phys. Rev. A 63, 023203 (2001).
[Crossref]

E. Springate, N. Hay, J.W.G. Tisch, M.B. Mason, T. Ditmire, J.P. Marangos, and M.H.R. Hutchinson, “Enhanced Explosion of Atomic Clusters Irradiated by a Sequence of Two High-Intensity laser Pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 044101 (2000).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. E (2)

T. Mocek, C.M. Kim, H.J. Shin, D.G. Lee, Y.H. Cha, K.H. Kong, and C.H. Nam, “Soft X-Ray Emission from Small-Sized Ne Clusters Heated by Intense, Femtosecond Laser Pulses,” Phys. Rev. E 62, 4461 (2000).
[Crossref]

E. Parra, I. Alexeev, J. Fan, K.Y. Kim, S.J. McNaught, and H.M. Milchberg, “X-Ray and Extreme Ultraviolet Emission Induced by Variable Pulse-Width Irradiation of Ar and Kr Clusters and Droplets,” Phys. Rev. E 62, R5931 (2000).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

T. Ditmire, R.A. Smith, J.W.G. Tisch, and M.H.R. Hutchinson, “High Intensity Laser Absorption by Gases of Atomic Clusters,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3121 (1997).
[Crossref]

Y.L. Shao, T. Ditmire, J.W.G. Tisch, E. Springate, J.P. Marangos, and M.H.R. Hutchinson, “Multi-keV Electron Generation in the Interaction of Intense Laser Pulses with Xe Clusters,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3343 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Kumarappan, M. Krishnamurthy, and D. Mathur, “Asymmetric High-Energy Ion Emission from Argon Clusters in Intense Laser Fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 085005 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (2)

K.J. Mendham, “Energetic Cluster Explosions in Intense Femtosecond Laser Fields,” PhD. Thesis, University of London (2002).

O.F. Hagena, in Rarefied Gas Dynamics, edited by H. Oguchi (University of Tokyo, Tokyo, 1984), pp. 721–732.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Temporal intensity profile of a 100 fs negatively chirped pulse from our laser system. The temporal profile has been determined by taking a Fourier Transform of the laser spectrum (shown inset) after the application of the grating phase function. A positively chirped pulse of the same duration would be a mirror image of this profile, with the shoulder trailing the main laser pulse in time.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Experimental results showing the maximum ion energy as a function of pulse duration for a laser pulse with a shoulder on the rising (solid squares) and falling (open circles) edge for (a) 12,500 atom Xe clusters and (b) 2,800 atom Ar clusters. The peak laser intensity was kept constant at 1×1016 Wcm-2. The dotted and dashed lines are polynomial fits to the experimental data.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Numerical simulations conducted using an asymmetric pulse shape for (a) 12,500 atom Xe clusters and (b) 2,800 atom Ar clusters for a peak laser intensity of 1×1016 Wcm-2. The results show the maximum ion energy as a function of pulse duration for a laser pulse with a shoulder on the rising edge (dotted line), on the falling edge (dashed line) and a Gaussian laser pulse (solid line).

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