Abstract

We present results of experiments and simulations of the interaction between a high intensity, femtosecond laser pulse and an atomic cluster that show the temporal profile of the laser pulse plays a crucial role in the expansion dynamics of the cluster. Experiments were conducted in rare gas clusters of Xe, Kr and Ar of radius 30 – 80 Å with a laser pulse of duration 70 – 240 fs and a peak intensity of ~1016 Wcm-2. The shape of the laser pulse was a Gaussian with a shoulder of intensity 0.02 times the peak pulse intensity appearing on either the rising or falling edge of the main pulse depending on the sign of chirp applied to the laser pulse. Significant differences (up to a factor of 2) in the energies of the ions obtained from the laser-cluster interaction were measured when the shape of the laser pulse was varied.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. T. Ditmire, R.A. Smith, J.W.G. Tisch, M.H.R. Hutchinson, ???High Intensity Laser Absorption by Gases of Atomic Clusters,??? Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3121 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  2. Y.L. Shao, T. Ditmire, J.W.G. Tisch, E. Springate, J.P. Marangos, M.H.R. Hutchinson, ???Multi-keV Electron Generation in the Interaction of Intense Laser Pulses with Xe Clusters,??? Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3343 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. T. Ditmire, J.W.G. Tisch, E. Springate, M.B. Mason, N.Hay, R.A. Smith, J.P. Marangos, M.H.R. Hutchinson, ???High-Energy Ions Produced in Explosions of Superheated Atomic Clusters,??? Nature 386, 54 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  4. T. Ditmire, T. Donnelly, A.M. Rubenchik, R.W. Falcone, M.D. Perry, ???Interaction of Intense Laser Pulses with Atomic Clusters,??? Phys. Rev. A 53, 3379 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. T. Ditmire, J. Zweiback, V.P. Yanovsky, T.E. Cowan, G. Hays, K.B. Wharton, ???Nuclear Fusion from Explosions of Femtosecond Laser-Heated Deuterium Clusters,??? Nature (London) 398, 489 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  6. E. Parra, I. Alexeev, J. Fan, K.Y. Kim, S.J. McNaught, H.M. Milchberg, ???X-Ray and Extreme Ultraviolet Emission Induced by Variable Pulse-Width Irradiation of Ar and Kr Clusters and Droplets,??? Phys. Rev. E 62, R5931 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. Zweiback, T. Ditmire, M.D. Perry, ???Femtosecond Time-Resolved Studies of the Dynamics of Noble-Gas Cluster Explosions,??? Phys. Rev. A 59, R3166 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  8. E. Springate, N. Hay, J.W.G. Tisch, M.B. Mason, T. Ditmire, M.H.R. Hutchinson, J P. Marangos, ???Explosion of Atomic Clusters Irradiated by High-Intensity Laser Pulses: Scaling of Ion Energies with Cluster and Laser parameters,??? Phys. Rev. A 61, 063201 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  9. K.J. Mendham, N. Hay, M.B. Mason, J.W.G. Tisch, J.P. Marangos, ???Cluster Size Distribution Effects in Laser-Cluster Interaction Experiments,??? Phys. Rev. A 64, 055201 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. Zweiback, T. Ditmire, M.D. Perry, ???Resonance in Scattering and Absorption from Large Noble Gas Clusters,??? Opt. Express 6, No.12, 236 (2000) <a href="http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-6-12-236">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-6-12-236</a>
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. M. Schnürer, S. Ter-Avetisyan, H. Stiel, U. Vogt, W. Radloff, M. Kalashnikov, W. Sandner, P.V. Nickles, ???Influence of Laser Pulse Width on Absolute EUV-Yield from Xe Clusters,??? Eur. Phys. J. D 14, 331 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  12. T. Mocek, C.M. Kim, H.J. Shin, D.G. Lee, Y.H. Cha, K.H. Kong, C.H. Nam, ???Soft X-Ray Emission from Small-Sized Ne Clusters Heated by Intense, Femtosecond Laser Pulses,??? Phys. Rev. E 62, 4461 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  13. P.A. Golovinski, ???Laser Wavelength Dependence for Strong-Field-Induced Excitation in Clusters,??? Laser Phys. 9, 1048 (1999).
  14. T. Ditmire, E. Springate, J.W.G. Tisch, Y.L. Shao, M.B. Mason, N. Hay, J.P.Marangos, M.H.R. Hutchinson, ???Explosion of Atomic Clusters Heated by High-Intensity Femtosecond Laser Pulses,??? Phys. Rev. A 57, 369 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  15. V. Kumarappan, M. Krishnamurthy, D. Mathur, L.C. Tribedi, ???Effect of Laser Polarisation on X-Ray Emission from Arn (n=200-104) Clusters in Intense Laser Fields,??? Phys. Rev. A 63, 023203 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  16. V. Kumarappan, M. Krishnamurthy, D. Mathur, ???Asymmetric High-Energy Ion Emission from Argon Clusters in Intense Laser Fields,??? Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 085005 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. T. Auguste, P. D???Oliveira, S. Hulin, P. Monot, J. Abdallah, Jr, A.Ya. Faenov, I.Yu. Skobelev, A.I. Magunov, T.A. Pikuz, ???The Role of the Prepulse in Cluster Heating by a High-Power Femtosecond Laser Pulse,??? JETP Letters, 72, 38 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  18. E. Springate, N. Hay, J.W.G. Tisch, M.B. Mason, T. Ditmire, J.P. Marangos, M.H.R. Hutchinson, ???Enhanced Explosion of Atomic Clusters Irradiated by a Sequence of Two High-Intensity laser Pulses,??? Phys. Rev. A 61, 044101 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  19. K.J. Mendham, J.W.G Tisch, M.B. Mason, N.Hay, R.A. Smith, J.P. Marangos, ???Multi-keV Proton Energies from Exploding Hydrogen Clusters,??? J. Phys. B 35, 663 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  20. O.F. Hagena, in Rarefied Gas Dynamics, edited by H. Oguchi (University of Tokyo, Tokyo, 1984), pp. 721-732.
  21. J.W.G. Tisch, N.Hay, E. Springate, E.T. Gumbrell, M.H.R. Hutchinson, J.P. Marangos, ???Measurements of Ion Energies from the Explosion of Large Hydrogen Iodide Clusters Irradiated by Intense Femtosecond Laser Pulses,??? Phys. Rev. A 60, 3076, (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  22. K.J. Mendham, ???Energetic Cluster Explosions in Intense Femtosecond Laser Fields,??? PhD. Thesis, University of London (2002).

Eur. Phys. J. D (1)

M. Schnürer, S. Ter-Avetisyan, H. Stiel, U. Vogt, W. Radloff, M. Kalashnikov, W. Sandner, P.V. Nickles, ???Influence of Laser Pulse Width on Absolute EUV-Yield from Xe Clusters,??? Eur. Phys. J. D 14, 331 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. B (1)

K.J. Mendham, J.W.G Tisch, M.B. Mason, N.Hay, R.A. Smith, J.P. Marangos, ???Multi-keV Proton Energies from Exploding Hydrogen Clusters,??? J. Phys. B 35, 663 (2002).
[CrossRef]

JETP Letters (1)

T. Auguste, P. D???Oliveira, S. Hulin, P. Monot, J. Abdallah, Jr, A.Ya. Faenov, I.Yu. Skobelev, A.I. Magunov, T.A. Pikuz, ???The Role of the Prepulse in Cluster Heating by a High-Power Femtosecond Laser Pulse,??? JETP Letters, 72, 38 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Laser Phys. (1)

P.A. Golovinski, ???Laser Wavelength Dependence for Strong-Field-Induced Excitation in Clusters,??? Laser Phys. 9, 1048 (1999).

Nature (1)

T. Ditmire, J.W.G. Tisch, E. Springate, M.B. Mason, N.Hay, R.A. Smith, J.P. Marangos, M.H.R. Hutchinson, ???High-Energy Ions Produced in Explosions of Superheated Atomic Clusters,??? Nature 386, 54 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nature (London) (1)

T. Ditmire, J. Zweiback, V.P. Yanovsky, T.E. Cowan, G. Hays, K.B. Wharton, ???Nuclear Fusion from Explosions of Femtosecond Laser-Heated Deuterium Clusters,??? Nature (London) 398, 489 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Phys. Rev. A (8)

J.W.G. Tisch, N.Hay, E. Springate, E.T. Gumbrell, M.H.R. Hutchinson, J.P. Marangos, ???Measurements of Ion Energies from the Explosion of Large Hydrogen Iodide Clusters Irradiated by Intense Femtosecond Laser Pulses,??? Phys. Rev. A 60, 3076, (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Zweiback, T. Ditmire, M.D. Perry, ???Femtosecond Time-Resolved Studies of the Dynamics of Noble-Gas Cluster Explosions,??? Phys. Rev. A 59, R3166 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. Springate, N. Hay, J.W.G. Tisch, M.B. Mason, T. Ditmire, M.H.R. Hutchinson, J P. Marangos, ???Explosion of Atomic Clusters Irradiated by High-Intensity Laser Pulses: Scaling of Ion Energies with Cluster and Laser parameters,??? Phys. Rev. A 61, 063201 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K.J. Mendham, N. Hay, M.B. Mason, J.W.G. Tisch, J.P. Marangos, ???Cluster Size Distribution Effects in Laser-Cluster Interaction Experiments,??? Phys. Rev. A 64, 055201 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. Ditmire, T. Donnelly, A.M. Rubenchik, R.W. Falcone, M.D. Perry, ???Interaction of Intense Laser Pulses with Atomic Clusters,??? Phys. Rev. A 53, 3379 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Ditmire, E. Springate, J.W.G. Tisch, Y.L. Shao, M.B. Mason, N. Hay, J.P.Marangos, M.H.R. Hutchinson, ???Explosion of Atomic Clusters Heated by High-Intensity Femtosecond Laser Pulses,??? Phys. Rev. A 57, 369 (1998).
[CrossRef]

V. Kumarappan, M. Krishnamurthy, D. Mathur, L.C. Tribedi, ???Effect of Laser Polarisation on X-Ray Emission from Arn (n=200-104) Clusters in Intense Laser Fields,??? Phys. Rev. A 63, 023203 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. Springate, N. Hay, J.W.G. Tisch, M.B. Mason, T. Ditmire, J.P. Marangos, M.H.R. Hutchinson, ???Enhanced Explosion of Atomic Clusters Irradiated by a Sequence of Two High-Intensity laser Pulses,??? Phys. Rev. A 61, 044101 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E (2)

T. Mocek, C.M. Kim, H.J. Shin, D.G. Lee, Y.H. Cha, K.H. Kong, C.H. Nam, ???Soft X-Ray Emission from Small-Sized Ne Clusters Heated by Intense, Femtosecond Laser Pulses,??? Phys. Rev. E 62, 4461 (2000).
[CrossRef]

E. Parra, I. Alexeev, J. Fan, K.Y. Kim, S.J. McNaught, H.M. Milchberg, ???X-Ray and Extreme Ultraviolet Emission Induced by Variable Pulse-Width Irradiation of Ar and Kr Clusters and Droplets,??? Phys. Rev. E 62, R5931 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

T. Ditmire, R.A. Smith, J.W.G. Tisch, M.H.R. Hutchinson, ???High Intensity Laser Absorption by Gases of Atomic Clusters,??? Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3121 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y.L. Shao, T. Ditmire, J.W.G. Tisch, E. Springate, J.P. Marangos, M.H.R. Hutchinson, ???Multi-keV Electron Generation in the Interaction of Intense Laser Pulses with Xe Clusters,??? Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3343 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Kumarappan, M. Krishnamurthy, D. Mathur, ???Asymmetric High-Energy Ion Emission from Argon Clusters in Intense Laser Fields,??? Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 085005 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

K.J. Mendham, ???Energetic Cluster Explosions in Intense Femtosecond Laser Fields,??? PhD. Thesis, University of London (2002).

O.F. Hagena, in Rarefied Gas Dynamics, edited by H. Oguchi (University of Tokyo, Tokyo, 1984), pp. 721-732.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Temporal intensity profile of a 100 fs negatively chirped pulse from our laser system. The temporal profile has been determined by taking a Fourier Transform of the laser spectrum (shown inset) after the application of the grating phase function. A positively chirped pulse of the same duration would be a mirror image of this profile, with the shoulder trailing the main laser pulse in time.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Experimental results showing the maximum ion energy as a function of pulse duration for a laser pulse with a shoulder on the rising (solid squares) and falling (open circles) edge for (a) 12,500 atom Xe clusters and (b) 2,800 atom Ar clusters. The peak laser intensity was kept constant at 1×1016 Wcm-2. The dotted and dashed lines are polynomial fits to the experimental data.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Numerical simulations conducted using an asymmetric pulse shape for (a) 12,500 atom Xe clusters and (b) 2,800 atom Ar clusters for a peak laser intensity of 1×1016 Wcm-2. The results show the maximum ion energy as a function of pulse duration for a laser pulse with a shoulder on the rising edge (dotted line), on the falling edge (dashed line) and a Gaussian laser pulse (solid line).

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