Abstract

For the first time to our knowledge, carbon implantation into YAG crystals doped with Nd has been used to produce optical waveguides. A considerable index decrease in the nuclear region (i.e., the region where the energetic ions stop) of ~ 2.5% was obtained with a low dose implant, while giving an index enhancement in the guiding region of ~ 0.35%. After an annealing step necessary to recover the transparency of the crystals, the layer of reduced refractive index produced by implantation is preserved. Spectroscopic studies carried out in a waveguiding configuration show that emission bands coming from the 4F3/2 level present a slight broadening, while its associated lifetime is similar to that reported in bulk crystals (240 µs).

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. P. D. Townsend, P. J. Chandler, and L. Zhang, Optical effects of ion implantation (CUP, 1994).
    [Crossref]
  2. T. Tamir, Guided-wave optoelectronics (Springer-Verlag, 1988).
    [Crossref]
  3. P. Baldi, M.P. De Micheli, and K. El Hadi, “Proton exchanged waveguides in LiNbO3 and LiTaO3 for integrated lasers and nonlinear frequency converters,” Opt. Eng. 37, 1193–1202 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  4. P. D. Townsend, “An overview of ion-implanted optical waveguide profiles,” Nucl. Instr. Meth. B 46, 18–25 (1990).
    [Crossref]
  5. P. J. Chandler, S. J. Field, D. C. Hanna, D. P. Shepherd, P. D. Townsend, A. C. Tropper, and L. Zhang, “Ion-implanted Nd:YAG planar waveguide laser,” Electron. Lett. 25, 985–986 (1989).
    [Crossref]
  6. L. Zhang, P. J. Chandler, P. D. Townsend, S. J. Field, D. C. Hanna, D. P. Shepherd, and A. C. Tropper, “Characterization of ion implanted waveguides in Nd:YAG,” J. Appl. Phys. 69, 3440–3446 (1991).
    [Crossref]
  7. G. V. Vázquez, J. Rickards, H. Márquez, G. Lifante, E. Cantelar, and M. Domenech, “Optical waveguides in Nd:YAG by proton implantation,” Opt. Commun. 218, 141–146 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  8. P. J. Chandler, L. Zhang, J. M. Cabrera, and P. D. Townsend, “‘Missing modes’ in ion implanted waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1287–1289 (1989).
    [Crossref]
  9. P. D. Townsend, “Helium ion implanted waveguide lasers,” Nucl. Instr. Meth. B 62, 405–409 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  10. P. D. Townsend, P. J. Chandler, R. A. Wood, L. Zhang, J. McCallum, and C. W. McHargue, “Chemically stabilised ion implanted waveguides in sapphire,” Electron. Lett. 26, 1193–1194 (1990).
    [Crossref]
  11. F. Chen, X.-L. Wang, K.-M. Wang, Q.-M- Lu, and D.-Y. Shen, “Optical waveguides formed in Nd:YVO4 by MeV Si+ implantation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 803473–3475 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  12. J. Lu, M. Prabhu, J. Song, C. Li, J. Xu, K. Ueda, A.A. Kaminskii, H. Yagi, and T. Yanagitani, “Optical properties of highly efficient laser oscillation of Nd:YAG ceramics,” Appl. Phys. B. 71, 469–473 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  13. S. J. Field, D. C. Hanna, D. P. Shepherd, A. C. Tropper, P. J. Chandler, P. D. Townsend, and L. Zhang, “Ion implanted Nd:YAG waveguide lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 428–433 (1991).
    [Crossref]

2003 (1)

G. V. Vázquez, J. Rickards, H. Márquez, G. Lifante, E. Cantelar, and M. Domenech, “Optical waveguides in Nd:YAG by proton implantation,” Opt. Commun. 218, 141–146 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

F. Chen, X.-L. Wang, K.-M. Wang, Q.-M- Lu, and D.-Y. Shen, “Optical waveguides formed in Nd:YVO4 by MeV Si+ implantation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 803473–3475 (2002).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

J. Lu, M. Prabhu, J. Song, C. Li, J. Xu, K. Ueda, A.A. Kaminskii, H. Yagi, and T. Yanagitani, “Optical properties of highly efficient laser oscillation of Nd:YAG ceramics,” Appl. Phys. B. 71, 469–473 (2000).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

P. Baldi, M.P. De Micheli, and K. El Hadi, “Proton exchanged waveguides in LiNbO3 and LiTaO3 for integrated lasers and nonlinear frequency converters,” Opt. Eng. 37, 1193–1202 (1998).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

P. D. Townsend, “Helium ion implanted waveguide lasers,” Nucl. Instr. Meth. B 62, 405–409 (1992).
[Crossref]

1991 (2)

S. J. Field, D. C. Hanna, D. P. Shepherd, A. C. Tropper, P. J. Chandler, P. D. Townsend, and L. Zhang, “Ion implanted Nd:YAG waveguide lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 428–433 (1991).
[Crossref]

L. Zhang, P. J. Chandler, P. D. Townsend, S. J. Field, D. C. Hanna, D. P. Shepherd, and A. C. Tropper, “Characterization of ion implanted waveguides in Nd:YAG,” J. Appl. Phys. 69, 3440–3446 (1991).
[Crossref]

1990 (2)

P. D. Townsend, P. J. Chandler, R. A. Wood, L. Zhang, J. McCallum, and C. W. McHargue, “Chemically stabilised ion implanted waveguides in sapphire,” Electron. Lett. 26, 1193–1194 (1990).
[Crossref]

P. D. Townsend, “An overview of ion-implanted optical waveguide profiles,” Nucl. Instr. Meth. B 46, 18–25 (1990).
[Crossref]

1989 (2)

P. J. Chandler, S. J. Field, D. C. Hanna, D. P. Shepherd, P. D. Townsend, A. C. Tropper, and L. Zhang, “Ion-implanted Nd:YAG planar waveguide laser,” Electron. Lett. 25, 985–986 (1989).
[Crossref]

P. J. Chandler, L. Zhang, J. M. Cabrera, and P. D. Townsend, “‘Missing modes’ in ion implanted waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1287–1289 (1989).
[Crossref]

Baldi, P.

P. Baldi, M.P. De Micheli, and K. El Hadi, “Proton exchanged waveguides in LiNbO3 and LiTaO3 for integrated lasers and nonlinear frequency converters,” Opt. Eng. 37, 1193–1202 (1998).
[Crossref]

Cabrera, J. M.

P. J. Chandler, L. Zhang, J. M. Cabrera, and P. D. Townsend, “‘Missing modes’ in ion implanted waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1287–1289 (1989).
[Crossref]

Cantelar, E.

G. V. Vázquez, J. Rickards, H. Márquez, G. Lifante, E. Cantelar, and M. Domenech, “Optical waveguides in Nd:YAG by proton implantation,” Opt. Commun. 218, 141–146 (2003).
[Crossref]

Chandler, P. J.

L. Zhang, P. J. Chandler, P. D. Townsend, S. J. Field, D. C. Hanna, D. P. Shepherd, and A. C. Tropper, “Characterization of ion implanted waveguides in Nd:YAG,” J. Appl. Phys. 69, 3440–3446 (1991).
[Crossref]

S. J. Field, D. C. Hanna, D. P. Shepherd, A. C. Tropper, P. J. Chandler, P. D. Townsend, and L. Zhang, “Ion implanted Nd:YAG waveguide lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 428–433 (1991).
[Crossref]

P. D. Townsend, P. J. Chandler, R. A. Wood, L. Zhang, J. McCallum, and C. W. McHargue, “Chemically stabilised ion implanted waveguides in sapphire,” Electron. Lett. 26, 1193–1194 (1990).
[Crossref]

P. J. Chandler, L. Zhang, J. M. Cabrera, and P. D. Townsend, “‘Missing modes’ in ion implanted waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1287–1289 (1989).
[Crossref]

P. J. Chandler, S. J. Field, D. C. Hanna, D. P. Shepherd, P. D. Townsend, A. C. Tropper, and L. Zhang, “Ion-implanted Nd:YAG planar waveguide laser,” Electron. Lett. 25, 985–986 (1989).
[Crossref]

P. D. Townsend, P. J. Chandler, and L. Zhang, Optical effects of ion implantation (CUP, 1994).
[Crossref]

Chen, F.

F. Chen, X.-L. Wang, K.-M. Wang, Q.-M- Lu, and D.-Y. Shen, “Optical waveguides formed in Nd:YVO4 by MeV Si+ implantation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 803473–3475 (2002).
[Crossref]

Domenech, M.

G. V. Vázquez, J. Rickards, H. Márquez, G. Lifante, E. Cantelar, and M. Domenech, “Optical waveguides in Nd:YAG by proton implantation,” Opt. Commun. 218, 141–146 (2003).
[Crossref]

Field, S. J.

L. Zhang, P. J. Chandler, P. D. Townsend, S. J. Field, D. C. Hanna, D. P. Shepherd, and A. C. Tropper, “Characterization of ion implanted waveguides in Nd:YAG,” J. Appl. Phys. 69, 3440–3446 (1991).
[Crossref]

S. J. Field, D. C. Hanna, D. P. Shepherd, A. C. Tropper, P. J. Chandler, P. D. Townsend, and L. Zhang, “Ion implanted Nd:YAG waveguide lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 428–433 (1991).
[Crossref]

P. J. Chandler, S. J. Field, D. C. Hanna, D. P. Shepherd, P. D. Townsend, A. C. Tropper, and L. Zhang, “Ion-implanted Nd:YAG planar waveguide laser,” Electron. Lett. 25, 985–986 (1989).
[Crossref]

Hadi, K. El

P. Baldi, M.P. De Micheli, and K. El Hadi, “Proton exchanged waveguides in LiNbO3 and LiTaO3 for integrated lasers and nonlinear frequency converters,” Opt. Eng. 37, 1193–1202 (1998).
[Crossref]

Hanna, D. C.

L. Zhang, P. J. Chandler, P. D. Townsend, S. J. Field, D. C. Hanna, D. P. Shepherd, and A. C. Tropper, “Characterization of ion implanted waveguides in Nd:YAG,” J. Appl. Phys. 69, 3440–3446 (1991).
[Crossref]

S. J. Field, D. C. Hanna, D. P. Shepherd, A. C. Tropper, P. J. Chandler, P. D. Townsend, and L. Zhang, “Ion implanted Nd:YAG waveguide lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 428–433 (1991).
[Crossref]

P. J. Chandler, S. J. Field, D. C. Hanna, D. P. Shepherd, P. D. Townsend, A. C. Tropper, and L. Zhang, “Ion-implanted Nd:YAG planar waveguide laser,” Electron. Lett. 25, 985–986 (1989).
[Crossref]

Kaminskii, A.A.

J. Lu, M. Prabhu, J. Song, C. Li, J. Xu, K. Ueda, A.A. Kaminskii, H. Yagi, and T. Yanagitani, “Optical properties of highly efficient laser oscillation of Nd:YAG ceramics,” Appl. Phys. B. 71, 469–473 (2000).
[Crossref]

Li, C.

J. Lu, M. Prabhu, J. Song, C. Li, J. Xu, K. Ueda, A.A. Kaminskii, H. Yagi, and T. Yanagitani, “Optical properties of highly efficient laser oscillation of Nd:YAG ceramics,” Appl. Phys. B. 71, 469–473 (2000).
[Crossref]

Lifante, G.

G. V. Vázquez, J. Rickards, H. Márquez, G. Lifante, E. Cantelar, and M. Domenech, “Optical waveguides in Nd:YAG by proton implantation,” Opt. Commun. 218, 141–146 (2003).
[Crossref]

Lu, J.

J. Lu, M. Prabhu, J. Song, C. Li, J. Xu, K. Ueda, A.A. Kaminskii, H. Yagi, and T. Yanagitani, “Optical properties of highly efficient laser oscillation of Nd:YAG ceramics,” Appl. Phys. B. 71, 469–473 (2000).
[Crossref]

Lu, Q.-M-

F. Chen, X.-L. Wang, K.-M. Wang, Q.-M- Lu, and D.-Y. Shen, “Optical waveguides formed in Nd:YVO4 by MeV Si+ implantation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 803473–3475 (2002).
[Crossref]

Márquez, H.

G. V. Vázquez, J. Rickards, H. Márquez, G. Lifante, E. Cantelar, and M. Domenech, “Optical waveguides in Nd:YAG by proton implantation,” Opt. Commun. 218, 141–146 (2003).
[Crossref]

McCallum, J.

P. D. Townsend, P. J. Chandler, R. A. Wood, L. Zhang, J. McCallum, and C. W. McHargue, “Chemically stabilised ion implanted waveguides in sapphire,” Electron. Lett. 26, 1193–1194 (1990).
[Crossref]

McHargue, C. W.

P. D. Townsend, P. J. Chandler, R. A. Wood, L. Zhang, J. McCallum, and C. W. McHargue, “Chemically stabilised ion implanted waveguides in sapphire,” Electron. Lett. 26, 1193–1194 (1990).
[Crossref]

Micheli, M.P. De

P. Baldi, M.P. De Micheli, and K. El Hadi, “Proton exchanged waveguides in LiNbO3 and LiTaO3 for integrated lasers and nonlinear frequency converters,” Opt. Eng. 37, 1193–1202 (1998).
[Crossref]

Prabhu, M.

J. Lu, M. Prabhu, J. Song, C. Li, J. Xu, K. Ueda, A.A. Kaminskii, H. Yagi, and T. Yanagitani, “Optical properties of highly efficient laser oscillation of Nd:YAG ceramics,” Appl. Phys. B. 71, 469–473 (2000).
[Crossref]

Rickards, J.

G. V. Vázquez, J. Rickards, H. Márquez, G. Lifante, E. Cantelar, and M. Domenech, “Optical waveguides in Nd:YAG by proton implantation,” Opt. Commun. 218, 141–146 (2003).
[Crossref]

Shen, D.-Y.

F. Chen, X.-L. Wang, K.-M. Wang, Q.-M- Lu, and D.-Y. Shen, “Optical waveguides formed in Nd:YVO4 by MeV Si+ implantation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 803473–3475 (2002).
[Crossref]

Shepherd, D. P.

S. J. Field, D. C. Hanna, D. P. Shepherd, A. C. Tropper, P. J. Chandler, P. D. Townsend, and L. Zhang, “Ion implanted Nd:YAG waveguide lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 428–433 (1991).
[Crossref]

L. Zhang, P. J. Chandler, P. D. Townsend, S. J. Field, D. C. Hanna, D. P. Shepherd, and A. C. Tropper, “Characterization of ion implanted waveguides in Nd:YAG,” J. Appl. Phys. 69, 3440–3446 (1991).
[Crossref]

P. J. Chandler, S. J. Field, D. C. Hanna, D. P. Shepherd, P. D. Townsend, A. C. Tropper, and L. Zhang, “Ion-implanted Nd:YAG planar waveguide laser,” Electron. Lett. 25, 985–986 (1989).
[Crossref]

Song, J.

J. Lu, M. Prabhu, J. Song, C. Li, J. Xu, K. Ueda, A.A. Kaminskii, H. Yagi, and T. Yanagitani, “Optical properties of highly efficient laser oscillation of Nd:YAG ceramics,” Appl. Phys. B. 71, 469–473 (2000).
[Crossref]

Tamir, T.

T. Tamir, Guided-wave optoelectronics (Springer-Verlag, 1988).
[Crossref]

Townsend, P. D.

P. D. Townsend, “Helium ion implanted waveguide lasers,” Nucl. Instr. Meth. B 62, 405–409 (1992).
[Crossref]

L. Zhang, P. J. Chandler, P. D. Townsend, S. J. Field, D. C. Hanna, D. P. Shepherd, and A. C. Tropper, “Characterization of ion implanted waveguides in Nd:YAG,” J. Appl. Phys. 69, 3440–3446 (1991).
[Crossref]

S. J. Field, D. C. Hanna, D. P. Shepherd, A. C. Tropper, P. J. Chandler, P. D. Townsend, and L. Zhang, “Ion implanted Nd:YAG waveguide lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 428–433 (1991).
[Crossref]

P. D. Townsend, P. J. Chandler, R. A. Wood, L. Zhang, J. McCallum, and C. W. McHargue, “Chemically stabilised ion implanted waveguides in sapphire,” Electron. Lett. 26, 1193–1194 (1990).
[Crossref]

P. D. Townsend, “An overview of ion-implanted optical waveguide profiles,” Nucl. Instr. Meth. B 46, 18–25 (1990).
[Crossref]

P. J. Chandler, S. J. Field, D. C. Hanna, D. P. Shepherd, P. D. Townsend, A. C. Tropper, and L. Zhang, “Ion-implanted Nd:YAG planar waveguide laser,” Electron. Lett. 25, 985–986 (1989).
[Crossref]

P. J. Chandler, L. Zhang, J. M. Cabrera, and P. D. Townsend, “‘Missing modes’ in ion implanted waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1287–1289 (1989).
[Crossref]

P. D. Townsend, P. J. Chandler, and L. Zhang, Optical effects of ion implantation (CUP, 1994).
[Crossref]

Tropper, A. C.

L. Zhang, P. J. Chandler, P. D. Townsend, S. J. Field, D. C. Hanna, D. P. Shepherd, and A. C. Tropper, “Characterization of ion implanted waveguides in Nd:YAG,” J. Appl. Phys. 69, 3440–3446 (1991).
[Crossref]

S. J. Field, D. C. Hanna, D. P. Shepherd, A. C. Tropper, P. J. Chandler, P. D. Townsend, and L. Zhang, “Ion implanted Nd:YAG waveguide lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 428–433 (1991).
[Crossref]

P. J. Chandler, S. J. Field, D. C. Hanna, D. P. Shepherd, P. D. Townsend, A. C. Tropper, and L. Zhang, “Ion-implanted Nd:YAG planar waveguide laser,” Electron. Lett. 25, 985–986 (1989).
[Crossref]

Ueda, K.

J. Lu, M. Prabhu, J. Song, C. Li, J. Xu, K. Ueda, A.A. Kaminskii, H. Yagi, and T. Yanagitani, “Optical properties of highly efficient laser oscillation of Nd:YAG ceramics,” Appl. Phys. B. 71, 469–473 (2000).
[Crossref]

Vázquez, G. V.

G. V. Vázquez, J. Rickards, H. Márquez, G. Lifante, E. Cantelar, and M. Domenech, “Optical waveguides in Nd:YAG by proton implantation,” Opt. Commun. 218, 141–146 (2003).
[Crossref]

Wang, K.-M.

F. Chen, X.-L. Wang, K.-M. Wang, Q.-M- Lu, and D.-Y. Shen, “Optical waveguides formed in Nd:YVO4 by MeV Si+ implantation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 803473–3475 (2002).
[Crossref]

Wang, X.-L.

F. Chen, X.-L. Wang, K.-M. Wang, Q.-M- Lu, and D.-Y. Shen, “Optical waveguides formed in Nd:YVO4 by MeV Si+ implantation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 803473–3475 (2002).
[Crossref]

Wood, R. A.

P. D. Townsend, P. J. Chandler, R. A. Wood, L. Zhang, J. McCallum, and C. W. McHargue, “Chemically stabilised ion implanted waveguides in sapphire,” Electron. Lett. 26, 1193–1194 (1990).
[Crossref]

Xu, J.

J. Lu, M. Prabhu, J. Song, C. Li, J. Xu, K. Ueda, A.A. Kaminskii, H. Yagi, and T. Yanagitani, “Optical properties of highly efficient laser oscillation of Nd:YAG ceramics,” Appl. Phys. B. 71, 469–473 (2000).
[Crossref]

Yagi, H.

J. Lu, M. Prabhu, J. Song, C. Li, J. Xu, K. Ueda, A.A. Kaminskii, H. Yagi, and T. Yanagitani, “Optical properties of highly efficient laser oscillation of Nd:YAG ceramics,” Appl. Phys. B. 71, 469–473 (2000).
[Crossref]

Yanagitani, T.

J. Lu, M. Prabhu, J. Song, C. Li, J. Xu, K. Ueda, A.A. Kaminskii, H. Yagi, and T. Yanagitani, “Optical properties of highly efficient laser oscillation of Nd:YAG ceramics,” Appl. Phys. B. 71, 469–473 (2000).
[Crossref]

Zhang, L.

S. J. Field, D. C. Hanna, D. P. Shepherd, A. C. Tropper, P. J. Chandler, P. D. Townsend, and L. Zhang, “Ion implanted Nd:YAG waveguide lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 428–433 (1991).
[Crossref]

L. Zhang, P. J. Chandler, P. D. Townsend, S. J. Field, D. C. Hanna, D. P. Shepherd, and A. C. Tropper, “Characterization of ion implanted waveguides in Nd:YAG,” J. Appl. Phys. 69, 3440–3446 (1991).
[Crossref]

P. D. Townsend, P. J. Chandler, R. A. Wood, L. Zhang, J. McCallum, and C. W. McHargue, “Chemically stabilised ion implanted waveguides in sapphire,” Electron. Lett. 26, 1193–1194 (1990).
[Crossref]

P. J. Chandler, L. Zhang, J. M. Cabrera, and P. D. Townsend, “‘Missing modes’ in ion implanted waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1287–1289 (1989).
[Crossref]

P. J. Chandler, S. J. Field, D. C. Hanna, D. P. Shepherd, P. D. Townsend, A. C. Tropper, and L. Zhang, “Ion-implanted Nd:YAG planar waveguide laser,” Electron. Lett. 25, 985–986 (1989).
[Crossref]

P. D. Townsend, P. J. Chandler, and L. Zhang, Optical effects of ion implantation (CUP, 1994).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. B. (1)

J. Lu, M. Prabhu, J. Song, C. Li, J. Xu, K. Ueda, A.A. Kaminskii, H. Yagi, and T. Yanagitani, “Optical properties of highly efficient laser oscillation of Nd:YAG ceramics,” Appl. Phys. B. 71, 469–473 (2000).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

F. Chen, X.-L. Wang, K.-M. Wang, Q.-M- Lu, and D.-Y. Shen, “Optical waveguides formed in Nd:YVO4 by MeV Si+ implantation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 803473–3475 (2002).
[Crossref]

P. J. Chandler, L. Zhang, J. M. Cabrera, and P. D. Townsend, “‘Missing modes’ in ion implanted waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1287–1289 (1989).
[Crossref]

Electron. Lett. (2)

P. J. Chandler, S. J. Field, D. C. Hanna, D. P. Shepherd, P. D. Townsend, A. C. Tropper, and L. Zhang, “Ion-implanted Nd:YAG planar waveguide laser,” Electron. Lett. 25, 985–986 (1989).
[Crossref]

P. D. Townsend, P. J. Chandler, R. A. Wood, L. Zhang, J. McCallum, and C. W. McHargue, “Chemically stabilised ion implanted waveguides in sapphire,” Electron. Lett. 26, 1193–1194 (1990).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

S. J. Field, D. C. Hanna, D. P. Shepherd, A. C. Tropper, P. J. Chandler, P. D. Townsend, and L. Zhang, “Ion implanted Nd:YAG waveguide lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 428–433 (1991).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

L. Zhang, P. J. Chandler, P. D. Townsend, S. J. Field, D. C. Hanna, D. P. Shepherd, and A. C. Tropper, “Characterization of ion implanted waveguides in Nd:YAG,” J. Appl. Phys. 69, 3440–3446 (1991).
[Crossref]

Nucl. Instr. Meth. B (2)

P. D. Townsend, “Helium ion implanted waveguide lasers,” Nucl. Instr. Meth. B 62, 405–409 (1992).
[Crossref]

P. D. Townsend, “An overview of ion-implanted optical waveguide profiles,” Nucl. Instr. Meth. B 46, 18–25 (1990).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (1)

G. V. Vázquez, J. Rickards, H. Márquez, G. Lifante, E. Cantelar, and M. Domenech, “Optical waveguides in Nd:YAG by proton implantation,” Opt. Commun. 218, 141–146 (2003).
[Crossref]

Opt. Eng. (1)

P. Baldi, M.P. De Micheli, and K. El Hadi, “Proton exchanged waveguides in LiNbO3 and LiTaO3 for integrated lasers and nonlinear frequency converters,” Opt. Eng. 37, 1193–1202 (1998).
[Crossref]

Other (2)

P. D. Townsend, P. J. Chandler, and L. Zhang, Optical effects of ion implantation (CUP, 1994).
[Crossref]

T. Tamir, Guided-wave optoelectronics (Springer-Verlag, 1988).
[Crossref]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Mode positions (triangles) and refractive index profile (solid line) for C3+ implanted Nd:YAG with 7 MeV at a dose of 1×1016 ions/cm2. The dashed line represents the substrate refractive index.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Emission spectra of Nd3+ ions in YAG crystal, measured in bulk (solid lines) and in waveguide (dotted lines), after excitation to the 2H9/2:4F5/2 at room temperature.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Temporal evolution associated to the 4F3/24I11/2 Nd3+ transition measured at 1.064 µm, where a lifetime of 236 µs is calculated

Metrics