Abstract

A Fourier transform spectrometer with heterodyne modulation achieved by a moving diffraction grating has been developed for the near-infrared (NIR) region. The grating simultaneously acts as a beam splitter and a modulator, which realizes the optical frequency shift of incident light for increasing the sensitivity of measurements by the heterodyne detection technique. The differences in diffraction angle among broad spectra are compensated by a collimating mirror and plane mirrors. The proposed spectrometer is used for the measurements of spectra in the NIR region. The signal-to-noise ratio of measurements is improved sevenfold with a heterodyne modulation of 410 Hz. As examples, this spectrometer is applied for quantitative calibration and discrimination of organic solutions. The measurement of transmission spectra of a grape is also demonstrated.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt.

J. Japan Soc. Hort. Sci.

S. Kawano, T. Fujiwara, M. Iwamoto, "Nondestructive determination of sugar content in satsuma mandarin using Near Infrared (NIR) transmittance," J. Japan. Soc. Hort. Sci. 62, 465-470 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Japan. Soc. Hort. Sci.

S. Kawano, H. Watanabe, and M. Iwamoto, "Determination of sugar content in intact peaches by near infrared spectroscopy with fiber optics in interactance mode," J. Japan. Soc. Hort. Sci. 61, 445-451 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

A. Hirai, L. Zeng, and H. Matsumoto, "Heterodyne Fourier transform spectroscopy using moving diffraction grating," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, 6138-6142 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Sens. Actuators A

K. Hane, T. Endo, M. Ishimori, Y. Ito, and M. Sasaki, "Integration of grating-image-type encoder using Si micromachining," Sens. Actuators A 97-98, 139-146 (2002).

Other

B.R. Kowalski, Chemometrics -Mathematics and Statistics in Chemistry (D. Reidel, Dordrecht, 1984).

D.L. Massart, B.G.N. Vandeginste, S.N. Deming, Y. Michotte and L. Kaufman, Chemometrics: a textbook (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1988).

L. Mertz, Transformations in Optics (John Wiley and Sons, New York, 1965).

G.A. Vanasse and H. Sakai, Fourier spectroscopy in Progress in Optics VI, E. Wolf, ed. (North-Holland, New York, 1967).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Optical setup for heterodyne Fourier transform spectrometer suitable for long-range scanning. PZT; Piezoelectric transducer.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Experimental configuration.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Comparison of the signal-to-noise ratios of the spectra obtained with and without heterodyne modulation. Spectra of strong and weak light obtained (a) without modulation and (b) with modulation.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) The spectral absorbance of ethanol solutions with different concentrations. (b) The results of the quantitative calibration by partial least squares regression with five factors.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) The spectral absorbances of ethanol and propanol solutions of different concentrations. (b) The results of discrimination by principal components analysis.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Results of five measurements of transmission spectral intensity of a grape.

Equations (1)

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{ z max cos ( Δ θ 2 ) + r cos θ } { cos θ max cos ( θ max + 2 θ ) cos θ min cos ( θ min 2 θ ) } ,

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