Abstract

Inorganic-organic hybrid materials prepared by a sol-gel process showed a large photoinduced negative refractive-index change (2×10-2) and a volume change. Diffraction gratings were made directly by irradiation with a KrF excimer laser (248 nm) through a phase mask without any etching process. The dependence of diffraction efficiency on irradiation conditions was investigated. The maximum diffraction efficiency, measured by the Littrow configuration with a He-Ne laser (633 nm), was 3.4% in reflection mode.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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References

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Adv. Mater.

N. Zettsu, T. Ubukata, T.Seki, and K. Ichimura, �??Soft crosslinkable azo polymer for rapid surface relief formation and persistent fixation,�?? Adv. Mater. 13, 1693-1697 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

J. M. Hammer, R. A. Bartolini, A. Miller, and C. C. Neil, �??Optical grating coupling between low-index fibers and high-index film waveguides,�?? Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 192-194 (1976).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

A. Yariv and M. Nakamura, �??Periodic structures for integrated optics,�?? IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-13, 233-253 (1977).
[CrossRef]

J. Mat. Chem.

J. U. Park, W. S. Kim, and B. S. Bae, �??Photoinduced low refractive index in a photosensitive organic- inorganic hybrid material,�?? J. Mat. Chem. 13, 738-741 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Chem.

N. K. Viswanathan, D. Y. Kim, S. Bian, J. Williams, W. Liu, L. Li, L. Samuelson, J. Kumar, and S. K. Tripathy, �??Surface relief structures on azo polymer films,�?? J. Mater. Chem. 9, 1941-1955 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Res.

O.H. Park, J.I. Jung, and B.S. Bae, �??Photoinduced condensation of sol-gel hybrid glass films doped with benzildimethylketal,�?? J. Mater. Res. 16, 2143-2148 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Bae, O. H Park, R Charters, B. Luther-Davies, and G. R. Atkins, �??Direct laser writing of self-developed waveguides in benzyl dimethyl ketal doped sol-gel hybrid glass,�?? J. Mater. Res. 16, 3184-3187 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys

G. Zaho, N. Tohge, and J. Nishii, �??Fabrication and characterization of diffraction gratings using photosensitive Al2O3 gel films,�?? Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, 1842-1846 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Thin Solid Films

D. Blanc and S. Pelissier, �??Fabrication of sub-micron period diffraction gratings in self-processing solgel glasses,�?? Thin Solid Films. 384, 251-253 (2001).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Changes in refractive index and film thickness versus irradiation time by a KrF excimer laser at room temperature and an ambient atmosphere.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Illustration of the system of an excimer laser and (b) the schematic illustration of the interference beam diffracted by a phase mask.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Perspective SEM view of a 0.5 µm grating printed upon an inorganic-organic hybrid gel film.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Relation between the diffraction efficiency and the irradiation time of a KrF excimer laser.

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