Abstract

A non-axial-scanning confocal microscope employing a monochromatic light source has been developed. The system controls the defocus of an objective into three to five optimized states by using a membrane-adaptive mirror, and determines the axial height of an object according to the confocal output value with each defocus. A genetic algorithm is employed to optimize the adaptive mirror shape, with the information entropy of the spectrum of the lateral confocal spot profile used as a cost function in the genetic algorithm. Our experimental system successfully determined axial object height within 50 µm range with 0.64 % of error.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. M. Jordan, M. Wegner, and H. J. Tiziani, “Highly accurate non-contact characterization of engineering surfaces using confocal microscoy,” Measurement Sci. Technol. 9, 1142–1151 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  2. D. T. Fewer, S. J. Hewlett, and E. M. McCabe, “Laser Sources in Direct-View-Scanning, Tandem-Scanning, or Nipkow-Disk-Scanning Confocal Microscopy,” Appl. Opt. 37, 380–385 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. Yin, G. Lu, J. Zhang, F. T. S. Yu, and Joseph N. Mait, “Kinoform-based Nipkow disk for a confocal microscope,” Appl. Opt. 34, 5695–5698 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. Hans J. Tiziani and Hans-Martin Uhde, “Three-dimensional analysis by a microlens-array confocal arrangement,” Appl. Opt. 33, 567–572 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. H. J. Tiziani, R. Achi, R. N. Krämer, T. Hessler, M. T. Gale, M. Rossi, and R. E. Kunz, “Microlens arrays for confocal microscopy,” Opt. Laser Tech. 29, 85–91 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  6. T. Tanaami, S. Otsuki, N. Tomosada, Y. Kosugi, M. Shimizu, and H. Ishida, “High-Speed 1-Frame /ms Scanning Confocal Microscope with a Microlens and Nipkow Disks,” Appl. Opt. 41, 4704–4708 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. H. J. Tiziani and H.-M. Uhde, “Three-dimensional image sensing by chromatic confocal microscopy,” Appl. Opt. 33, 1838–1843, (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. H. J. Tiziani, R. Achi, and R. N. Krämer, “Chromatic confocal microscopy with microlenses,” J. Mod. Opt. 43, 155–163, (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  9. O. Albert, L. Sherman, G. Mourou, T. B. Norris, and G. Vdovin, “Smart microscope:an adaptive optics learning system for aberration correction in multiphoton confocal microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 25, 52–54 (2000).
    [CrossRef]

2002 (1)

2000 (1)

1998 (2)

M. Jordan, M. Wegner, and H. J. Tiziani, “Highly accurate non-contact characterization of engineering surfaces using confocal microscoy,” Measurement Sci. Technol. 9, 1142–1151 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. T. Fewer, S. J. Hewlett, and E. M. McCabe, “Laser Sources in Direct-View-Scanning, Tandem-Scanning, or Nipkow-Disk-Scanning Confocal Microscopy,” Appl. Opt. 37, 380–385 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

H. J. Tiziani, R. Achi, R. N. Krämer, T. Hessler, M. T. Gale, M. Rossi, and R. E. Kunz, “Microlens arrays for confocal microscopy,” Opt. Laser Tech. 29, 85–91 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

H. J. Tiziani, R. Achi, and R. N. Krämer, “Chromatic confocal microscopy with microlenses,” J. Mod. Opt. 43, 155–163, (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

1994 (2)

Achi, R.

H. J. Tiziani, R. Achi, R. N. Krämer, T. Hessler, M. T. Gale, M. Rossi, and R. E. Kunz, “Microlens arrays for confocal microscopy,” Opt. Laser Tech. 29, 85–91 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Tiziani, R. Achi, and R. N. Krämer, “Chromatic confocal microscopy with microlenses,” J. Mod. Opt. 43, 155–163, (1996).
[CrossRef]

Albert, O.

Fewer, D. T.

Gale, M. T.

H. J. Tiziani, R. Achi, R. N. Krämer, T. Hessler, M. T. Gale, M. Rossi, and R. E. Kunz, “Microlens arrays for confocal microscopy,” Opt. Laser Tech. 29, 85–91 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hessler, T.

H. J. Tiziani, R. Achi, R. N. Krämer, T. Hessler, M. T. Gale, M. Rossi, and R. E. Kunz, “Microlens arrays for confocal microscopy,” Opt. Laser Tech. 29, 85–91 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hewlett, S. J.

Ishida, H.

Jordan, M.

M. Jordan, M. Wegner, and H. J. Tiziani, “Highly accurate non-contact characterization of engineering surfaces using confocal microscoy,” Measurement Sci. Technol. 9, 1142–1151 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kosugi, Y.

Krämer, R. N.

H. J. Tiziani, R. Achi, R. N. Krämer, T. Hessler, M. T. Gale, M. Rossi, and R. E. Kunz, “Microlens arrays for confocal microscopy,” Opt. Laser Tech. 29, 85–91 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Tiziani, R. Achi, and R. N. Krämer, “Chromatic confocal microscopy with microlenses,” J. Mod. Opt. 43, 155–163, (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kunz, R. E.

H. J. Tiziani, R. Achi, R. N. Krämer, T. Hessler, M. T. Gale, M. Rossi, and R. E. Kunz, “Microlens arrays for confocal microscopy,” Opt. Laser Tech. 29, 85–91 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lu, G.

Mait, Joseph N.

McCabe, E. M.

Mourou, G.

Norris, T. B.

Otsuki, S.

Rossi, M.

H. J. Tiziani, R. Achi, R. N. Krämer, T. Hessler, M. T. Gale, M. Rossi, and R. E. Kunz, “Microlens arrays for confocal microscopy,” Opt. Laser Tech. 29, 85–91 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sherman, L.

Shimizu, M.

Tanaami, T.

Tiziani, H. J.

M. Jordan, M. Wegner, and H. J. Tiziani, “Highly accurate non-contact characterization of engineering surfaces using confocal microscoy,” Measurement Sci. Technol. 9, 1142–1151 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Tiziani, R. Achi, R. N. Krämer, T. Hessler, M. T. Gale, M. Rossi, and R. E. Kunz, “Microlens arrays for confocal microscopy,” Opt. Laser Tech. 29, 85–91 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Tiziani, R. Achi, and R. N. Krämer, “Chromatic confocal microscopy with microlenses,” J. Mod. Opt. 43, 155–163, (1996).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Tiziani and H.-M. Uhde, “Three-dimensional image sensing by chromatic confocal microscopy,” Appl. Opt. 33, 1838–1843, (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tiziani, Hans J.

Tomosada, N.

Uhde, H.-M.

Uhde, Hans-Martin

Vdovin, G.

Wegner, M.

M. Jordan, M. Wegner, and H. J. Tiziani, “Highly accurate non-contact characterization of engineering surfaces using confocal microscoy,” Measurement Sci. Technol. 9, 1142–1151 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yin, S.

Yu, F. T. S.

Zhang, J.

Appl. Opt. (5)

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

H. J. Tiziani, R. Achi, and R. N. Krämer, “Chromatic confocal microscopy with microlenses,” J. Mod. Opt. 43, 155–163, (1996).
[CrossRef]

Measurement Sci. Technol. (1)

M. Jordan, M. Wegner, and H. J. Tiziani, “Highly accurate non-contact characterization of engineering surfaces using confocal microscoy,” Measurement Sci. Technol. 9, 1142–1151 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Laser Tech. (1)

H. J. Tiziani, R. Achi, R. N. Krämer, T. Hessler, M. T. Gale, M. Rossi, and R. E. Kunz, “Microlens arrays for confocal microscopy,” Opt. Laser Tech. 29, 85–91 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

The scheme of the developed confocal microscope. Pol. and QWP represent the polarizer and quarter wavelength plate, Pin. is the pinhole, BS and PBS are a beam splitter and a polarization beam splitter, Ls and Obj. are lenses and a microscope-objective, respectively. The scanning stage is a piezo-stage, which is driven only during initial calibration.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Reference axial responses of each channel. Each channel is optimized with a different height of the reference mirror.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Projection-plots of reference channel outputs. Each channel output is projected onto the surface of the unit sphere surface in the channel space, where each axis represents each channel.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Measured height of the object. The horizontal axial represents actual object height and the vertical axis represents measured height. Plots (1) and (2), respectively, are calculated from 3 and 5 channel-outputs. The solid lines represent theoretical lines.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

P μ ν = f ̂ μ ν μ , ν f ̂ μ ν .
= μ , ν P μ ν log P μ ν .
r = R R
θ = arccos ( r · m )

Metrics