Abstract

We give the intensity fluctuation joint probability of the twin-beam quantum state, which was generated with an optical parametric oscillator operating above threshold. Then we present what to our knowledge is the first measurement of the intensity fluctuation conditional probability distributions of twin beams. The measured inference variance of twin beams 0.62±0.02, which is less than the standard quantum limit of unity, indicates inference with a precision better than that of separable states. The measured photocurrent variance exhibits a quantum correlation of as much as -4.9±0.2 dB between the signal and the idler.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. Heidmann, R. J. Horowicz, S. Reynaud, E. Giacobino, C. Fabre, and G. Camy, “Observation of quantum noise reduction on twin laser beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2555–2558 (1987).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. S. K. Choi, M. Vasilyev, and P. Kumar, “Noiseless optical amplification of images,” Phys. Rev. Lett.,  83, 1938–1941 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  3. O. Aytur and P. Kumar, “Pulsed twin beams of light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 1551–1554 (1990).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. Q. Pan, Y. Zhang, T. C. Zhang, C. D. Xie, and K. C. Peng, “Experimental investigation of intensity difference squeezing using Nd:YAP laser as pump source,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 30, 1588–1590 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  5. K.C. Peng, Q. Pan, H. Wang, Y. Zhang, H. Su, and C.D. Xie, “Generation of two-mode quadrature-phase squeezing and intensity-difference squeezing from a cw-NOPO,” Appl. Phys. B 66, 755–758 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  6. J. R. Gao, F. Y. Cui, C. Y. Xue, C. D. Xie, and K. C. Peng, “Generation and application of twin beams from an optical parametric oscillator including an a-cut KTP crystal,” Opt. Lett. 23, 870–872 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  7. H. Wang, Y. Zhang, Q. Pan, H. Su, A. Porzio, C. D. Xie, and K. C. Peng, “Experimental realization of a quantum measurement for intensity difference fluctuation using a beam splitter,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1414–1417 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  8. D. T. Smithey, M. Beck, M.G. Raymer, and A. Faridani, “measurement of the wigner distribution and the density matrix of a light mode using optical homodyne tomography: application to squeezed states and the vacuum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1244–1247 (1993).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. G. Breitenbach, S. Schiller, and J. Mlynek, “Measurement of the quantum states of squeezed light,” Nature 387, 471–475 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  10. M. Vasilyev, S. K. Choi, P. Kumar, and G. M. D’Ariano, “Tomographic measurement of joint photon statistics of the twin-beam quantum state,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 2354–2357 (2000).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. Y. Zhang, K. Kasai, and M. Watanabe, “Investigation of the photon-number statistics of twin beams by direct detection,” Opt. Lett. 27, 1244–1246 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  12. D. T. Smithey, M. Beck, M. Belsley, and M. G. Raymer, “Sub-shot-noise correlation of total photon number using macroscopic twin pulses of light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2650–2653 (1992).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. M. D. Reid, “Demonstration of the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox using nondegenerate parametric amplification,” Phys, Rev. A 40, 913–923 (1989).
    [Crossref]
  14. M. D. Reid, “Inseparability criteria for demonstration of the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen gedanken experiment,” Quant-ph/0103142.
  15. M. D. Reid, “The Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen Paradox and Entanglement 1: Signatures of EPR correlations for continuous variables,” Quant-ph/0112038.
  16. K. Kasai and M. Watanabe, in 7th International Conference on Squeezed States and Uncertainty Relations, Boston, U.S.A., June 4–8, 2001.
  17. Z. Y. Ou, S. F. Pereira, H. J. Kimble, and K. C. Peng, “Realization of the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox for continuous variables,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 3663–3667 (1992).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. Y. Zhang, H. Wang, X.Y. Li, J.T. Jing, C.D. Xie, and K.C. Peng, “Experimental generation of bright two-mode quadrature squeezed light from a narrow-band nondegenerate optical parametric amplifier,” Phys. Rev. A, 62, 023813 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  19. Ch. Silberhorn, P. K. Lam, O. Weiß, F. König, N. Korolkova, and G. Leuchs, “Generation of continuous variable Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen entanglement via the kerr nonlinearity in an optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 4267–4270 (2001).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. W.P. Bowen, R. Schnabel, P.K. Lam, and T.C. Ralph, “An experimental investigation of criteria for continuous variable entanglement,” Quant-ph/0209001.

2002 (1)

2001 (1)

Ch. Silberhorn, P. K. Lam, O. Weiß, F. König, N. Korolkova, and G. Leuchs, “Generation of continuous variable Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen entanglement via the kerr nonlinearity in an optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 4267–4270 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

M. Vasilyev, S. K. Choi, P. Kumar, and G. M. D’Ariano, “Tomographic measurement of joint photon statistics of the twin-beam quantum state,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 2354–2357 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1999 (2)

S. K. Choi, M. Vasilyev, and P. Kumar, “Noiseless optical amplification of images,” Phys. Rev. Lett.,  83, 1938–1941 (1999).
[Crossref]

H. Wang, Y. Zhang, Q. Pan, H. Su, A. Porzio, C. D. Xie, and K. C. Peng, “Experimental realization of a quantum measurement for intensity difference fluctuation using a beam splitter,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1414–1417 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (2)

K.C. Peng, Q. Pan, H. Wang, Y. Zhang, H. Su, and C.D. Xie, “Generation of two-mode quadrature-phase squeezing and intensity-difference squeezing from a cw-NOPO,” Appl. Phys. B 66, 755–758 (1998).
[Crossref]

J. R. Gao, F. Y. Cui, C. Y. Xue, C. D. Xie, and K. C. Peng, “Generation and application of twin beams from an optical parametric oscillator including an a-cut KTP crystal,” Opt. Lett. 23, 870–872 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (2)

Q. Pan, Y. Zhang, T. C. Zhang, C. D. Xie, and K. C. Peng, “Experimental investigation of intensity difference squeezing using Nd:YAP laser as pump source,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 30, 1588–1590 (1997).
[Crossref]

G. Breitenbach, S. Schiller, and J. Mlynek, “Measurement of the quantum states of squeezed light,” Nature 387, 471–475 (1997).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

D. T. Smithey, M. Beck, M.G. Raymer, and A. Faridani, “measurement of the wigner distribution and the density matrix of a light mode using optical homodyne tomography: application to squeezed states and the vacuum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1244–1247 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1992 (2)

D. T. Smithey, M. Beck, M. Belsley, and M. G. Raymer, “Sub-shot-noise correlation of total photon number using macroscopic twin pulses of light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2650–2653 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Y. Ou, S. F. Pereira, H. J. Kimble, and K. C. Peng, “Realization of the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox for continuous variables,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 3663–3667 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

O. Aytur and P. Kumar, “Pulsed twin beams of light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 1551–1554 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1989 (1)

M. D. Reid, “Demonstration of the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox using nondegenerate parametric amplification,” Phys, Rev. A 40, 913–923 (1989).
[Crossref]

1987 (1)

A. Heidmann, R. J. Horowicz, S. Reynaud, E. Giacobino, C. Fabre, and G. Camy, “Observation of quantum noise reduction on twin laser beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2555–2558 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aytur, O.

O. Aytur and P. Kumar, “Pulsed twin beams of light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 1551–1554 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Beck, M.

D. T. Smithey, M. Beck, M.G. Raymer, and A. Faridani, “measurement of the wigner distribution and the density matrix of a light mode using optical homodyne tomography: application to squeezed states and the vacuum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1244–1247 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. T. Smithey, M. Beck, M. Belsley, and M. G. Raymer, “Sub-shot-noise correlation of total photon number using macroscopic twin pulses of light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2650–2653 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Belsley, M.

D. T. Smithey, M. Beck, M. Belsley, and M. G. Raymer, “Sub-shot-noise correlation of total photon number using macroscopic twin pulses of light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2650–2653 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bowen, W.P.

W.P. Bowen, R. Schnabel, P.K. Lam, and T.C. Ralph, “An experimental investigation of criteria for continuous variable entanglement,” Quant-ph/0209001.

Breitenbach, G.

G. Breitenbach, S. Schiller, and J. Mlynek, “Measurement of the quantum states of squeezed light,” Nature 387, 471–475 (1997).
[Crossref]

Camy, G.

A. Heidmann, R. J. Horowicz, S. Reynaud, E. Giacobino, C. Fabre, and G. Camy, “Observation of quantum noise reduction on twin laser beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2555–2558 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choi, S. K.

M. Vasilyev, S. K. Choi, P. Kumar, and G. M. D’Ariano, “Tomographic measurement of joint photon statistics of the twin-beam quantum state,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 2354–2357 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. K. Choi, M. Vasilyev, and P. Kumar, “Noiseless optical amplification of images,” Phys. Rev. Lett.,  83, 1938–1941 (1999).
[Crossref]

Cui, F. Y.

D’Ariano, G. M.

M. Vasilyev, S. K. Choi, P. Kumar, and G. M. D’Ariano, “Tomographic measurement of joint photon statistics of the twin-beam quantum state,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 2354–2357 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fabre, C.

A. Heidmann, R. J. Horowicz, S. Reynaud, E. Giacobino, C. Fabre, and G. Camy, “Observation of quantum noise reduction on twin laser beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2555–2558 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Faridani, A.

D. T. Smithey, M. Beck, M.G. Raymer, and A. Faridani, “measurement of the wigner distribution and the density matrix of a light mode using optical homodyne tomography: application to squeezed states and the vacuum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1244–1247 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gao, J. R.

Giacobino, E.

A. Heidmann, R. J. Horowicz, S. Reynaud, E. Giacobino, C. Fabre, and G. Camy, “Observation of quantum noise reduction on twin laser beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2555–2558 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Heidmann, A.

A. Heidmann, R. J. Horowicz, S. Reynaud, E. Giacobino, C. Fabre, and G. Camy, “Observation of quantum noise reduction on twin laser beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2555–2558 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Horowicz, R. J.

A. Heidmann, R. J. Horowicz, S. Reynaud, E. Giacobino, C. Fabre, and G. Camy, “Observation of quantum noise reduction on twin laser beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2555–2558 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jing, J.T.

Y. Zhang, H. Wang, X.Y. Li, J.T. Jing, C.D. Xie, and K.C. Peng, “Experimental generation of bright two-mode quadrature squeezed light from a narrow-band nondegenerate optical parametric amplifier,” Phys. Rev. A, 62, 023813 (2000).
[Crossref]

Kasai, K.

Y. Zhang, K. Kasai, and M. Watanabe, “Investigation of the photon-number statistics of twin beams by direct detection,” Opt. Lett. 27, 1244–1246 (2002).
[Crossref]

K. Kasai and M. Watanabe, in 7th International Conference on Squeezed States and Uncertainty Relations, Boston, U.S.A., June 4–8, 2001.

Kimble, H. J.

Z. Y. Ou, S. F. Pereira, H. J. Kimble, and K. C. Peng, “Realization of the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox for continuous variables,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 3663–3667 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

König, F.

Ch. Silberhorn, P. K. Lam, O. Weiß, F. König, N. Korolkova, and G. Leuchs, “Generation of continuous variable Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen entanglement via the kerr nonlinearity in an optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 4267–4270 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Korolkova, N.

Ch. Silberhorn, P. K. Lam, O. Weiß, F. König, N. Korolkova, and G. Leuchs, “Generation of continuous variable Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen entanglement via the kerr nonlinearity in an optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 4267–4270 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kumar, P.

M. Vasilyev, S. K. Choi, P. Kumar, and G. M. D’Ariano, “Tomographic measurement of joint photon statistics of the twin-beam quantum state,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 2354–2357 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. K. Choi, M. Vasilyev, and P. Kumar, “Noiseless optical amplification of images,” Phys. Rev. Lett.,  83, 1938–1941 (1999).
[Crossref]

O. Aytur and P. Kumar, “Pulsed twin beams of light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 1551–1554 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lam, P. K.

Ch. Silberhorn, P. K. Lam, O. Weiß, F. König, N. Korolkova, and G. Leuchs, “Generation of continuous variable Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen entanglement via the kerr nonlinearity in an optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 4267–4270 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lam, P.K.

W.P. Bowen, R. Schnabel, P.K. Lam, and T.C. Ralph, “An experimental investigation of criteria for continuous variable entanglement,” Quant-ph/0209001.

Leuchs, G.

Ch. Silberhorn, P. K. Lam, O. Weiß, F. König, N. Korolkova, and G. Leuchs, “Generation of continuous variable Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen entanglement via the kerr nonlinearity in an optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 4267–4270 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, X.Y.

Y. Zhang, H. Wang, X.Y. Li, J.T. Jing, C.D. Xie, and K.C. Peng, “Experimental generation of bright two-mode quadrature squeezed light from a narrow-band nondegenerate optical parametric amplifier,” Phys. Rev. A, 62, 023813 (2000).
[Crossref]

Mlynek, J.

G. Breitenbach, S. Schiller, and J. Mlynek, “Measurement of the quantum states of squeezed light,” Nature 387, 471–475 (1997).
[Crossref]

Ou, Z. Y.

Z. Y. Ou, S. F. Pereira, H. J. Kimble, and K. C. Peng, “Realization of the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox for continuous variables,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 3663–3667 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pan, Q.

H. Wang, Y. Zhang, Q. Pan, H. Su, A. Porzio, C. D. Xie, and K. C. Peng, “Experimental realization of a quantum measurement for intensity difference fluctuation using a beam splitter,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1414–1417 (1999).
[Crossref]

K.C. Peng, Q. Pan, H. Wang, Y. Zhang, H. Su, and C.D. Xie, “Generation of two-mode quadrature-phase squeezing and intensity-difference squeezing from a cw-NOPO,” Appl. Phys. B 66, 755–758 (1998).
[Crossref]

Q. Pan, Y. Zhang, T. C. Zhang, C. D. Xie, and K. C. Peng, “Experimental investigation of intensity difference squeezing using Nd:YAP laser as pump source,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 30, 1588–1590 (1997).
[Crossref]

Peng, K. C.

H. Wang, Y. Zhang, Q. Pan, H. Su, A. Porzio, C. D. Xie, and K. C. Peng, “Experimental realization of a quantum measurement for intensity difference fluctuation using a beam splitter,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1414–1417 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. R. Gao, F. Y. Cui, C. Y. Xue, C. D. Xie, and K. C. Peng, “Generation and application of twin beams from an optical parametric oscillator including an a-cut KTP crystal,” Opt. Lett. 23, 870–872 (1998).
[Crossref]

Q. Pan, Y. Zhang, T. C. Zhang, C. D. Xie, and K. C. Peng, “Experimental investigation of intensity difference squeezing using Nd:YAP laser as pump source,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 30, 1588–1590 (1997).
[Crossref]

Z. Y. Ou, S. F. Pereira, H. J. Kimble, and K. C. Peng, “Realization of the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox for continuous variables,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 3663–3667 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Peng, K.C.

K.C. Peng, Q. Pan, H. Wang, Y. Zhang, H. Su, and C.D. Xie, “Generation of two-mode quadrature-phase squeezing and intensity-difference squeezing from a cw-NOPO,” Appl. Phys. B 66, 755–758 (1998).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhang, H. Wang, X.Y. Li, J.T. Jing, C.D. Xie, and K.C. Peng, “Experimental generation of bright two-mode quadrature squeezed light from a narrow-band nondegenerate optical parametric amplifier,” Phys. Rev. A, 62, 023813 (2000).
[Crossref]

Pereira, S. F.

Z. Y. Ou, S. F. Pereira, H. J. Kimble, and K. C. Peng, “Realization of the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox for continuous variables,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 3663–3667 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Porzio, A.

H. Wang, Y. Zhang, Q. Pan, H. Su, A. Porzio, C. D. Xie, and K. C. Peng, “Experimental realization of a quantum measurement for intensity difference fluctuation using a beam splitter,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1414–1417 (1999).
[Crossref]

Ralph, T.C.

W.P. Bowen, R. Schnabel, P.K. Lam, and T.C. Ralph, “An experimental investigation of criteria for continuous variable entanglement,” Quant-ph/0209001.

Raymer, M. G.

D. T. Smithey, M. Beck, M. Belsley, and M. G. Raymer, “Sub-shot-noise correlation of total photon number using macroscopic twin pulses of light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2650–2653 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Raymer, M.G.

D. T. Smithey, M. Beck, M.G. Raymer, and A. Faridani, “measurement of the wigner distribution and the density matrix of a light mode using optical homodyne tomography: application to squeezed states and the vacuum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1244–1247 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Reid, M. D.

M. D. Reid, “Demonstration of the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox using nondegenerate parametric amplification,” Phys, Rev. A 40, 913–923 (1989).
[Crossref]

M. D. Reid, “Inseparability criteria for demonstration of the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen gedanken experiment,” Quant-ph/0103142.

M. D. Reid, “The Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen Paradox and Entanglement 1: Signatures of EPR correlations for continuous variables,” Quant-ph/0112038.

Reynaud, S.

A. Heidmann, R. J. Horowicz, S. Reynaud, E. Giacobino, C. Fabre, and G. Camy, “Observation of quantum noise reduction on twin laser beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2555–2558 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schiller, S.

G. Breitenbach, S. Schiller, and J. Mlynek, “Measurement of the quantum states of squeezed light,” Nature 387, 471–475 (1997).
[Crossref]

Schnabel, R.

W.P. Bowen, R. Schnabel, P.K. Lam, and T.C. Ralph, “An experimental investigation of criteria for continuous variable entanglement,” Quant-ph/0209001.

Silberhorn, Ch.

Ch. Silberhorn, P. K. Lam, O. Weiß, F. König, N. Korolkova, and G. Leuchs, “Generation of continuous variable Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen entanglement via the kerr nonlinearity in an optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 4267–4270 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Smithey, D. T.

D. T. Smithey, M. Beck, M.G. Raymer, and A. Faridani, “measurement of the wigner distribution and the density matrix of a light mode using optical homodyne tomography: application to squeezed states and the vacuum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1244–1247 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. T. Smithey, M. Beck, M. Belsley, and M. G. Raymer, “Sub-shot-noise correlation of total photon number using macroscopic twin pulses of light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2650–2653 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Su, H.

H. Wang, Y. Zhang, Q. Pan, H. Su, A. Porzio, C. D. Xie, and K. C. Peng, “Experimental realization of a quantum measurement for intensity difference fluctuation using a beam splitter,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1414–1417 (1999).
[Crossref]

K.C. Peng, Q. Pan, H. Wang, Y. Zhang, H. Su, and C.D. Xie, “Generation of two-mode quadrature-phase squeezing and intensity-difference squeezing from a cw-NOPO,” Appl. Phys. B 66, 755–758 (1998).
[Crossref]

Vasilyev, M.

M. Vasilyev, S. K. Choi, P. Kumar, and G. M. D’Ariano, “Tomographic measurement of joint photon statistics of the twin-beam quantum state,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 2354–2357 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. K. Choi, M. Vasilyev, and P. Kumar, “Noiseless optical amplification of images,” Phys. Rev. Lett.,  83, 1938–1941 (1999).
[Crossref]

Wang, H.

H. Wang, Y. Zhang, Q. Pan, H. Su, A. Porzio, C. D. Xie, and K. C. Peng, “Experimental realization of a quantum measurement for intensity difference fluctuation using a beam splitter,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1414–1417 (1999).
[Crossref]

K.C. Peng, Q. Pan, H. Wang, Y. Zhang, H. Su, and C.D. Xie, “Generation of two-mode quadrature-phase squeezing and intensity-difference squeezing from a cw-NOPO,” Appl. Phys. B 66, 755–758 (1998).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhang, H. Wang, X.Y. Li, J.T. Jing, C.D. Xie, and K.C. Peng, “Experimental generation of bright two-mode quadrature squeezed light from a narrow-band nondegenerate optical parametric amplifier,” Phys. Rev. A, 62, 023813 (2000).
[Crossref]

Watanabe, M.

Y. Zhang, K. Kasai, and M. Watanabe, “Investigation of the photon-number statistics of twin beams by direct detection,” Opt. Lett. 27, 1244–1246 (2002).
[Crossref]

K. Kasai and M. Watanabe, in 7th International Conference on Squeezed States and Uncertainty Relations, Boston, U.S.A., June 4–8, 2001.

Weiß, O.

Ch. Silberhorn, P. K. Lam, O. Weiß, F. König, N. Korolkova, and G. Leuchs, “Generation of continuous variable Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen entanglement via the kerr nonlinearity in an optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 4267–4270 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xie, C. D.

H. Wang, Y. Zhang, Q. Pan, H. Su, A. Porzio, C. D. Xie, and K. C. Peng, “Experimental realization of a quantum measurement for intensity difference fluctuation using a beam splitter,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1414–1417 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. R. Gao, F. Y. Cui, C. Y. Xue, C. D. Xie, and K. C. Peng, “Generation and application of twin beams from an optical parametric oscillator including an a-cut KTP crystal,” Opt. Lett. 23, 870–872 (1998).
[Crossref]

Q. Pan, Y. Zhang, T. C. Zhang, C. D. Xie, and K. C. Peng, “Experimental investigation of intensity difference squeezing using Nd:YAP laser as pump source,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 30, 1588–1590 (1997).
[Crossref]

Xie, C.D.

K.C. Peng, Q. Pan, H. Wang, Y. Zhang, H. Su, and C.D. Xie, “Generation of two-mode quadrature-phase squeezing and intensity-difference squeezing from a cw-NOPO,” Appl. Phys. B 66, 755–758 (1998).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhang, H. Wang, X.Y. Li, J.T. Jing, C.D. Xie, and K.C. Peng, “Experimental generation of bright two-mode quadrature squeezed light from a narrow-band nondegenerate optical parametric amplifier,” Phys. Rev. A, 62, 023813 (2000).
[Crossref]

Xue, C. Y.

Zhang, T. C.

Q. Pan, Y. Zhang, T. C. Zhang, C. D. Xie, and K. C. Peng, “Experimental investigation of intensity difference squeezing using Nd:YAP laser as pump source,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 30, 1588–1590 (1997).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Y.

Y. Zhang, K. Kasai, and M. Watanabe, “Investigation of the photon-number statistics of twin beams by direct detection,” Opt. Lett. 27, 1244–1246 (2002).
[Crossref]

H. Wang, Y. Zhang, Q. Pan, H. Su, A. Porzio, C. D. Xie, and K. C. Peng, “Experimental realization of a quantum measurement for intensity difference fluctuation using a beam splitter,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1414–1417 (1999).
[Crossref]

K.C. Peng, Q. Pan, H. Wang, Y. Zhang, H. Su, and C.D. Xie, “Generation of two-mode quadrature-phase squeezing and intensity-difference squeezing from a cw-NOPO,” Appl. Phys. B 66, 755–758 (1998).
[Crossref]

Q. Pan, Y. Zhang, T. C. Zhang, C. D. Xie, and K. C. Peng, “Experimental investigation of intensity difference squeezing using Nd:YAP laser as pump source,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 30, 1588–1590 (1997).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhang, H. Wang, X.Y. Li, J.T. Jing, C.D. Xie, and K.C. Peng, “Experimental generation of bright two-mode quadrature squeezed light from a narrow-band nondegenerate optical parametric amplifier,” Phys. Rev. A, 62, 023813 (2000).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

K.C. Peng, Q. Pan, H. Wang, Y. Zhang, H. Su, and C.D. Xie, “Generation of two-mode quadrature-phase squeezing and intensity-difference squeezing from a cw-NOPO,” Appl. Phys. B 66, 755–758 (1998).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. (1)

Q. Pan, Y. Zhang, T. C. Zhang, C. D. Xie, and K. C. Peng, “Experimental investigation of intensity difference squeezing using Nd:YAP laser as pump source,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 30, 1588–1590 (1997).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

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[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

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Other (5)

W.P. Bowen, R. Schnabel, P.K. Lam, and T.C. Ralph, “An experimental investigation of criteria for continuous variable entanglement,” Quant-ph/0209001.

Y. Zhang, H. Wang, X.Y. Li, J.T. Jing, C.D. Xie, and K.C. Peng, “Experimental generation of bright two-mode quadrature squeezed light from a narrow-band nondegenerate optical parametric amplifier,” Phys. Rev. A, 62, 023813 (2000).
[Crossref]

M. D. Reid, “Inseparability criteria for demonstration of the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen gedanken experiment,” Quant-ph/0103142.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Experimental setup. D1 and D2, detectors; PBS, polarizing beam splitter; LPF, low pass filters; G, amplifier; λ/2, Half-wave plate; rf (ψ) and rf(θ), rf local oscillators.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Record of noise trace of channel 1 for separable coherent state and signal of twin beams in a 100kHz bandwidth at 4MHz.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Measured joint probability distribution for twin beams (a) and separable state (b) with equal mean photon numbers, viewed in 3D and as contour plots.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Conditional probability distribution of separable state (a) and twin-beam state (b)

Equations (2)

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P ( x x i B ) 0 , if x μ i > δ .
P ( X X i B ) = P X X i B P ( X i B )

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