Abstract

We present the first scanning laser ophthalmoscope that uses adaptive optics to measure and correct the high order aberrations of the human eye. Adaptive optics increases both lateral and axial resolution, permitting axial sectioning of retinal tissue in vivo. The instrument is used to visualize photoreceptors, nerve fibers and flow of white blood cells in retinal capillaries.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. H. Webb, G. W. Hughes, and O. Pomerantzeff, “Flying spot TV ophthalmoscope,” Appl. Opt. 19, 2991–2997 (1980).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. R. H. Webb and G. W. Hughes, “Scanning laser ophthalmoscope,” IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering 28, 488–492 (1981).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. R. H. Webb, G. W. Hughes, and F. C. Delori, “Confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope,” Appl. Opt. 26, 1492–1499 (1987).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. J. Liang, D. R. Williams, and D. Miller, “Supernormal vision and high-resolution retinal imaging through adaptive optics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 2884–2892 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  5. A. Roorda and D. R. Williams, “The arrangement of the three cone classes in the living human eye,” Nature 397, 520–522 (1999).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. R. H. Webb and F. C. Delori, “How we see the retina,” in Laser Technology in Ophthalmology, J. Marshall, ed. (Kugler & Ghedini Publications, Amsterdam, 1988). pp. 3–14.
  7. W. J. Donnelly, F. Romero-Borja, and A. Roorda, “Optimal pupil size for axial resolution in the human eye,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 42, 161 (2001).
  8. R. N. Weinreb and A. W. Dreher, “Reproducibility and accuracy of topographic measurements of the optic nerve head with the laser tomographic scanner,” in Laser Scanning Ophthalmoscopy and Tomography, J. E. Nasemann and R. O. W. Burk, eds. (Quintessenz, Berlin, 1990).
  9. R. Birngruber, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, S. Teschner, and J. Noack, “Confocal laser scanning fluorescence topography: a new method for three-dimensional functional imaging of vascular structures,” Graefe’s Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 238, 559–565 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  10. D. Bartsch, G. Zinser, and W. R. Freeman, “Resolution improvement in confocal scanning laser tomography of the human fundus,” Vision Science and its Applications: Technical Digest (OSA, Washington, D. C.), 134–137 (1994).
  11. A. W. Dreher, J. F. Bille, and R. N. Weinreb, “Active optical depth resolution improvement of the laser tomographic scanner,” Appl. Opt. 28, 804–808 (1989).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. S. A. Burns, S. Marcos, A. E. Elsner, and S. Bara. “Contrast improvement for confocal retinal imaging using phase correcting plates,” Opt. Letters 27, 400–402 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  13. A. Roorda and M. C. W. Campbell, “Confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope for real-time photoreceptor imaging in the human eye,” Vision Science and its Applications: Technical Digest (OSA, Washington, D. C.)  1, 90–93 (1997).
  14. A. Roorda, M. C. W. Campbell, and C. Cui, “Optimal entrance beam location improves high resolution retinal imaging in the CSLO,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. Supplem. 38, 1012 (1997).
  15. A. R. Wade and F. W. Fitzke, “In vivo imaging of the human cone-photoreceptor mosaic using a confocal laser scanning ophthalmoscope,” Lasers and Light in Ophthalmology 8, 129–136 (1998).
  16. A. R. Wade and F. W. Fitzke, “A fast, robust pattern recognition system for low light level image registration and its application to retinal imaging,” Optics Express 3, 190–197 (1998).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. J. Porter, A. Guirao, I. G. Cox, and D. R. Williams, “Monochromatic aberrations of the human eye in a large population,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 1793–1803 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  18. W. J. Donnelly, “Improving Imaging in the Confocal Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscope,” M.S. dissertation, (University of Houston, Houston, TX, 2001).
  19. H. Hofer, P. Artal, J. L. Aragon, and D. R. Williams, “Dynamics of the eye’s wave aberration,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 497–506 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  20. D. R. Williams, J. Liang, D. Miller, and A. Roorda, “Wavefront Sensing and Compensation for the Human Eye,” in Adaptive Optics Engineering Handbook, R. K. Tyson, ed. (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1999). pp. 287–310.
  21. T. Wilson and C. J. R. Sheppard, “Theory And Practice of Scanning Optical Microscopy,”. (Academic Press, London, 1984).
  22. A. Roorda, “Double Pass Reflections in the Human Eye,” Ph.D. dissertation, (University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Canada, 1996).
  23. T. Wilson, “The role of the pinhole in confocal imaging systems,” in The Handbook of Biological Confocal Microscopy, J. B. Pawley, ed. (Plenum Press, New York, 1990). pp. 99–113.
  24. Full-length uncompressed movies can be downloaded from the Adaptive Optics Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscope Website, http://www.opt.uh.edu/research/aroorda/aoslo.htm, (University of Houston, Houston, TX, 2002).
  25. D. R. Williams, “Topography of the foveal cone mosaic in the living human eye,” Vision Res. 28, 433–454 (1988).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  26. J. I. Yellot, “Spectral analysis of spatial sampling by photoreceptors: Topological disorder prevents aliasing,” Vision Res. 22, 1205–1210 (1982).
    [Crossref]

2002 (1)

S. A. Burns, S. Marcos, A. E. Elsner, and S. Bara. “Contrast improvement for confocal retinal imaging using phase correcting plates,” Opt. Letters 27, 400–402 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (3)

2000 (1)

R. Birngruber, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, S. Teschner, and J. Noack, “Confocal laser scanning fluorescence topography: a new method for three-dimensional functional imaging of vascular structures,” Graefe’s Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 238, 559–565 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

A. Roorda and D. R. Williams, “The arrangement of the three cone classes in the living human eye,” Nature 397, 520–522 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1998 (2)

A. R. Wade and F. W. Fitzke, “In vivo imaging of the human cone-photoreceptor mosaic using a confocal laser scanning ophthalmoscope,” Lasers and Light in Ophthalmology 8, 129–136 (1998).

A. R. Wade and F. W. Fitzke, “A fast, robust pattern recognition system for low light level image registration and its application to retinal imaging,” Optics Express 3, 190–197 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1997 (3)

A. Roorda and M. C. W. Campbell, “Confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope for real-time photoreceptor imaging in the human eye,” Vision Science and its Applications: Technical Digest (OSA, Washington, D. C.)  1, 90–93 (1997).

A. Roorda, M. C. W. Campbell, and C. Cui, “Optimal entrance beam location improves high resolution retinal imaging in the CSLO,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. Supplem. 38, 1012 (1997).

J. Liang, D. R. Williams, and D. Miller, “Supernormal vision and high-resolution retinal imaging through adaptive optics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 2884–2892 (1997).
[Crossref]

1989 (1)

1988 (1)

D. R. Williams, “Topography of the foveal cone mosaic in the living human eye,” Vision Res. 28, 433–454 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1987 (1)

1982 (1)

J. I. Yellot, “Spectral analysis of spatial sampling by photoreceptors: Topological disorder prevents aliasing,” Vision Res. 22, 1205–1210 (1982).
[Crossref]

1981 (1)

R. H. Webb and G. W. Hughes, “Scanning laser ophthalmoscope,” IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering 28, 488–492 (1981).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1980 (1)

Aragon, J. L.

Artal, P.

Bara, S.

S. A. Burns, S. Marcos, A. E. Elsner, and S. Bara. “Contrast improvement for confocal retinal imaging using phase correcting plates,” Opt. Letters 27, 400–402 (2002).
[Crossref]

Bartsch, D.

D. Bartsch, G. Zinser, and W. R. Freeman, “Resolution improvement in confocal scanning laser tomography of the human fundus,” Vision Science and its Applications: Technical Digest (OSA, Washington, D. C.), 134–137 (1994).

Bille, J. F.

Birngruber, R.

R. Birngruber, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, S. Teschner, and J. Noack, “Confocal laser scanning fluorescence topography: a new method for three-dimensional functional imaging of vascular structures,” Graefe’s Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 238, 559–565 (2000).
[Crossref]

Burns, S. A.

S. A. Burns, S. Marcos, A. E. Elsner, and S. Bara. “Contrast improvement for confocal retinal imaging using phase correcting plates,” Opt. Letters 27, 400–402 (2002).
[Crossref]

Campbell, M. C. W.

A. Roorda and M. C. W. Campbell, “Confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope for real-time photoreceptor imaging in the human eye,” Vision Science and its Applications: Technical Digest (OSA, Washington, D. C.)  1, 90–93 (1997).

A. Roorda, M. C. W. Campbell, and C. Cui, “Optimal entrance beam location improves high resolution retinal imaging in the CSLO,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. Supplem. 38, 1012 (1997).

Cox, I. G.

Cui, C.

A. Roorda, M. C. W. Campbell, and C. Cui, “Optimal entrance beam location improves high resolution retinal imaging in the CSLO,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. Supplem. 38, 1012 (1997).

Delori, F. C.

R. H. Webb, G. W. Hughes, and F. C. Delori, “Confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope,” Appl. Opt. 26, 1492–1499 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. H. Webb and F. C. Delori, “How we see the retina,” in Laser Technology in Ophthalmology, J. Marshall, ed. (Kugler & Ghedini Publications, Amsterdam, 1988). pp. 3–14.

Donnelly, W. J.

W. J. Donnelly, F. Romero-Borja, and A. Roorda, “Optimal pupil size for axial resolution in the human eye,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 42, 161 (2001).

W. J. Donnelly, “Improving Imaging in the Confocal Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscope,” M.S. dissertation, (University of Houston, Houston, TX, 2001).

Dreher, A. W.

A. W. Dreher, J. F. Bille, and R. N. Weinreb, “Active optical depth resolution improvement of the laser tomographic scanner,” Appl. Opt. 28, 804–808 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. N. Weinreb and A. W. Dreher, “Reproducibility and accuracy of topographic measurements of the optic nerve head with the laser tomographic scanner,” in Laser Scanning Ophthalmoscopy and Tomography, J. E. Nasemann and R. O. W. Burk, eds. (Quintessenz, Berlin, 1990).

Elsner, A. E.

S. A. Burns, S. Marcos, A. E. Elsner, and S. Bara. “Contrast improvement for confocal retinal imaging using phase correcting plates,” Opt. Letters 27, 400–402 (2002).
[Crossref]

Fitzke, F. W.

A. R. Wade and F. W. Fitzke, “In vivo imaging of the human cone-photoreceptor mosaic using a confocal laser scanning ophthalmoscope,” Lasers and Light in Ophthalmology 8, 129–136 (1998).

A. R. Wade and F. W. Fitzke, “A fast, robust pattern recognition system for low light level image registration and its application to retinal imaging,” Optics Express 3, 190–197 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Freeman, W. R.

D. Bartsch, G. Zinser, and W. R. Freeman, “Resolution improvement in confocal scanning laser tomography of the human fundus,” Vision Science and its Applications: Technical Digest (OSA, Washington, D. C.), 134–137 (1994).

Guirao, A.

Hofer, H.

Hughes, G. W.

Liang, J.

J. Liang, D. R. Williams, and D. Miller, “Supernormal vision and high-resolution retinal imaging through adaptive optics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 2884–2892 (1997).
[Crossref]

D. R. Williams, J. Liang, D. Miller, and A. Roorda, “Wavefront Sensing and Compensation for the Human Eye,” in Adaptive Optics Engineering Handbook, R. K. Tyson, ed. (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1999). pp. 287–310.

Marcos, S.

S. A. Burns, S. Marcos, A. E. Elsner, and S. Bara. “Contrast improvement for confocal retinal imaging using phase correcting plates,” Opt. Letters 27, 400–402 (2002).
[Crossref]

Miller, D.

J. Liang, D. R. Williams, and D. Miller, “Supernormal vision and high-resolution retinal imaging through adaptive optics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 2884–2892 (1997).
[Crossref]

D. R. Williams, J. Liang, D. Miller, and A. Roorda, “Wavefront Sensing and Compensation for the Human Eye,” in Adaptive Optics Engineering Handbook, R. K. Tyson, ed. (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1999). pp. 287–310.

Noack, J.

R. Birngruber, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, S. Teschner, and J. Noack, “Confocal laser scanning fluorescence topography: a new method for three-dimensional functional imaging of vascular structures,” Graefe’s Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 238, 559–565 (2000).
[Crossref]

Pomerantzeff, O.

Porter, J.

Romero-Borja, F.

W. J. Donnelly, F. Romero-Borja, and A. Roorda, “Optimal pupil size for axial resolution in the human eye,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 42, 161 (2001).

Roorda, A.

W. J. Donnelly, F. Romero-Borja, and A. Roorda, “Optimal pupil size for axial resolution in the human eye,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 42, 161 (2001).

A. Roorda and D. R. Williams, “The arrangement of the three cone classes in the living human eye,” Nature 397, 520–522 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Roorda, M. C. W. Campbell, and C. Cui, “Optimal entrance beam location improves high resolution retinal imaging in the CSLO,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. Supplem. 38, 1012 (1997).

A. Roorda and M. C. W. Campbell, “Confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope for real-time photoreceptor imaging in the human eye,” Vision Science and its Applications: Technical Digest (OSA, Washington, D. C.)  1, 90–93 (1997).

D. R. Williams, J. Liang, D. Miller, and A. Roorda, “Wavefront Sensing and Compensation for the Human Eye,” in Adaptive Optics Engineering Handbook, R. K. Tyson, ed. (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1999). pp. 287–310.

A. Roorda, “Double Pass Reflections in the Human Eye,” Ph.D. dissertation, (University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Canada, 1996).

Schmidt-Erfurth, U.

R. Birngruber, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, S. Teschner, and J. Noack, “Confocal laser scanning fluorescence topography: a new method for three-dimensional functional imaging of vascular structures,” Graefe’s Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 238, 559–565 (2000).
[Crossref]

Sheppard, C. J. R.

T. Wilson and C. J. R. Sheppard, “Theory And Practice of Scanning Optical Microscopy,”. (Academic Press, London, 1984).

Teschner, S.

R. Birngruber, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, S. Teschner, and J. Noack, “Confocal laser scanning fluorescence topography: a new method for three-dimensional functional imaging of vascular structures,” Graefe’s Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 238, 559–565 (2000).
[Crossref]

Wade, A. R.

A. R. Wade and F. W. Fitzke, “A fast, robust pattern recognition system for low light level image registration and its application to retinal imaging,” Optics Express 3, 190–197 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. R. Wade and F. W. Fitzke, “In vivo imaging of the human cone-photoreceptor mosaic using a confocal laser scanning ophthalmoscope,” Lasers and Light in Ophthalmology 8, 129–136 (1998).

Webb, R. H.

R. H. Webb, G. W. Hughes, and F. C. Delori, “Confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope,” Appl. Opt. 26, 1492–1499 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. H. Webb and G. W. Hughes, “Scanning laser ophthalmoscope,” IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering 28, 488–492 (1981).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. H. Webb, G. W. Hughes, and O. Pomerantzeff, “Flying spot TV ophthalmoscope,” Appl. Opt. 19, 2991–2997 (1980).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. H. Webb and F. C. Delori, “How we see the retina,” in Laser Technology in Ophthalmology, J. Marshall, ed. (Kugler & Ghedini Publications, Amsterdam, 1988). pp. 3–14.

Weinreb, R. N.

A. W. Dreher, J. F. Bille, and R. N. Weinreb, “Active optical depth resolution improvement of the laser tomographic scanner,” Appl. Opt. 28, 804–808 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. N. Weinreb and A. W. Dreher, “Reproducibility and accuracy of topographic measurements of the optic nerve head with the laser tomographic scanner,” in Laser Scanning Ophthalmoscopy and Tomography, J. E. Nasemann and R. O. W. Burk, eds. (Quintessenz, Berlin, 1990).

Williams, D. R.

J. Porter, A. Guirao, I. G. Cox, and D. R. Williams, “Monochromatic aberrations of the human eye in a large population,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 1793–1803 (2001).
[Crossref]

H. Hofer, P. Artal, J. L. Aragon, and D. R. Williams, “Dynamics of the eye’s wave aberration,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 497–506 (2001).
[Crossref]

A. Roorda and D. R. Williams, “The arrangement of the three cone classes in the living human eye,” Nature 397, 520–522 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Liang, D. R. Williams, and D. Miller, “Supernormal vision and high-resolution retinal imaging through adaptive optics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 2884–2892 (1997).
[Crossref]

D. R. Williams, “Topography of the foveal cone mosaic in the living human eye,” Vision Res. 28, 433–454 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. R. Williams, J. Liang, D. Miller, and A. Roorda, “Wavefront Sensing and Compensation for the Human Eye,” in Adaptive Optics Engineering Handbook, R. K. Tyson, ed. (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1999). pp. 287–310.

Wilson, T.

T. Wilson, “The role of the pinhole in confocal imaging systems,” in The Handbook of Biological Confocal Microscopy, J. B. Pawley, ed. (Plenum Press, New York, 1990). pp. 99–113.

T. Wilson and C. J. R. Sheppard, “Theory And Practice of Scanning Optical Microscopy,”. (Academic Press, London, 1984).

Yellot, J. I.

J. I. Yellot, “Spectral analysis of spatial sampling by photoreceptors: Topological disorder prevents aliasing,” Vision Res. 22, 1205–1210 (1982).
[Crossref]

Zinser, G.

D. Bartsch, G. Zinser, and W. R. Freeman, “Resolution improvement in confocal scanning laser tomography of the human fundus,” Vision Science and its Applications: Technical Digest (OSA, Washington, D. C.), 134–137 (1994).

Appl. Opt. (3)

Graefe’s Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. (1)

R. Birngruber, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, S. Teschner, and J. Noack, “Confocal laser scanning fluorescence topography: a new method for three-dimensional functional imaging of vascular structures,” Graefe’s Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 238, 559–565 (2000).
[Crossref]

IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering (1)

R. H. Webb and G. W. Hughes, “Scanning laser ophthalmoscope,” IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering 28, 488–492 (1981).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (1)

W. J. Donnelly, F. Romero-Borja, and A. Roorda, “Optimal pupil size for axial resolution in the human eye,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 42, 161 (2001).

Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. Supplem. (1)

A. Roorda, M. C. W. Campbell, and C. Cui, “Optimal entrance beam location improves high resolution retinal imaging in the CSLO,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. Supplem. 38, 1012 (1997).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (3)

Lasers and Light in Ophthalmology (1)

A. R. Wade and F. W. Fitzke, “In vivo imaging of the human cone-photoreceptor mosaic using a confocal laser scanning ophthalmoscope,” Lasers and Light in Ophthalmology 8, 129–136 (1998).

Nature (1)

A. Roorda and D. R. Williams, “The arrangement of the three cone classes in the living human eye,” Nature 397, 520–522 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Letters (1)

S. A. Burns, S. Marcos, A. E. Elsner, and S. Bara. “Contrast improvement for confocal retinal imaging using phase correcting plates,” Opt. Letters 27, 400–402 (2002).
[Crossref]

Optics Express (1)

A. R. Wade and F. W. Fitzke, “A fast, robust pattern recognition system for low light level image registration and its application to retinal imaging,” Optics Express 3, 190–197 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vision Res. (2)

D. R. Williams, “Topography of the foveal cone mosaic in the living human eye,” Vision Res. 28, 433–454 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. I. Yellot, “Spectral analysis of spatial sampling by photoreceptors: Topological disorder prevents aliasing,” Vision Res. 22, 1205–1210 (1982).
[Crossref]

Other (10)

D. R. Williams, J. Liang, D. Miller, and A. Roorda, “Wavefront Sensing and Compensation for the Human Eye,” in Adaptive Optics Engineering Handbook, R. K. Tyson, ed. (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1999). pp. 287–310.

T. Wilson and C. J. R. Sheppard, “Theory And Practice of Scanning Optical Microscopy,”. (Academic Press, London, 1984).

A. Roorda, “Double Pass Reflections in the Human Eye,” Ph.D. dissertation, (University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Canada, 1996).

T. Wilson, “The role of the pinhole in confocal imaging systems,” in The Handbook of Biological Confocal Microscopy, J. B. Pawley, ed. (Plenum Press, New York, 1990). pp. 99–113.

Full-length uncompressed movies can be downloaded from the Adaptive Optics Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscope Website, http://www.opt.uh.edu/research/aroorda/aoslo.htm, (University of Houston, Houston, TX, 2002).

W. J. Donnelly, “Improving Imaging in the Confocal Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscope,” M.S. dissertation, (University of Houston, Houston, TX, 2001).

A. Roorda and M. C. W. Campbell, “Confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope for real-time photoreceptor imaging in the human eye,” Vision Science and its Applications: Technical Digest (OSA, Washington, D. C.)  1, 90–93 (1997).

D. Bartsch, G. Zinser, and W. R. Freeman, “Resolution improvement in confocal scanning laser tomography of the human fundus,” Vision Science and its Applications: Technical Digest (OSA, Washington, D. C.), 134–137 (1994).

R. H. Webb and F. C. Delori, “How we see the retina,” in Laser Technology in Ophthalmology, J. Marshall, ed. (Kugler & Ghedini Publications, Amsterdam, 1988). pp. 3–14.

R. N. Weinreb and A. W. Dreher, “Reproducibility and accuracy of topographic measurements of the optic nerve head with the laser tomographic scanner,” in Laser Scanning Ophthalmoscopy and Tomography, J. E. Nasemann and R. O. W. Burk, eds. (Quintessenz, Berlin, 1990).

Supplementary Material (2)

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

The adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope. The six main components are labeled. Lenses are labeled L# and mirrors M#. Retinal and pupil conjugate points are labeled r and p through the optical path. FO: fiber optic light source, AP: artificial pupil, BS: beamsplitter, DM deformable mirror, HS: horizontal scanner (16kHz), VS: vertical scanner (30 Hz), LA: lenslet array, FM: flipping mirror, CP: confocal pinhole, PMT: photomultiplier tube.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

The two figures show the same area of retina taken with and without aberration correction with AO. In this case, the RMS wavefront error was reduced from 0.55 to 0.10 μm. The insets show the histograms of gray scales in the image.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Axial sectioning. These images are from a location 4.5 degrees in the superior retina. In the left image, the focal plane is at the surface of the nerve fibers. The central image shows a slightly deeper optical section where less nerve fiber structure is seen but the blood vessel is in focus. The right image shows the image when the focal plane is at the level of the photoreceptors, which are about 300 μm deeper than the left image. The blood vessel appears dark because scattered light from its surface is blocked by the confocal pinhole. Scale bar is 100 micrometers.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(2 MB) Movie sequence (30 fps) showing the flow of white blood cells though the capillaries at the edge of the foveal avascular zone (10 MB version). The capillary is the m-shaped line in the frame. The fovea is 1 degree (450 μm) up and to the right of the center of the frame. The blood cells can be seen entering the capillary at the right side and exiting the bottom edge of the frame. The frame is a registered sum of 8 sequential frames. Some resolution of the movie is lost due to compression. Longer, uncompressed movies can be found at our website [24]: www.opt.uh.edu/research/aroorda/aoslo.htm. Scale bar is 100 microns.

Figure 5.
Figure 5.

Change in photoreceptor spacing with eccentricity. The circle symbols show the cone photoreceptor spacing as a function of eccentricity from the fovea. The long-dashed line shows anatomical data from Curcio et al. 1990 and the short-dashed line show psychophysical estimations of cone spacing from Williams [25]. Our cone spacing estimates were made by measuring the average radius of Yellot’s ring [26] from the power spectrum of the images.

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