Abstract

We have developed a novel real-time phase-resolved optical coherence tomography (OCT) and optical Doppler tomography (ODT) system using optical Hilbert transformation. By combining circularly polarized reference and linearly polarized sample signals, in-phase and quadrature interference components are produced in separate channels and treated as the real and imaginary parts of a complex signal to obtain the phase information directly. Using a resonant scanner at an axial scanning speed of 4 kHz in the reference arm of the interferometer, both structure and blood flow velocity images with 200 axial scans can be acquired at 20 frames per second with high sensitivity and large dynamic range. Real-time videos of in vivo blood flow in the chick chorioallantoic membrane using this interferometer are presented.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. Z. Chen, T. E. Milner, D. Dave, and J. S. Nelson, "Optical Doppler tomographic imaging of fluid flow velocity in highly scattering media," Opt. Lett. 22, 64-66 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. Z. Chen, T. E. Milner, S. Srinivas, X. J.Wang, A.Malekafzali,M. J. C. vanGemert, and J. S. Nelson, "Noninvasive imaging of in vivo blood flow velocity using optical Doppler tomography," Opt. Lett. 22, 1119-1121 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkarni, S. Yazdanfar, J. K. Barton, and A. J. Welch, " In vivo bidirectional color Doppler flow imaging of picoliter blood volumes using optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 22, 1439-1441 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  5. Z. Chen, T. E. Milner, X. J. Wang, S. Srinivas, and J. S. Nelson, "Optical Doppler tomography: Imaging in vivo blood dynamics following pharmacological intervention and photodynamic therapy," Photochem. Photobiol. 67, 56-60 (1998).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. Y. Zhao, Z. Chen, C. Saxer, S. Xiang, J. F. de Boer, and J. S. Nelson, "Phase-resolved optical coherence tomography and optical Doppler tomography for imaging blood flow in human skin with fast scanning speed and high velocity sensitivity," Opt. Lett. 25, 114-116 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Z. Chen, Y. Zhao, S. M. Srinivas, J. S. Nelson, N. Prakash, and R. D. Frostig, "Optical Doppler tomography," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1134-1141 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  10. Y. Zhao, Z. Chen, C. Saxer, Q. Shen, S. Xiang, J. F. de Boer, and J. S. Nelson, "Doppler standard deviation imaging for clinical monitoring of in vivo human skin blood flow," Opt. Lett. 25, 1358-1360 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  11. Y. Zhao, Z. Chen, Z. Ding, H. Ren, J. S. Nelson, "Real-time phase-resolved functional optical coherence tomography by use of optical Hilbert transformation," Opt. Lett. 27, 98-100 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  12. C. Yang, A. Wax, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, "Phase-dispersion optical tomography," Opt. Lett. 26, 686-688 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. Sticker, C. K. Hitzenberger, R. Leitgeb, and A. F. Fercher, "Quantitative differential phase measurement and imaging in transparent and turbid media by optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 26, 518-520 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  14. A. M. Rollins, S. Yazdanfar, J. K. Barton, J. A. Izatt, ?Real-time in vivo color Doppler optical coherence tomography,? J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 123-129 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

Z. Chen, Y. Zhao, S. M. Srinivas, J. S. Nelson, N. Prakash, and R. D. Frostig, "Optical Doppler tomography," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1134-1141 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt.

A. M. Rollins, S. Yazdanfar, J. K. Barton, J. A. Izatt, ?Real-time in vivo color Doppler optical coherence tomography,? J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 123-129 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett.

Y. Zhao, Z. Chen, C. Saxer, S. Xiang, J. F. de Boer, and J. S. Nelson, "Phase-resolved optical coherence tomography and optical Doppler tomography for imaging blood flow in human skin with fast scanning speed and high velocity sensitivity," Opt. Lett. 25, 114-116 (2000).
[CrossRef]

U. Morgner, W. Drexler, X. D. Kartner, C. Piltris, E. P. Ippen, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Spectroscopic optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 25, 111-113 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. E. Saxer, J. F. de Boer, B. H. Park, Y. Zhao, Z. Chen, and J. S. Nelson, "High-speed fiber based polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography of in vivo human skin," Opt. Lett. 25, 1355-1357 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhao, Z. Chen, C. Saxer, Q. Shen, S. Xiang, J. F. de Boer, and J. S. Nelson, "Doppler standard deviation imaging for clinical monitoring of in vivo human skin blood flow," Opt. Lett. 25, 1358-1360 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhao, Z. Chen, Z. Ding, H. Ren, J. S. Nelson, "Real-time phase-resolved functional optical coherence tomography by use of optical Hilbert transformation," Opt. Lett. 27, 98-100 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. Yang, A. Wax, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, "Phase-dispersion optical tomography," Opt. Lett. 26, 686-688 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Sticker, C. K. Hitzenberger, R. Leitgeb, and A. F. Fercher, "Quantitative differential phase measurement and imaging in transparent and turbid media by optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 26, 518-520 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Z. Chen, T. E. Milner, D. Dave, and J. S. Nelson, "Optical Doppler tomographic imaging of fluid flow velocity in highly scattering media," Opt. Lett. 22, 64-66 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Chen, T. E. Milner, S. Srinivas, X. J.Wang, A.Malekafzali,M. J. C. vanGemert, and J. S. Nelson, "Noninvasive imaging of in vivo blood flow velocity using optical Doppler tomography," Opt. Lett. 22, 1119-1121 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkarni, S. Yazdanfar, J. K. Barton, and A. J. Welch, " In vivo bidirectional color Doppler flow imaging of picoliter blood volumes using optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 22, 1439-1441 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Photochem. Photobiol.

Z. Chen, T. E. Milner, X. J. Wang, S. Srinivas, and J. S. Nelson, "Optical Doppler tomography: Imaging in vivo blood dynamics following pharmacological intervention and photodynamic therapy," Photochem. Photobiol. 67, 56-60 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Supplementary Material (2)

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» Media 2: AVI (726 KB)     

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic diagram of the proposed quadrature interferometer for optical Hilbert transformation. BS: non-polarizing beam splitter, PBS: polarizing beam splitter.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Experimental phase-resolved OCT/ODT system that implements a quadrature interferometer for optical Hilbert transformation. Ports A-E: pigtailed fiber ports; P1–P3: linear polarizers; QWP: quarter-wave plate; BS: non-polarizing beam splitter; PBS: polarizing beam splitter; RSOD: rapid scanning optical delay line; PC: polarization controller; DPD1 and DPD2: differential photo-detectors with preamplifiers.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

In vitro imaging of the flowing intralipid in a glass conduit. OCT image (A) and ODT image (B) using optical Hilbert transformation; OCT image (A′) and ODT image (B′) using digital Hilbert transformation.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Recordings (1.04 MB) of real-time in vivo OCT/ODT images (100 ×50 pixels) of two veins in the CAM.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Recordings (726 KB) of real-time in vivo OCT/ODT images (100 ×80 pixels) of one vein and one artery in the CAM.

Equations (24)

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Γ ( t ) = + f ( v ) exp ( 2 πjvt ) dv
f ( v ) = T + T Γ ( t ) exp ( 2 πjvt ) dt
Γ ( t ) = 2 Re [ 0 + f ( v ) exp ( 2 πjvt ) dv ]
f ( v ) a ( v ) exp [ ( v ) ]
Γ ( t ) = 2 0 + a ( v ) cos [ 2 πvt + α ( v ) ] dv
Γ ( t ) = 2 0 + a ( v ) sin [ 2 πvt + α ( v ) ] dv
Γ ( t ) = 1 π PV ( + Γ ( τ ) τ t )
Γ ( t ) = + [ j sgn ( v ) ] f ( v ) exp ( 2 πjvt ) dv
Γ ˜ ( t ) = A ( t ) exp [ ( t ) ] = Γ ( t ) + j Γ ( t )
Γ ˜ ( t ) = A ( t ) exp [ ( t ) ] = 2 0 + f ( v ) exp ( 2 πjvt ) dv
H ( v ) = { 0 v < 0 1 v 0
E s = ( x + y ) t s a ( t s ) exp [ ( t s ) ] v e ̂ ( v ) exp [ j 2 πv ( t t s ) ] dvd t s ,
E r = ( x + j y ) R v e ̂ ( v ) exp [ j 2 πv ( t t r ) j 2 π v C t ] dv .
I ¯ x = I s + I r + A ( t ) cos [ 2 π v C t + ϕ ( t ) ] ,
I ¯ y = I s + I r + A ( t ) sin [ 2 π v C t + ϕ ( t ) ] .
I s = t s a ( t s ) exp [ j ϕ ( t s ) ] v e ̂ ( v ) exp [ j 2 πv ( t t s ) ] dv dt s 2
I r = R v e ̂ ( v ) exp [ j 2 πv ( t t r ) j 2 π v C t ] dv 2
A ( t ) exp [ ( t ) ] 2 R t s a ( t s ) exp [ ( t s ) ] v e ̂ ( v ) 2 exp [ j 2 πv ( t r t s ) ] dvd t s
= 2 R t s a ( t s ) exp [ ( t s ) ] G ( t r t s ) d t s
= 2 Ra ( t ) exp [ ( t ) ] G ( t )
Γ ˜ ( t ) = I x + j I y = A ( t ) exp [ j 2 πv C t + ( t ) ]
S x ( t ) I x ( t ) = A ( t ) cos ϕ ( t ) ,
S y ( t ) I y ( t ) = A ( t ) sin ϕ ( t ) .
Γ ˜ ( t ) = S x ( t ) + j S y ( t ) = A ( t ) exp [ ( t ) ]

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