Abstract

Using time-resolved imaging and scattering techniques, we directly and indirectly monitor the breakdown dynamics induced in water by femtosecond laser pulses over eight orders of magnitude in time. We resolve, for the first time, the picosecond plasma dynamics and observe a 20 ps delay before the laser-produced plasma expands. We attribute this delay to the electron-ion energy transfer time.

© Optical Society of America

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Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. A (1)

J. P. Fischer, T. Juhasz, and J. F. Bille, "Time resolved imaging of the surface ablation of soft tissue with ir picosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. A 64, 181 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (3)

A. Vogel, J. Noack, K. Nahen, D. Theisen, S. Busch, U. Parlitz, D. X. Hammer, G. D. Noojin, B. A. Rockwell, and R. Birngruber, "Energy balance of optical breakdown in water at nanosecond to femtosecond time scales," Appl. Phys. B 68, 271 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. H. Loesel, J. P. Fischer, M. H. Gotz, C. Horvath, T. Juhasz, F. Noack, N. Suhm, and J. F. Bille, "Nonthermal ablation of neural tissue with femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. B 66, 121 (1998).

A. G. Doukas, A. D. Zweig, J. K. Frisoli, R. Birngruber, and T. F. Deutsch, "Non-invasive determination of shock wave pressure generated by optical breakdown," Appl. Phys. B 53, 237 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

E. N. Glezer and E. Mazur, "Ultrafast-laser driven micro-explosions in transparent materials," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 882 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. Du, X. Liu, G. Korn, J. Squier, and G. Mourou, "Laser-induced breakdown by impact ionization in sio2 with pulse widths from 7 ns to 150 fs," Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 3071 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K. Miura, J. R. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, "Photowritten optical waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (1)

N. Shen, C. B. Schaffer, D. Datta, and E. Mazur, "Photodisruption in biological tissues and single cells using femtosecond laser pulses," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 2001), Vol. 56, p. 403 .

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

P. K. Kennedy, S. A. Boppart, D. X. Hammer, B. A. Rockwell, G. D. Noojin, and W. P. Roach, "A firstorder model for computation of laser-induced breakdown thresholds in ocular and aqueous media .2. Comparison to experiment," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 2250 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Puliafito and R. F. Steinert, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 20, 1442 (1984).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron (1)

A. A. Oraevsky, L. B. DaSilva, A. M. Rubenchik, M. D. Feit, M. E. Glinsky, M. D. Perry, B. M. Mammini, W. Small, and B. C. Stuart, "Plasma mediated ablation of biological tissues with nanosecond to-femtosecond laser pulses: Relative role of linear and nonlinear absorption," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 801 (1996).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

T. Juhasz, H. Frieder, R. M. Kurtz, C. Horvath, J. F. Bille, and G. Mourou, "Corneal refractive surgery with femtosecond lasers," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 902 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Acoust. Soc. Am. (1)

A. Vogel, S. Busch, and U. Parlitz, "Shock wave emission and cavitation bubble generation by picosecond and nanosecond optical breakdown in water," J. Acoust. Soc. Amer. 100, 148 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

J. Noack, D. X. Hammer, G. D. Noojin, B. A. Rockwell, and A. Vogel, "Influence of pulse duration on mechanical effects after laser-induced breakdown in water," J. Appl. Phys. 83, 7488 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Laser Phys. (1)

T. Juhasz, G. Djotyan, F. H. Loesel, R. M. Kurtz, C. Horvath, J. F. Bille, and G. Mourou, "Applications of femtosecond lasers in corneal surgery," Laser Phys. 10, 495 (2000).

Laser Surg. Med. (1)

T. Juhasz, G. A. Kastis, C. Suarez, Z. Bor, and W. E. Bron, "Time-resolved observations of shock waves and cavitation bubbles generated by femtosecond laser pulses in corneal tissue and water," Laser Surg. Med. 19, 23 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

C. B. Schaffer, A. Brodeur, and E. Mazur, "Laser-induced breakdown and damage in bulk transparent materials induced by tightly-focused femtosecond laser pulses," Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 1784 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ophthal. & Vis. Science (1)

J. G. Fujimoto, Ophthal. & Vis. Science 26, 1771 (1985).

Opt. Commun. (1)

E. Abraham, K. Minoshima, and H. Matsumoto, "Femtosecond laser-induced breakdown in water: Timeresolved shadow imaging and two-color interferometric imaging," Opt. Commun. 176, 441 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (5)

Ph.D. thesis (1)

C. B. Schaffer, "Interaction of femtosecond laser pulses with transparent materials," Ph.D. thesis, Harvard University (2001).

Phys. Rev. B (1)

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, S. Herman, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, "Nanosecond-tofemtosecond laser-induced breakdown in dielectrics," Phys. Rev. B 53, 1749 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett (1)

L. Huang, J. P. Callan, E. N. Glezer, and E. Mazur, "Gaas under intense ultrafast excitation: Response of the dielectric function," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 185 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

M. Lenzner, J. Kruger, S. Sartania, Z. Cheng, C. Spielmann, G. Mourou, W. Kautek, and F. Krausz, "Femtosecond optical breakdown in dielectrics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4076 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Supplementary Material (1)

» Media 1: MOV (2438 KB)     

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Time-resolved imaging setup for observing the dynamics of laser-induced breakdown. A time-delayed probe pulse illuminates the dynamics induced by the femtosecond pulse. The objective used to focus the femtosecond pulse images the dynamics onto a CCD camera.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Images of femtosecond laser-induced breakdown in water obtained for various time delays using the setup shown in Fig. 1. A corresponding quicktime movie shows the first 10 ns of expansion. One second of the movie shows 1 nanosecond of the dynamics. [Media 1]

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Evolution of the radius of the laser-produced plasma, pressure wave, and cavitation bubble as a function of time (● plasma/bubble radius, □ pressure wave).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Time-resolved scattering setup. The directly transmitted probe beam is blocked so that only scattered probe light reaches the detector.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Time-resolved scattering signal from femtosecond laser-induced breakdown in water. The scale on the right axis was calculated assuming the plasma density is always sufficiently high that the scattered intensity depends only on the cross-sectional area of the plasma. The imaged radius is then used to calibrate the scattering signal in the 100 ps to 1 ns region.

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