Abstract

The spatio-temporal evolution of the free electron density induced in a helium gas jet by an intense femtosecond pulse is measured with ~10 fs resolution in a ~1 ps temporal window. The double-stepionization feature is observed. In these measurements, we use the technique of single-shot supercontinuum spectral interferometry. It is demonstrated that finite laser-gas interaction lengths can strongly affect the interpretation of such measurements.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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Appl. Phys. Lett.

K. Y. Kim, I. Alexeev, and H. M. Milchberg, �??Single-shot supercontinuum spectral interferometry,�?? Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4124-4126 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci.

W. M. Wood, C. W. Siders, and M. C. Downer, �??Femtosecond growth dynamics of an underdense ionization front measured by spectral blueshifting,�?? IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 21, 20-33 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

M. Takeda, H. Ina, and S. Kobayashi, �??Fourier-transform method of fringe-pattern analysis for computerbased topography and interferometry,�?? J. Opt. Soc. Am. 7, 156-160 (1982).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys.

M. Ferray, A L�??Huillier, X. F. Li, L. A. Lompré, G. Mainfray and C. Manus, �??Multiple-harmonic conversion of 1064 nm radiation in rare gases,�?? J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 21, L31-L35 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data Suppl.

R. L. Kelly, �??Atomic and ionic spectrum lines below 2000 Angstroms: hydrogen through krypton,�?? J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data Suppl. 16, 1-1678 (1987).

Opt. Commun.

S. P. Nikitin, Y. Li, T. M. Antonsen, and H. M. Milchberg, �??Ionization-induced pulse shortening and retardation of high intensity femtosecond laser pulses,�?? Opt. Commun. 157, 139-144 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Plasmas

J. R. Marquès, F. Dorchies, F. Amiranoff, P. Audebert, J. C. Gauthier, Geindre, A. Antonetti, T. M. Antonsen, Jr., P. Chessa, and P. Mora, �??Laser wakefield: Experimental study of nonlinear radial electron oscillations,�?? Phys. Plasmas 5, 1162-1177 (1998)
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E

E. Takahashi, H. Honda, E. Miura, N. Yugami, Y. Nishida, K. Katsura, and K. Kondo, �??Observation of spatial asymmetry of THz oscillating electron plasma wave in a laser wakefield,�?? Phys. Rev. E 62, 7247-7250 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

J. Fan, E. Parra, and H. M. Milchberg, �??Resonant self-trapping and absorption of intense Bessel beams,�?? Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 3085-3088 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. E. Max, J. Arons, and A. B. Langdon, �??Self-modulation and self-focusing of electromagnetic waves in plasmas,�?? Phys. Rev. Lett. 33, 209-212 (1974).
[CrossRef]

J. Fuchs, G. Malka, J. C. Adam, F. Amiranoff, S. D. Baton, N. Blanchot, A. Héron, G. Laval, J. L. Miquel, P. Mora, H. Pépin, and C. Rousseaux, �??Dynamics of subpicosecond relativistic laser pulse self-channeling in an underdense preformed plasma,�?? Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 1658-1661 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. Tajima and J. M. Dawson, �??Laser electron accelerator,�?? Phys. Rev. Lett. 43, 267-270(1979).
[CrossRef]

D. N. Fittinghoff, P. R. Bolton, B. Chang, and K. C. Kulander, �??Observation of nonsequential double ionization of helium with optical tunneling,�?? Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2642-2645 (1992).
[CrossRef]

W. M. Wood, C. W. Siders, and M. C. Downer, �??Measurement of femtosecond ionization dynamics of atmospheric density gases by spectral blueshifting,�?? Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 3523-3526 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Marquès, J. P. Geindre, F. Amiranoff, P. Audebert, J. C. Gauthier, A. Antonetti, and G. Grillon, �??Temporal and spatial measurements of the electron density perturbation produced in the wake of an ultrashort laser pulse,�?? Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 3566-3569 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Siders, S. P. Le Blanc, D. Fisher, T. Tajima, and M. C. Downer, �??Laser wakefield excitation and measurement by femtosecond longitudinal interferometry,�?? Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 3570-3573 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Augst, D. Strickland, D. D. Meyerhofer, S. L. Chin, and J. H. Eberly, �??Tunneling ionization of noble gases in a high-intensity laser field,�?? Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 2212-2215 (1989).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Corkum, �??Plasma perspective on strong-field multiphoton ionization,�?? Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1994-1997 (1993).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Siders, G. Rodriguez, J. L. W. Siders, F. G. Omenetto, and A. J. Taylor, �??Measurement of ultrafast ionization dynamics of gases by multipulse interferometric frequency-resolved optical gating,�?? Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 263002 (2001).
[CrossRef]

I. Alexeev, K. Y. Kim, and H. M. Milchberg, �??Measurement of the Superluminal group velocity of an ultrashort Bessel beam pulse,�?? Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 073901 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sov. Phys. JETP

L .V. Keldysh, �??Ionization in the field of a strong electromagnetic wave,�?? Sov. Phys. JETP 20, 1307-1314 (1965).

M. V. Ammosov, N. B. Delone, and V. P. Krainov, �??Tunnel ionization of complex atoms and of atomic ions in an alternating electromagnetic field,�?? Sov. Phys. JETP 64, 1191-1194 (1987).

Other

K. Y. Kim, I. Alexeev, and H. M. Milchberg, �??Time resolved explosion of intense-laser-heated clusters,�?? Phys. Rev. Lett., in press.

Pollock, Fundamentals of optoelectronics (Irwin, 1995), Chap. 9.

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