Abstract

We report the fabrication and properties of soft glass photonic crystal fibers (PCF’s) for supercontinuum generation. The fibers have zero or anomalous group velocity dispersion at wavelengths around 1550 nm, and approximately an order of magnitude higher nonlinearity than attainable in comparable silica fibers. We demonstrate the generation of an ultrabroad supercontinuum spanning at least 350 nm to 2200 nm using a 1550 nm ultrafast pump source.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, D. M. Atkin, and P. St. J. Russell, “Pure Silica Single-mode Fiber with Hexagonal Photonic Crystal Cladding,” Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. No. PD3 (post deadline), San Jose, California Feb. 1996.
    [PubMed]
  2. M. A. van Eijkelenborg, M. C. J. Large, A. Argyros, J. Zagari, S. Manos, N. A. Issa, I. Bassett, S. Fleming, R. C. McPhedran, C. M. de Sterke, and N. A. P. Nicorovici, “Microstructured Polymer OpticalFiber,” Opt. Express 9, 319–327 (2001),http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-9-7-319.
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. D. C. Allan, J. A. West, J. C. Fajardo, M. T . Gallagher, K. W. Kock, and N. F. Borrelli, “Photonic Crystal Fibers:Effective index and Band gap Guidance,” in Photonic Crystals and light localization in the 21st Century, C. M. Soukoulis, Ed., pg 305–320, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Netherlands (2001).
  4. T. M. Monro, K. M. Kiang, J. H. Lee, K. Frampton, Z. Yusoff, R. Moore, J. Tucknott, D. W. Hewak, H. N. Rutt, and D. J. Richardson, “High nonlinearity extruded single-mode holey optical fibers,” Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf . Post deadline paper FA1, 1–3 OFC 2002 (2002).
  5. J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, and D. M. Atkin: “All-silica single-mode optical fiber with photonic crystal cladding,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1547 (1996); errata 22, 484 (1997).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, “Endlessly single-mode photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett. 22961 (1997).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, and A. J. Stentz, “Visible Continuum Generation in Air-Silica Microstructure Optical Fibers with Anomalous Dispersion at 800nm,” Opt. Lett. 25, 25–27 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  8. F. G. Omenetto, A. J. Taylor, M. D. Moores, J. Arriaga, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, “Simultaneous generation of spectrally distinct third harmonics in a photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett. 261158–1160 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  9. Data sheet for N-SF6, Schott Glass Company (2001).
  10. L. L Chase and E. W. Van Stryland, “Nonlinear Optical Properties,” in CRC Handbook of Laser Science and Technology Suppl. 2, Weber Ed, CRC Press, Boca Raton (1995).
  11. J. C. Knight, J. Arriaga, T. A. Birks, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, “Anomalous Dispersion in Photonic Crystal Fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 807–809 (2000).
    [Crossref]

2001 (2)

2000 (2)

J. C. Knight, J. Arriaga, T. A. Birks, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, “Anomalous Dispersion in Photonic Crystal Fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 807–809 (2000).
[Crossref]

J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, and A. J. Stentz, “Visible Continuum Generation in Air-Silica Microstructure Optical Fibers with Anomalous Dispersion at 800nm,” Opt. Lett. 25, 25–27 (2000).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

1996 (1)

Allan, D. C.

D. C. Allan, J. A. West, J. C. Fajardo, M. T . Gallagher, K. W. Kock, and N. F. Borrelli, “Photonic Crystal Fibers:Effective index and Band gap Guidance,” in Photonic Crystals and light localization in the 21st Century, C. M. Soukoulis, Ed., pg 305–320, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Netherlands (2001).

Argyros, A.

Arriaga, J.

F. G. Omenetto, A. J. Taylor, M. D. Moores, J. Arriaga, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, “Simultaneous generation of spectrally distinct third harmonics in a photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett. 261158–1160 (2001).
[Crossref]

J. C. Knight, J. Arriaga, T. A. Birks, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, “Anomalous Dispersion in Photonic Crystal Fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 807–809 (2000).
[Crossref]

Atkin, D. M.

J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, and D. M. Atkin: “All-silica single-mode optical fiber with photonic crystal cladding,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1547 (1996); errata 22, 484 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, D. M. Atkin, and P. St. J. Russell, “Pure Silica Single-mode Fiber with Hexagonal Photonic Crystal Cladding,” Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. No. PD3 (post deadline), San Jose, California Feb. 1996.
[PubMed]

Bassett, I.

Birks, T. A.

J. C. Knight, J. Arriaga, T. A. Birks, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, “Anomalous Dispersion in Photonic Crystal Fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 807–809 (2000).
[Crossref]

T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, “Endlessly single-mode photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett. 22961 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, and D. M. Atkin: “All-silica single-mode optical fiber with photonic crystal cladding,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1547 (1996); errata 22, 484 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, D. M. Atkin, and P. St. J. Russell, “Pure Silica Single-mode Fiber with Hexagonal Photonic Crystal Cladding,” Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. No. PD3 (post deadline), San Jose, California Feb. 1996.
[PubMed]

Borrelli, N. F.

D. C. Allan, J. A. West, J. C. Fajardo, M. T . Gallagher, K. W. Kock, and N. F. Borrelli, “Photonic Crystal Fibers:Effective index and Band gap Guidance,” in Photonic Crystals and light localization in the 21st Century, C. M. Soukoulis, Ed., pg 305–320, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Netherlands (2001).

Chase, L. L

L. L Chase and E. W. Van Stryland, “Nonlinear Optical Properties,” in CRC Handbook of Laser Science and Technology Suppl. 2, Weber Ed, CRC Press, Boca Raton (1995).

de Sterke, C. M.

Fajardo, J. C.

D. C. Allan, J. A. West, J. C. Fajardo, M. T . Gallagher, K. W. Kock, and N. F. Borrelli, “Photonic Crystal Fibers:Effective index and Band gap Guidance,” in Photonic Crystals and light localization in the 21st Century, C. M. Soukoulis, Ed., pg 305–320, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Netherlands (2001).

Fleming, S.

Frampton, K.

T. M. Monro, K. M. Kiang, J. H. Lee, K. Frampton, Z. Yusoff, R. Moore, J. Tucknott, D. W. Hewak, H. N. Rutt, and D. J. Richardson, “High nonlinearity extruded single-mode holey optical fibers,” Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf . Post deadline paper FA1, 1–3 OFC 2002 (2002).

Gallagher, M. T .

D. C. Allan, J. A. West, J. C. Fajardo, M. T . Gallagher, K. W. Kock, and N. F. Borrelli, “Photonic Crystal Fibers:Effective index and Band gap Guidance,” in Photonic Crystals and light localization in the 21st Century, C. M. Soukoulis, Ed., pg 305–320, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Netherlands (2001).

Hewak, D. W.

T. M. Monro, K. M. Kiang, J. H. Lee, K. Frampton, Z. Yusoff, R. Moore, J. Tucknott, D. W. Hewak, H. N. Rutt, and D. J. Richardson, “High nonlinearity extruded single-mode holey optical fibers,” Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf . Post deadline paper FA1, 1–3 OFC 2002 (2002).

Issa, N. A.

Kiang, K. M.

T. M. Monro, K. M. Kiang, J. H. Lee, K. Frampton, Z. Yusoff, R. Moore, J. Tucknott, D. W. Hewak, H. N. Rutt, and D. J. Richardson, “High nonlinearity extruded single-mode holey optical fibers,” Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf . Post deadline paper FA1, 1–3 OFC 2002 (2002).

Knight, J. C.

F. G. Omenetto, A. J. Taylor, M. D. Moores, J. Arriaga, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, “Simultaneous generation of spectrally distinct third harmonics in a photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett. 261158–1160 (2001).
[Crossref]

J. C. Knight, J. Arriaga, T. A. Birks, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, “Anomalous Dispersion in Photonic Crystal Fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 807–809 (2000).
[Crossref]

T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, “Endlessly single-mode photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett. 22961 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, and D. M. Atkin: “All-silica single-mode optical fiber with photonic crystal cladding,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1547 (1996); errata 22, 484 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, D. M. Atkin, and P. St. J. Russell, “Pure Silica Single-mode Fiber with Hexagonal Photonic Crystal Cladding,” Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. No. PD3 (post deadline), San Jose, California Feb. 1996.
[PubMed]

Kock, K. W.

D. C. Allan, J. A. West, J. C. Fajardo, M. T . Gallagher, K. W. Kock, and N. F. Borrelli, “Photonic Crystal Fibers:Effective index and Band gap Guidance,” in Photonic Crystals and light localization in the 21st Century, C. M. Soukoulis, Ed., pg 305–320, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Netherlands (2001).

Large, M. C. J.

Lee, J. H.

T. M. Monro, K. M. Kiang, J. H. Lee, K. Frampton, Z. Yusoff, R. Moore, J. Tucknott, D. W. Hewak, H. N. Rutt, and D. J. Richardson, “High nonlinearity extruded single-mode holey optical fibers,” Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf . Post deadline paper FA1, 1–3 OFC 2002 (2002).

Manos, S.

McPhedran, R. C.

Monro, T. M.

T. M. Monro, K. M. Kiang, J. H. Lee, K. Frampton, Z. Yusoff, R. Moore, J. Tucknott, D. W. Hewak, H. N. Rutt, and D. J. Richardson, “High nonlinearity extruded single-mode holey optical fibers,” Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf . Post deadline paper FA1, 1–3 OFC 2002 (2002).

Moore, R.

T. M. Monro, K. M. Kiang, J. H. Lee, K. Frampton, Z. Yusoff, R. Moore, J. Tucknott, D. W. Hewak, H. N. Rutt, and D. J. Richardson, “High nonlinearity extruded single-mode holey optical fibers,” Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf . Post deadline paper FA1, 1–3 OFC 2002 (2002).

Moores, M. D.

Nicorovici, N. A. P.

Omenetto, F. G.

Ortigosa-Blanch, A.

J. C. Knight, J. Arriaga, T. A. Birks, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, “Anomalous Dispersion in Photonic Crystal Fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 807–809 (2000).
[Crossref]

Ranka, J. K.

Richardson, D. J.

T. M. Monro, K. M. Kiang, J. H. Lee, K. Frampton, Z. Yusoff, R. Moore, J. Tucknott, D. W. Hewak, H. N. Rutt, and D. J. Richardson, “High nonlinearity extruded single-mode holey optical fibers,” Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf . Post deadline paper FA1, 1–3 OFC 2002 (2002).

Russell, P. St. J.

F. G. Omenetto, A. J. Taylor, M. D. Moores, J. Arriaga, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, “Simultaneous generation of spectrally distinct third harmonics in a photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett. 261158–1160 (2001).
[Crossref]

J. C. Knight, J. Arriaga, T. A. Birks, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, “Anomalous Dispersion in Photonic Crystal Fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 807–809 (2000).
[Crossref]

T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, “Endlessly single-mode photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett. 22961 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, and D. M. Atkin: “All-silica single-mode optical fiber with photonic crystal cladding,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1547 (1996); errata 22, 484 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, D. M. Atkin, and P. St. J. Russell, “Pure Silica Single-mode Fiber with Hexagonal Photonic Crystal Cladding,” Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. No. PD3 (post deadline), San Jose, California Feb. 1996.
[PubMed]

Rutt, H. N.

T. M. Monro, K. M. Kiang, J. H. Lee, K. Frampton, Z. Yusoff, R. Moore, J. Tucknott, D. W. Hewak, H. N. Rutt, and D. J. Richardson, “High nonlinearity extruded single-mode holey optical fibers,” Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf . Post deadline paper FA1, 1–3 OFC 2002 (2002).

Stentz, A. J.

Taylor, A. J.

Tucknott, J.

T. M. Monro, K. M. Kiang, J. H. Lee, K. Frampton, Z. Yusoff, R. Moore, J. Tucknott, D. W. Hewak, H. N. Rutt, and D. J. Richardson, “High nonlinearity extruded single-mode holey optical fibers,” Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf . Post deadline paper FA1, 1–3 OFC 2002 (2002).

van Eijkelenborg, M. A.

Van Stryland, E. W.

L. L Chase and E. W. Van Stryland, “Nonlinear Optical Properties,” in CRC Handbook of Laser Science and Technology Suppl. 2, Weber Ed, CRC Press, Boca Raton (1995).

Wadsworth, W. J.

F. G. Omenetto, A. J. Taylor, M. D. Moores, J. Arriaga, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, “Simultaneous generation of spectrally distinct third harmonics in a photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett. 261158–1160 (2001).
[Crossref]

J. C. Knight, J. Arriaga, T. A. Birks, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, “Anomalous Dispersion in Photonic Crystal Fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 807–809 (2000).
[Crossref]

West, J. A.

D. C. Allan, J. A. West, J. C. Fajardo, M. T . Gallagher, K. W. Kock, and N. F. Borrelli, “Photonic Crystal Fibers:Effective index and Band gap Guidance,” in Photonic Crystals and light localization in the 21st Century, C. M. Soukoulis, Ed., pg 305–320, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Netherlands (2001).

Windeler, R. S.

Yusoff, Z.

T. M. Monro, K. M. Kiang, J. H. Lee, K. Frampton, Z. Yusoff, R. Moore, J. Tucknott, D. W. Hewak, H. N. Rutt, and D. J. Richardson, “High nonlinearity extruded single-mode holey optical fibers,” Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf . Post deadline paper FA1, 1–3 OFC 2002 (2002).

Zagari, J.

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

J. C. Knight, J. Arriaga, T. A. Birks, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, “Anomalous Dispersion in Photonic Crystal Fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 807–809 (2000).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Other (5)

Data sheet for N-SF6, Schott Glass Company (2001).

L. L Chase and E. W. Van Stryland, “Nonlinear Optical Properties,” in CRC Handbook of Laser Science and Technology Suppl. 2, Weber Ed, CRC Press, Boca Raton (1995).

D. C. Allan, J. A. West, J. C. Fajardo, M. T . Gallagher, K. W. Kock, and N. F. Borrelli, “Photonic Crystal Fibers:Effective index and Band gap Guidance,” in Photonic Crystals and light localization in the 21st Century, C. M. Soukoulis, Ed., pg 305–320, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Netherlands (2001).

T. M. Monro, K. M. Kiang, J. H. Lee, K. Frampton, Z. Yusoff, R. Moore, J. Tucknott, D. W. Hewak, H. N. Rutt, and D. J. Richardson, “High nonlinearity extruded single-mode holey optical fibers,” Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf . Post deadline paper FA1, 1–3 OFC 2002 (2002).

J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, D. M. Atkin, and P. St. J. Russell, “Pure Silica Single-mode Fiber with Hexagonal Photonic Crystal Cladding,” Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. No. PD3 (post deadline), San Jose, California Feb. 1996.
[PubMed]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Preform (left, optical micrograph) and fiber (right, electron micrograph) fabricated from SF6 glass by extrusion. The preform (left) is 1mm in outer diameter, and was jacketed prior to drawing the fiber shown on the right. The fiber has a nominal 2.6μm core dimension, and the glass strands in the second ring of air holes are 150nm across and 6μm in length..

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Observed loss in SF6 PCF with a 2.6 μm core, as shown in Fig. 1. The data points for the bulk glass are from [6]. The curve is the result of a cutback measurement using a white light source.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Near-field pattern observed in a fiber similar to that shown in Fig. 1. The excitation source is a halogen lamp and the core diameter is 2.6μm.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Measured group-velocity dispersion curves for bulk SF6 (broken curve) and for the fundamental mode in fibers with four different core sizes

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Optical spectrum of the continuum observed at the output of a 75 cm length of 2.6 μm core fiber.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Visible supercontinuum generation in an SF6-PCF of several meters length. The ultrashort pulse train at 1550nm is incident into the fiber from the top left, and the color variation is partly due to the strong wavelength dependent loss in the visible. For 200 mW incident power, the generated spectrum extends from below 350 nm to beyond 2.2 μm.

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