Abstract

Single and multiple pulse laser damage studies are performed in Suprasil silica and BK-7 borosilicate glasses. Experiments are made in the bulk of materials at 1.064μm with nanosecond pulses, using an accurate and reliable measurement system. By means of a statistical study on laser damage probabilities, we demonstrate that the same nano-precursors could be involved in the multiple shot and single shot damage process. A damage mechanism with two stages is then proposed to explain the results. Firstly, a pre-damage process, corresponding to material changes at a microscopic level, leads the precursor to a state that can induce a one-pulse damage. And secondly a final damage occurs, with a mechanism identical to the single shot case. For each material, a lawis found to predict the precursor life-time. We can then deduce the long term life of optical elements in high-power laser systems submitted to multipulse irradiation.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef]
  28. L. Lamaignere , M. Loiseau, H. Piombini, D. Plessis and H. Bercegol, �??Bulk damage and laser conditioning of KDP and DKDP crystals with Xe-F excimer light and the 3�? of a Nd:YAG laser,�?? in Laser-Induced damage in Optical Materials : 2002
  29. ISO 11254-2, �??Determination of laser-damage threshold of optical surfaces-Part 2 : S-on-1 test,�?? 2001

Appl. Opt. (7)

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

A.S. Epifanov and S.V. Garnov, �??Statistical approach to theory of electron-avalanche ionization in solids,�?? IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 17, 2023 (1981)
[CrossRef]

M. Bass and H.H. Barett, �??Avalanche breakdown and the probabilistic nature of laser-induced damage,�?? IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 8, 338�??343 (1972)
[CrossRef]

J. App. Phys. (3)

P.K. Bandyopadhyay and L.D. Merkle, �??Laser-induced damage in quartz: A study of the influence of impurities and defects,�?? J. App. Phys. 63, 1392-1398 (1988)
[CrossRef]

L.D. Merkle, N. Koumvakalis and M. Bass, �??Laser-induced bulk damage in SiO2 at 1.064, 0.532, and 0.355 µm,�?? J. App. Phys. 55, 772-775 (1984)
[CrossRef]

R.W. Hopper and D.R. Uhlmann, �??Mechanism of inclusion damage in laser glass,�?? J. App. Phys. 41, 4023-4037 (1970)
[CrossRef]

J. Material Sci. (1)

A. Chmel, S. B. Eronko, A. M. Kondyrev and V. Y. Nazarova, �??Optical resistance of sapphire,�?? J. Material Sci. 28, 4673-4680 (1993)
[CrossRef]

Mater. Sci. Eng. B (1)

A.E. Chmel, �??Fatigue laser-induced damage in transparent materials,�?? Mater. Sci. Eng. B 49, 175�??190 (1997)
[CrossRef]

NASA Technical Report (1)

M.W. Hooker, M.E. Thomas, S.A. Wise and N.D. Tappan, "A ruggedness evaluation of procedures for damage threshold testing of optical materials,�?? NASA Technical Report, (1995)

Opt. Eng. (2)

L.D. Merkle, M. Bass and R.T. Swimm, �??Multiple pulse laser-induced bulk damage in crystalline and fused quartz at 1.064 and 0.532µm,�?? Opt. Eng. 22, 505 (1983)

S.C. Jones, P. Braunlich, R.T. Casper and X.A. Shin, "Recent progress on laser-induced modifications and intrinsic bulk damage of wide-gap optical materials,�?? Opt. Eng. 28, 1039�??1068 (1989)

Phys. Rev. B (3)

L.D. Merkle and D. Kitriotis, �??Temperature dependence of laser-induced bulk damage in SiO2 and borolilicate glass,�?? Phys. Rev. B 38, 1473�??1482 (1988)
[CrossRef]

E.W. Van Stryland, M.J. Soileau, A.L. Smirl and W.E. Williams, �??Pulse-width and focal-volume dependence of laser-induced breakdown,�?? Phys. Rev. B 23, 2144�??2151 (1981)
[CrossRef]

S. Brawer, �??Phenomenological theory of laser damage in insulators,�?? Phys. Rev. B 20, 3422�??3441 (1979)
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (4)

J. Hue, P. Garrec, J. Dijon and P. Lyan, �??R-on-1 automatic mapping : a new tool for laser damage testing,�?? in Laser-Induced damage in Optical Materials : 1995, A.H. Guenther and M.R. Kozlowski and B.E. Newnam and M.J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE 2714, 90�??101 (1996)
[CrossRef]

N. Kuzuu, N. Umemura, A. Nagafuchi, K. Yagi, K. Ochi and K. Yoshida, �??Laser-induced bulk damage in various types of vitreous silica,�?? in Laser-Induced damage in Optical Materials : 1999, G.J. Exarhos, A.H. Guenther, M.R. Kozlowski, K.L. Lewis and M.J. Soileau , eds., Proc. SPIE 3902, 398�??405 (2000)
[CrossRef]

M. Staggs, M. Yan and M. Runkel, �??Laser raster conditioning of KDP and DKDP crystals using XeCl and Nd:YAG lasers,�?? in Laser-Induced damage in Optical Materials : 2000, G.J. Exarhos and A.H. Guenther and M.R. Kozlowski and K.L. Lewis and M.J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE 4347, 400�??407 (2001)
[CrossRef]

M. Runkel, J. DeYoreo, W. Sell and D. Milam, �??Laser conditioning of KDP on the optical sciences laser unsing large area beam,�?? in Laser-Induced damage in Optical Materials : 1997, H.E. Bennett and A.H. Guenther and M.R. Kozlowski and B.E. Newnam and M.J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE 3244, 51�??63 (2001)
[CrossRef]

Soviet Physics : Solid State (1)

S. B. Eron�??ko, S. N. Zhurkov and A. Chmel, �??Kinetics of accumulation of damage in transparent insulators subjected to repeated laser irradiation,�?? Soviet Physics : Solid State 20, 2064�??2066 (1978)

Other (4)

ISO 11254-1, �??Determination of laser-damage threshold of optical surfaces-Part 1 : 1-on-1 test,�?? 2000

. F. Bonneau, P. Combis, J. L. Rullier, J. Vierne, H. Ward, M. Pellin, M. Savina, M. Broyer, E. Cottancin, J. Tuaillon, M. Pellarin, L. Gallais, J. Y. Natoli, M. Perra, H. Bercegol, L. Lamaignere, M.Loiseau and J. T. Donohue, �??Study of UV laser interaction with gold nanoparticles embedded in silica,�?? to be published in Appl. Phys. B

L. Lamaignere , M. Loiseau, H. Piombini, D. Plessis and H. Bercegol, �??Bulk damage and laser conditioning of KDP and DKDP crystals with Xe-F excimer light and the 3�? of a Nd:YAG laser,�?? in Laser-Induced damage in Optical Materials : 2002

ISO 11254-2, �??Determination of laser-damage threshold of optical surfaces-Part 2 : S-on-1 test,�?? 2001

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Experimental set-up for laser damage testing

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Threshold curves measured in the bulk of BK7 and Suprasil, in 1-on-1 mode at 1064nm.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Images after successive shots in the bulk of a Suprasil glass at 110J/cm 2. Damage appears after the 6th shot, without any visible modification on the previous shots.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Laser damage probability curves after 1, 10, 100, 1000 shots, respectively P(1), P(10) P(100), P(1000), measured in the bulk of Suprasil at 1064nm with a spot size of 12μm. Data are fitted with the model presented in the text.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Laser damage probability curves after 1, 10, 100, 1000 shots, respectively P(1), P(10) P(100), P(1000), measured in the bulk of BK7 at 1064nm with a spot size of 12μm. Data are fitted with the model presented in the text.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Multi-shot low damage thresholds of Suprasil and BK7, obtained by fitting experimental data with equation 5. Dotted lines are logarithmic fits of these results.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Stability of the focused beam during 1000 shots at 10Hz. Beam waist is 12μm at 1064nm, with a pulse length of 7ns.

Tables Icon

Table 2. Damage probability in the bulk of BK7 after i shots (Pi ), with i=1,10, 100 or 1000. Beam waist is 12μm at 1064nm, with a pulse length of 7ns and a repetition rate of 10 Hz.

Tables Icon

Table 3. Damage probability in the bulk of Suprasil after i shots (Pi ), with i=1,10, 100 or 1000. Beam waist is 12μm at 1064nm, with a pulse length of 7ns and a repetition rate of 10 Hz.

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

P ( F ) = 1 exp ( d V T ( F ) )
V T = 4 6 π w 0 2 2 z R [ u + u 3 6 arctan ( u ) ]
u = F T 1
T = T ( N )
p ( F ) = 1 e d 4 3 π w 0 2 z R [ ( F T ( N ) 1 ) 3 6 + ( F T ( N ) 1 ) arctan ( F T ( N ) 1 ) ]
T ( N ) = 6,5 * ln ( N ) + 115 for Suprasil
T ( N ) = 4 * ln ( N ) + 76 for BK 7

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