Abstract

Single and multiple pulse laser damage studies are performed in Suprasil silica and BK-7 borosilicate glasses. Experiments are made in the bulk of materials at 1.064μm with nanosecond pulses, using an accurate and reliable measurement system. By means of a statistical study on laser damage probabilities, we demonstrate that the same nano-precursors could be involved in the multiple shot and single shot damage process. A damage mechanism with two stages is then proposed to explain the results. Firstly, a pre-damage process, corresponding to material changes at a microscopic level, leads the precursor to a state that can induce a one-pulse damage. And secondly a final damage occurs, with a mechanism identical to the single shot case. For each material, a lawis found to predict the precursor life-time. We can then deduce the long term life of optical elements in high-power laser systems submitted to multipulse irradiation.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. R. M. O’Conell, T. F. Deaton, and T. T. Salto, “Single and multiple shot laser damage properties of commercial grade PMMA,” Appl. Opt. 23, 682–688 (1984)
    [Crossref]
  2. P.K. Bandyopadhyay and L.D. Merkle, “Laser-induced damage in quartz: A study of the influence of impurities and defects,” J. App. Phys. 63, 1392–1398 (1988)
    [Crossref]
  3. L.D. Merkle, N. Koumvakalis, and M. Bass, “Laser-induced bulk damage in SiO2 at 1.064, 0.532, and 0.355 μm,” J. App. Phys. 55, 772–775 (1984)
    [Crossref]
  4. S.C. Jones, P. Braunlich, R.T. Casper, and X.A. Shin, “Recent progress on laser-induced modifications and intrinsic bulk damage of wide-gap optical materials,” Opt. Eng. 28, 1039–1068 (1989)
  5. A. Chmel, S.B. Eronko, A.M. Kondyrev, and V.Y. Nazarova, “Optical resistance of sapphire,” Journal of Material Science 28, 4673–4680 (1993)
    [Crossref]
  6. M. Bass and H.H. Barrett, “Laser-induced damage probability at 1.06μm and 0.69μm,” Appl. Opt. 12, 690–699 (1973)
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. M. Bass and H.H. Barett, “Avalanche breakdown and the probabilistic nature of laser-induced damage,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 8, 338–343 (1972)
    [Crossref]
  8. L.D. Merkle and D. Kitriotis, “Temperature dependence of laser-induced bulk damage in SiC>2 and borolilicate glass,” Phys. Rev. B 38, 1473–1482 (1988)
    [Crossref]
  9. D. Kitriotis and L.D. Merkle, “Multipulse laser-induced damage phenomena in silicates,” Appl. Opt. 28, 949–958 (1989)
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. L.D. Merkle, M. Bass, and R.T. Swimm, “Multiple pulse laser-induced bulk damage in crystalline and fused quartz at 1.064 and 0.532μm,” Opt. Eng. 22, 505 (1983)
  11. E.W. Van Stryland, M.J. Soileau, A.L. Smirl, and W.E. Williams, “Pulse-width and focal-volume dependence of laser-induced breakdown,” Phys. Rev. B 23, 2144–2151 (1981)
    [Crossref]
  12. S.B. Eron’ko, S.N. Zhurkov, and A. Chmel, “Kinetics of accumulation of damage in transparent insulators subjected to repeated laser irradiation,” Soviet Physics : Solid State 20, 2064–2066 (1978)
  13. N. Kuzuu, N. Umemura, A. Nagafuchi, K. Yagi, K. Ochi, and K. Yoshida, “Laser-induced bulk damage in various types of vitreous silica,” in Laser-Induced damage in Optical Materials : 1999, G.J. Exarhos, A.H. Guenther, M.R. Kozlowski, K.L. Lewis, and M.J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE 3902, 398–405 (2000)
    [Crossref]
  14. M.W. Hooker, M.E. Thomas, S.A. Wise, and N.D. Tappan, “A ruggedness evaluation of procedures for damage threshold testing of optical materials,” NASA Technical Report, (1995)
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    [Crossref]
  16. A.S. Epifanov and S.V. Garnov, “Statistical approach to theory of electron-avalanche ionization in solids,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 17, 2023 (1981)
    [Crossref]
  17. R.W. Hopper and D.R. Uhlmann, “Mechanism of inclusion damage in laser glass,” J. App. Phys. 41, 4023–4037 (1970)
    [Crossref]
  18. A.E. Chmel, “Fatigue laser-induced damage in transparent materials,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 49, 175–190 (1997)
    [Crossref]
  19. L. Gallais and J.Y. Natoli, “Optimized metrology for laser damage measurement - Application to multiparameter study,” to be published in Appl. Opt.
    [PubMed]
  20. ISO 11254-1, “Determination of laser-damage threshold of optical surfaces-Part 1 : 1-on-1 test,” 2000
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  22. ISO 11254-2, “Determination of laser-damage threshold of optical surfaces-Part 2 : S-on-1 test,” 2001
  23. J. Hue, P. Garrec, J. Dijon, and P. Lyan, “R-on-1 automatic mapping : a new tool for laser damage testing,” in Laser-Induced damage in Optical Materials : 1995, A.H. Guenther, M.R. Kozlowski, B.E. Newnam, and M.J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE 2714, 90–101 (1996)
    [Crossref]
  24. R.M. O’Connell, “Onset threshold analysis of defect-driven surface and bulk laser damage,” Appl. Opt. 31, 4143–4153 (1992)
    [Crossref]
  25. N. Bloembergen, “Role of cracks, pores, and absorbing inclusions on laser induced damage threshold at surfaces of transparent dielectrics,” Appl. Opt. 12, 661–664 (1973)
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  26. F. Bonneau, P. Combis, J. L. Rullier, J. Vierne, H. Ward, M. Pellin, M. Savina, M. Broyer, E. Cottancin, J. Tuaillon, M. Pellarin, L. Gallais, J. Y. Natoli, M. Perra, H. Bercegol, L. Lamaignere, M. Loiseau, and J. T. Donohue, “Study of UV laser interaction with gold nanoparticles embedded in silica,” to be published in Appl. Phys. B
  27. M. Staggs, M. Yan, and M. Runkel, “Laser raster conditioning of KDP and DKDP crystals using XeCl and Nd:YAG lasers,” in Laser-Induced damage in Optical Materials : 2000, G.J. Exarhos, A.H. Guenther, M.R. Kozlowski, K.L. Lewis, and M.J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE 4347, 400–407 (2001)
    [Crossref]
  28. M. Runkel, J. DeYoreo, W. Sell, and D. Milam, “Laser conditioning of KDP on the optical sciences laser unsing large area beam,” in Laser-Induced damage in Optical Materials : 1997, H.E. Bennett, A.H. Guenther, M.R. Kozlowski, B.E. Newnam, and M.J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE 3244, 51–63 (2001)
    [Crossref]
  29. L. Lamaignere, M. Loiseau, H. Piombini, D. Plessis, and H. Bercegol, “Bulk damage and laser conditioning of KDP and DKDP crystals with Xe-F excimer light and the 3ω of a Nd:YAG laser,” in Laser-Induced damage in Optical Materials : 2002

2002 (1)

2001 (2)

M. Staggs, M. Yan, and M. Runkel, “Laser raster conditioning of KDP and DKDP crystals using XeCl and Nd:YAG lasers,” in Laser-Induced damage in Optical Materials : 2000, G.J. Exarhos, A.H. Guenther, M.R. Kozlowski, K.L. Lewis, and M.J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE 4347, 400–407 (2001)
[Crossref]

M. Runkel, J. DeYoreo, W. Sell, and D. Milam, “Laser conditioning of KDP on the optical sciences laser unsing large area beam,” in Laser-Induced damage in Optical Materials : 1997, H.E. Bennett, A.H. Guenther, M.R. Kozlowski, B.E. Newnam, and M.J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE 3244, 51–63 (2001)
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

N. Kuzuu, N. Umemura, A. Nagafuchi, K. Yagi, K. Ochi, and K. Yoshida, “Laser-induced bulk damage in various types of vitreous silica,” in Laser-Induced damage in Optical Materials : 1999, G.J. Exarhos, A.H. Guenther, M.R. Kozlowski, K.L. Lewis, and M.J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE 3902, 398–405 (2000)
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

A.E. Chmel, “Fatigue laser-induced damage in transparent materials,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 49, 175–190 (1997)
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

J. Hue, P. Garrec, J. Dijon, and P. Lyan, “R-on-1 automatic mapping : a new tool for laser damage testing,” in Laser-Induced damage in Optical Materials : 1995, A.H. Guenther, M.R. Kozlowski, B.E. Newnam, and M.J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE 2714, 90–101 (1996)
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

M.W. Hooker, M.E. Thomas, S.A. Wise, and N.D. Tappan, “A ruggedness evaluation of procedures for damage threshold testing of optical materials,” NASA Technical Report, (1995)

1993 (1)

A. Chmel, S.B. Eronko, A.M. Kondyrev, and V.Y. Nazarova, “Optical resistance of sapphire,” Journal of Material Science 28, 4673–4680 (1993)
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

1989 (2)

D. Kitriotis and L.D. Merkle, “Multipulse laser-induced damage phenomena in silicates,” Appl. Opt. 28, 949–958 (1989)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S.C. Jones, P. Braunlich, R.T. Casper, and X.A. Shin, “Recent progress on laser-induced modifications and intrinsic bulk damage of wide-gap optical materials,” Opt. Eng. 28, 1039–1068 (1989)

1988 (2)

L.D. Merkle and D. Kitriotis, “Temperature dependence of laser-induced bulk damage in SiC>2 and borolilicate glass,” Phys. Rev. B 38, 1473–1482 (1988)
[Crossref]

P.K. Bandyopadhyay and L.D. Merkle, “Laser-induced damage in quartz: A study of the influence of impurities and defects,” J. App. Phys. 63, 1392–1398 (1988)
[Crossref]

1984 (2)

L.D. Merkle, N. Koumvakalis, and M. Bass, “Laser-induced bulk damage in SiO2 at 1.064, 0.532, and 0.355 μm,” J. App. Phys. 55, 772–775 (1984)
[Crossref]

R. M. O’Conell, T. F. Deaton, and T. T. Salto, “Single and multiple shot laser damage properties of commercial grade PMMA,” Appl. Opt. 23, 682–688 (1984)
[Crossref]

1983 (1)

L.D. Merkle, M. Bass, and R.T. Swimm, “Multiple pulse laser-induced bulk damage in crystalline and fused quartz at 1.064 and 0.532μm,” Opt. Eng. 22, 505 (1983)

1981 (2)

E.W. Van Stryland, M.J. Soileau, A.L. Smirl, and W.E. Williams, “Pulse-width and focal-volume dependence of laser-induced breakdown,” Phys. Rev. B 23, 2144–2151 (1981)
[Crossref]

A.S. Epifanov and S.V. Garnov, “Statistical approach to theory of electron-avalanche ionization in solids,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 17, 2023 (1981)
[Crossref]

1979 (1)

S. Brawer, “Phenomenological theory of laser damage in insulators,” Phys. Rev. B 20, 3422–3441 (1979)
[Crossref]

1978 (1)

S.B. Eron’ko, S.N. Zhurkov, and A. Chmel, “Kinetics of accumulation of damage in transparent insulators subjected to repeated laser irradiation,” Soviet Physics : Solid State 20, 2064–2066 (1978)

1973 (2)

1972 (1)

M. Bass and H.H. Barett, “Avalanche breakdown and the probabilistic nature of laser-induced damage,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 8, 338–343 (1972)
[Crossref]

1970 (1)

R.W. Hopper and D.R. Uhlmann, “Mechanism of inclusion damage in laser glass,” J. App. Phys. 41, 4023–4037 (1970)
[Crossref]

Akhouayri, H.

Amra, C.

Bandyopadhyay, P.K.

P.K. Bandyopadhyay and L.D. Merkle, “Laser-induced damage in quartz: A study of the influence of impurities and defects,” J. App. Phys. 63, 1392–1398 (1988)
[Crossref]

Barett, H.H.

M. Bass and H.H. Barett, “Avalanche breakdown and the probabilistic nature of laser-induced damage,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 8, 338–343 (1972)
[Crossref]

Barrett, H.H.

Bass, M.

L.D. Merkle, N. Koumvakalis, and M. Bass, “Laser-induced bulk damage in SiO2 at 1.064, 0.532, and 0.355 μm,” J. App. Phys. 55, 772–775 (1984)
[Crossref]

L.D. Merkle, M. Bass, and R.T. Swimm, “Multiple pulse laser-induced bulk damage in crystalline and fused quartz at 1.064 and 0.532μm,” Opt. Eng. 22, 505 (1983)

M. Bass and H.H. Barrett, “Laser-induced damage probability at 1.06μm and 0.69μm,” Appl. Opt. 12, 690–699 (1973)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Bass and H.H. Barett, “Avalanche breakdown and the probabilistic nature of laser-induced damage,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 8, 338–343 (1972)
[Crossref]

Bercegol, H.

F. Bonneau, P. Combis, J. L. Rullier, J. Vierne, H. Ward, M. Pellin, M. Savina, M. Broyer, E. Cottancin, J. Tuaillon, M. Pellarin, L. Gallais, J. Y. Natoli, M. Perra, H. Bercegol, L. Lamaignere, M. Loiseau, and J. T. Donohue, “Study of UV laser interaction with gold nanoparticles embedded in silica,” to be published in Appl. Phys. B

L. Lamaignere, M. Loiseau, H. Piombini, D. Plessis, and H. Bercegol, “Bulk damage and laser conditioning of KDP and DKDP crystals with Xe-F excimer light and the 3ω of a Nd:YAG laser,” in Laser-Induced damage in Optical Materials : 2002

Bloembergen, N.

Bonneau, F.

F. Bonneau, P. Combis, J. L. Rullier, J. Vierne, H. Ward, M. Pellin, M. Savina, M. Broyer, E. Cottancin, J. Tuaillon, M. Pellarin, L. Gallais, J. Y. Natoli, M. Perra, H. Bercegol, L. Lamaignere, M. Loiseau, and J. T. Donohue, “Study of UV laser interaction with gold nanoparticles embedded in silica,” to be published in Appl. Phys. B

Braunlich, P.

S.C. Jones, P. Braunlich, R.T. Casper, and X.A. Shin, “Recent progress on laser-induced modifications and intrinsic bulk damage of wide-gap optical materials,” Opt. Eng. 28, 1039–1068 (1989)

Brawer, S.

S. Brawer, “Phenomenological theory of laser damage in insulators,” Phys. Rev. B 20, 3422–3441 (1979)
[Crossref]

Broyer, M.

F. Bonneau, P. Combis, J. L. Rullier, J. Vierne, H. Ward, M. Pellin, M. Savina, M. Broyer, E. Cottancin, J. Tuaillon, M. Pellarin, L. Gallais, J. Y. Natoli, M. Perra, H. Bercegol, L. Lamaignere, M. Loiseau, and J. T. Donohue, “Study of UV laser interaction with gold nanoparticles embedded in silica,” to be published in Appl. Phys. B

Casper, R.T.

S.C. Jones, P. Braunlich, R.T. Casper, and X.A. Shin, “Recent progress on laser-induced modifications and intrinsic bulk damage of wide-gap optical materials,” Opt. Eng. 28, 1039–1068 (1989)

Chmel, A.

A. Chmel, S.B. Eronko, A.M. Kondyrev, and V.Y. Nazarova, “Optical resistance of sapphire,” Journal of Material Science 28, 4673–4680 (1993)
[Crossref]

S.B. Eron’ko, S.N. Zhurkov, and A. Chmel, “Kinetics of accumulation of damage in transparent insulators subjected to repeated laser irradiation,” Soviet Physics : Solid State 20, 2064–2066 (1978)

Chmel, A.E.

A.E. Chmel, “Fatigue laser-induced damage in transparent materials,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 49, 175–190 (1997)
[Crossref]

Combis, P.

F. Bonneau, P. Combis, J. L. Rullier, J. Vierne, H. Ward, M. Pellin, M. Savina, M. Broyer, E. Cottancin, J. Tuaillon, M. Pellarin, L. Gallais, J. Y. Natoli, M. Perra, H. Bercegol, L. Lamaignere, M. Loiseau, and J. T. Donohue, “Study of UV laser interaction with gold nanoparticles embedded in silica,” to be published in Appl. Phys. B

Cottancin, E.

F. Bonneau, P. Combis, J. L. Rullier, J. Vierne, H. Ward, M. Pellin, M. Savina, M. Broyer, E. Cottancin, J. Tuaillon, M. Pellarin, L. Gallais, J. Y. Natoli, M. Perra, H. Bercegol, L. Lamaignere, M. Loiseau, and J. T. Donohue, “Study of UV laser interaction with gold nanoparticles embedded in silica,” to be published in Appl. Phys. B

Deaton, T. F.

DeYoreo, J.

M. Runkel, J. DeYoreo, W. Sell, and D. Milam, “Laser conditioning of KDP on the optical sciences laser unsing large area beam,” in Laser-Induced damage in Optical Materials : 1997, H.E. Bennett, A.H. Guenther, M.R. Kozlowski, B.E. Newnam, and M.J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE 3244, 51–63 (2001)
[Crossref]

Dijon, J.

J. Hue, P. Garrec, J. Dijon, and P. Lyan, “R-on-1 automatic mapping : a new tool for laser damage testing,” in Laser-Induced damage in Optical Materials : 1995, A.H. Guenther, M.R. Kozlowski, B.E. Newnam, and M.J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE 2714, 90–101 (1996)
[Crossref]

Donohue, J. T.

F. Bonneau, P. Combis, J. L. Rullier, J. Vierne, H. Ward, M. Pellin, M. Savina, M. Broyer, E. Cottancin, J. Tuaillon, M. Pellarin, L. Gallais, J. Y. Natoli, M. Perra, H. Bercegol, L. Lamaignere, M. Loiseau, and J. T. Donohue, “Study of UV laser interaction with gold nanoparticles embedded in silica,” to be published in Appl. Phys. B

Epifanov, A.S.

A.S. Epifanov and S.V. Garnov, “Statistical approach to theory of electron-avalanche ionization in solids,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 17, 2023 (1981)
[Crossref]

Eron’ko, S.B.

S.B. Eron’ko, S.N. Zhurkov, and A. Chmel, “Kinetics of accumulation of damage in transparent insulators subjected to repeated laser irradiation,” Soviet Physics : Solid State 20, 2064–2066 (1978)

Eronko, S.B.

A. Chmel, S.B. Eronko, A.M. Kondyrev, and V.Y. Nazarova, “Optical resistance of sapphire,” Journal of Material Science 28, 4673–4680 (1993)
[Crossref]

Gallais, L.

J. Y. Natoli, L. Gallais, H. Akhouayri, and C. Amra, “Laser-induced damage of materials in bulk, thin films and liquid forms,” Appl. Opt. 41, pp 3156–3166, 2002
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Gallais and J.Y. Natoli, “Optimized metrology for laser damage measurement - Application to multiparameter study,” to be published in Appl. Opt.
[PubMed]

F. Bonneau, P. Combis, J. L. Rullier, J. Vierne, H. Ward, M. Pellin, M. Savina, M. Broyer, E. Cottancin, J. Tuaillon, M. Pellarin, L. Gallais, J. Y. Natoli, M. Perra, H. Bercegol, L. Lamaignere, M. Loiseau, and J. T. Donohue, “Study of UV laser interaction with gold nanoparticles embedded in silica,” to be published in Appl. Phys. B

Garnov, S.V.

A.S. Epifanov and S.V. Garnov, “Statistical approach to theory of electron-avalanche ionization in solids,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 17, 2023 (1981)
[Crossref]

Garrec, P.

J. Hue, P. Garrec, J. Dijon, and P. Lyan, “R-on-1 automatic mapping : a new tool for laser damage testing,” in Laser-Induced damage in Optical Materials : 1995, A.H. Guenther, M.R. Kozlowski, B.E. Newnam, and M.J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE 2714, 90–101 (1996)
[Crossref]

Hooker, M.W.

M.W. Hooker, M.E. Thomas, S.A. Wise, and N.D. Tappan, “A ruggedness evaluation of procedures for damage threshold testing of optical materials,” NASA Technical Report, (1995)

Hopper, R.W.

R.W. Hopper and D.R. Uhlmann, “Mechanism of inclusion damage in laser glass,” J. App. Phys. 41, 4023–4037 (1970)
[Crossref]

Hue, J.

J. Hue, P. Garrec, J. Dijon, and P. Lyan, “R-on-1 automatic mapping : a new tool for laser damage testing,” in Laser-Induced damage in Optical Materials : 1995, A.H. Guenther, M.R. Kozlowski, B.E. Newnam, and M.J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE 2714, 90–101 (1996)
[Crossref]

Jones, S.C.

S.C. Jones, P. Braunlich, R.T. Casper, and X.A. Shin, “Recent progress on laser-induced modifications and intrinsic bulk damage of wide-gap optical materials,” Opt. Eng. 28, 1039–1068 (1989)

Kitriotis, D.

D. Kitriotis and L.D. Merkle, “Multipulse laser-induced damage phenomena in silicates,” Appl. Opt. 28, 949–958 (1989)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L.D. Merkle and D. Kitriotis, “Temperature dependence of laser-induced bulk damage in SiC>2 and borolilicate glass,” Phys. Rev. B 38, 1473–1482 (1988)
[Crossref]

Kondyrev, A.M.

A. Chmel, S.B. Eronko, A.M. Kondyrev, and V.Y. Nazarova, “Optical resistance of sapphire,” Journal of Material Science 28, 4673–4680 (1993)
[Crossref]

Koumvakalis, N.

L.D. Merkle, N. Koumvakalis, and M. Bass, “Laser-induced bulk damage in SiO2 at 1.064, 0.532, and 0.355 μm,” J. App. Phys. 55, 772–775 (1984)
[Crossref]

Kuzuu, N.

N. Kuzuu, N. Umemura, A. Nagafuchi, K. Yagi, K. Ochi, and K. Yoshida, “Laser-induced bulk damage in various types of vitreous silica,” in Laser-Induced damage in Optical Materials : 1999, G.J. Exarhos, A.H. Guenther, M.R. Kozlowski, K.L. Lewis, and M.J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE 3902, 398–405 (2000)
[Crossref]

Lamaignere, L.

F. Bonneau, P. Combis, J. L. Rullier, J. Vierne, H. Ward, M. Pellin, M. Savina, M. Broyer, E. Cottancin, J. Tuaillon, M. Pellarin, L. Gallais, J. Y. Natoli, M. Perra, H. Bercegol, L. Lamaignere, M. Loiseau, and J. T. Donohue, “Study of UV laser interaction with gold nanoparticles embedded in silica,” to be published in Appl. Phys. B

L. Lamaignere, M. Loiseau, H. Piombini, D. Plessis, and H. Bercegol, “Bulk damage and laser conditioning of KDP and DKDP crystals with Xe-F excimer light and the 3ω of a Nd:YAG laser,” in Laser-Induced damage in Optical Materials : 2002

Loiseau, M.

L. Lamaignere, M. Loiseau, H. Piombini, D. Plessis, and H. Bercegol, “Bulk damage and laser conditioning of KDP and DKDP crystals with Xe-F excimer light and the 3ω of a Nd:YAG laser,” in Laser-Induced damage in Optical Materials : 2002

F. Bonneau, P. Combis, J. L. Rullier, J. Vierne, H. Ward, M. Pellin, M. Savina, M. Broyer, E. Cottancin, J. Tuaillon, M. Pellarin, L. Gallais, J. Y. Natoli, M. Perra, H. Bercegol, L. Lamaignere, M. Loiseau, and J. T. Donohue, “Study of UV laser interaction with gold nanoparticles embedded in silica,” to be published in Appl. Phys. B

Lyan, P.

J. Hue, P. Garrec, J. Dijon, and P. Lyan, “R-on-1 automatic mapping : a new tool for laser damage testing,” in Laser-Induced damage in Optical Materials : 1995, A.H. Guenther, M.R. Kozlowski, B.E. Newnam, and M.J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE 2714, 90–101 (1996)
[Crossref]

Merkle, L.D.

D. Kitriotis and L.D. Merkle, “Multipulse laser-induced damage phenomena in silicates,” Appl. Opt. 28, 949–958 (1989)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L.D. Merkle and D. Kitriotis, “Temperature dependence of laser-induced bulk damage in SiC>2 and borolilicate glass,” Phys. Rev. B 38, 1473–1482 (1988)
[Crossref]

P.K. Bandyopadhyay and L.D. Merkle, “Laser-induced damage in quartz: A study of the influence of impurities and defects,” J. App. Phys. 63, 1392–1398 (1988)
[Crossref]

L.D. Merkle, N. Koumvakalis, and M. Bass, “Laser-induced bulk damage in SiO2 at 1.064, 0.532, and 0.355 μm,” J. App. Phys. 55, 772–775 (1984)
[Crossref]

L.D. Merkle, M. Bass, and R.T. Swimm, “Multiple pulse laser-induced bulk damage in crystalline and fused quartz at 1.064 and 0.532μm,” Opt. Eng. 22, 505 (1983)

Milam, D.

M. Runkel, J. DeYoreo, W. Sell, and D. Milam, “Laser conditioning of KDP on the optical sciences laser unsing large area beam,” in Laser-Induced damage in Optical Materials : 1997, H.E. Bennett, A.H. Guenther, M.R. Kozlowski, B.E. Newnam, and M.J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE 3244, 51–63 (2001)
[Crossref]

Nagafuchi, A.

N. Kuzuu, N. Umemura, A. Nagafuchi, K. Yagi, K. Ochi, and K. Yoshida, “Laser-induced bulk damage in various types of vitreous silica,” in Laser-Induced damage in Optical Materials : 1999, G.J. Exarhos, A.H. Guenther, M.R. Kozlowski, K.L. Lewis, and M.J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE 3902, 398–405 (2000)
[Crossref]

Natoli, J. Y.

J. Y. Natoli, L. Gallais, H. Akhouayri, and C. Amra, “Laser-induced damage of materials in bulk, thin films and liquid forms,” Appl. Opt. 41, pp 3156–3166, 2002
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Bonneau, P. Combis, J. L. Rullier, J. Vierne, H. Ward, M. Pellin, M. Savina, M. Broyer, E. Cottancin, J. Tuaillon, M. Pellarin, L. Gallais, J. Y. Natoli, M. Perra, H. Bercegol, L. Lamaignere, M. Loiseau, and J. T. Donohue, “Study of UV laser interaction with gold nanoparticles embedded in silica,” to be published in Appl. Phys. B

Natoli, J.Y.

L. Gallais and J.Y. Natoli, “Optimized metrology for laser damage measurement - Application to multiparameter study,” to be published in Appl. Opt.
[PubMed]

Nazarova, V.Y.

A. Chmel, S.B. Eronko, A.M. Kondyrev, and V.Y. Nazarova, “Optical resistance of sapphire,” Journal of Material Science 28, 4673–4680 (1993)
[Crossref]

O’Conell, R. M.

O’Connell, R.M.

Ochi, K.

N. Kuzuu, N. Umemura, A. Nagafuchi, K. Yagi, K. Ochi, and K. Yoshida, “Laser-induced bulk damage in various types of vitreous silica,” in Laser-Induced damage in Optical Materials : 1999, G.J. Exarhos, A.H. Guenther, M.R. Kozlowski, K.L. Lewis, and M.J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE 3902, 398–405 (2000)
[Crossref]

Pellarin, M.

F. Bonneau, P. Combis, J. L. Rullier, J. Vierne, H. Ward, M. Pellin, M. Savina, M. Broyer, E. Cottancin, J. Tuaillon, M. Pellarin, L. Gallais, J. Y. Natoli, M. Perra, H. Bercegol, L. Lamaignere, M. Loiseau, and J. T. Donohue, “Study of UV laser interaction with gold nanoparticles embedded in silica,” to be published in Appl. Phys. B

Pellin, M.

F. Bonneau, P. Combis, J. L. Rullier, J. Vierne, H. Ward, M. Pellin, M. Savina, M. Broyer, E. Cottancin, J. Tuaillon, M. Pellarin, L. Gallais, J. Y. Natoli, M. Perra, H. Bercegol, L. Lamaignere, M. Loiseau, and J. T. Donohue, “Study of UV laser interaction with gold nanoparticles embedded in silica,” to be published in Appl. Phys. B

Perra, M.

F. Bonneau, P. Combis, J. L. Rullier, J. Vierne, H. Ward, M. Pellin, M. Savina, M. Broyer, E. Cottancin, J. Tuaillon, M. Pellarin, L. Gallais, J. Y. Natoli, M. Perra, H. Bercegol, L. Lamaignere, M. Loiseau, and J. T. Donohue, “Study of UV laser interaction with gold nanoparticles embedded in silica,” to be published in Appl. Phys. B

Piombini, H.

L. Lamaignere, M. Loiseau, H. Piombini, D. Plessis, and H. Bercegol, “Bulk damage and laser conditioning of KDP and DKDP crystals with Xe-F excimer light and the 3ω of a Nd:YAG laser,” in Laser-Induced damage in Optical Materials : 2002

Plessis, D.

L. Lamaignere, M. Loiseau, H. Piombini, D. Plessis, and H. Bercegol, “Bulk damage and laser conditioning of KDP and DKDP crystals with Xe-F excimer light and the 3ω of a Nd:YAG laser,” in Laser-Induced damage in Optical Materials : 2002

Rullier, J. L.

F. Bonneau, P. Combis, J. L. Rullier, J. Vierne, H. Ward, M. Pellin, M. Savina, M. Broyer, E. Cottancin, J. Tuaillon, M. Pellarin, L. Gallais, J. Y. Natoli, M. Perra, H. Bercegol, L. Lamaignere, M. Loiseau, and J. T. Donohue, “Study of UV laser interaction with gold nanoparticles embedded in silica,” to be published in Appl. Phys. B

Runkel, M.

M. Staggs, M. Yan, and M. Runkel, “Laser raster conditioning of KDP and DKDP crystals using XeCl and Nd:YAG lasers,” in Laser-Induced damage in Optical Materials : 2000, G.J. Exarhos, A.H. Guenther, M.R. Kozlowski, K.L. Lewis, and M.J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE 4347, 400–407 (2001)
[Crossref]

M. Runkel, J. DeYoreo, W. Sell, and D. Milam, “Laser conditioning of KDP on the optical sciences laser unsing large area beam,” in Laser-Induced damage in Optical Materials : 1997, H.E. Bennett, A.H. Guenther, M.R. Kozlowski, B.E. Newnam, and M.J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE 3244, 51–63 (2001)
[Crossref]

Salto, T. T.

Savina, M.

F. Bonneau, P. Combis, J. L. Rullier, J. Vierne, H. Ward, M. Pellin, M. Savina, M. Broyer, E. Cottancin, J. Tuaillon, M. Pellarin, L. Gallais, J. Y. Natoli, M. Perra, H. Bercegol, L. Lamaignere, M. Loiseau, and J. T. Donohue, “Study of UV laser interaction with gold nanoparticles embedded in silica,” to be published in Appl. Phys. B

Sell, W.

M. Runkel, J. DeYoreo, W. Sell, and D. Milam, “Laser conditioning of KDP on the optical sciences laser unsing large area beam,” in Laser-Induced damage in Optical Materials : 1997, H.E. Bennett, A.H. Guenther, M.R. Kozlowski, B.E. Newnam, and M.J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE 3244, 51–63 (2001)
[Crossref]

Shin, X.A.

S.C. Jones, P. Braunlich, R.T. Casper, and X.A. Shin, “Recent progress on laser-induced modifications and intrinsic bulk damage of wide-gap optical materials,” Opt. Eng. 28, 1039–1068 (1989)

Smirl, A.L.

E.W. Van Stryland, M.J. Soileau, A.L. Smirl, and W.E. Williams, “Pulse-width and focal-volume dependence of laser-induced breakdown,” Phys. Rev. B 23, 2144–2151 (1981)
[Crossref]

Soileau, M.J.

E.W. Van Stryland, M.J. Soileau, A.L. Smirl, and W.E. Williams, “Pulse-width and focal-volume dependence of laser-induced breakdown,” Phys. Rev. B 23, 2144–2151 (1981)
[Crossref]

Staggs, M.

M. Staggs, M. Yan, and M. Runkel, “Laser raster conditioning of KDP and DKDP crystals using XeCl and Nd:YAG lasers,” in Laser-Induced damage in Optical Materials : 2000, G.J. Exarhos, A.H. Guenther, M.R. Kozlowski, K.L. Lewis, and M.J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE 4347, 400–407 (2001)
[Crossref]

Swimm, R.T.

L.D. Merkle, M. Bass, and R.T. Swimm, “Multiple pulse laser-induced bulk damage in crystalline and fused quartz at 1.064 and 0.532μm,” Opt. Eng. 22, 505 (1983)

Tappan, N.D.

M.W. Hooker, M.E. Thomas, S.A. Wise, and N.D. Tappan, “A ruggedness evaluation of procedures for damage threshold testing of optical materials,” NASA Technical Report, (1995)

Thomas, M.E.

M.W. Hooker, M.E. Thomas, S.A. Wise, and N.D. Tappan, “A ruggedness evaluation of procedures for damage threshold testing of optical materials,” NASA Technical Report, (1995)

Tuaillon, J.

F. Bonneau, P. Combis, J. L. Rullier, J. Vierne, H. Ward, M. Pellin, M. Savina, M. Broyer, E. Cottancin, J. Tuaillon, M. Pellarin, L. Gallais, J. Y. Natoli, M. Perra, H. Bercegol, L. Lamaignere, M. Loiseau, and J. T. Donohue, “Study of UV laser interaction with gold nanoparticles embedded in silica,” to be published in Appl. Phys. B

Uhlmann, D.R.

R.W. Hopper and D.R. Uhlmann, “Mechanism of inclusion damage in laser glass,” J. App. Phys. 41, 4023–4037 (1970)
[Crossref]

Umemura, N.

N. Kuzuu, N. Umemura, A. Nagafuchi, K. Yagi, K. Ochi, and K. Yoshida, “Laser-induced bulk damage in various types of vitreous silica,” in Laser-Induced damage in Optical Materials : 1999, G.J. Exarhos, A.H. Guenther, M.R. Kozlowski, K.L. Lewis, and M.J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE 3902, 398–405 (2000)
[Crossref]

Van Stryland, E.W.

E.W. Van Stryland, M.J. Soileau, A.L. Smirl, and W.E. Williams, “Pulse-width and focal-volume dependence of laser-induced breakdown,” Phys. Rev. B 23, 2144–2151 (1981)
[Crossref]

Vierne, J.

F. Bonneau, P. Combis, J. L. Rullier, J. Vierne, H. Ward, M. Pellin, M. Savina, M. Broyer, E. Cottancin, J. Tuaillon, M. Pellarin, L. Gallais, J. Y. Natoli, M. Perra, H. Bercegol, L. Lamaignere, M. Loiseau, and J. T. Donohue, “Study of UV laser interaction with gold nanoparticles embedded in silica,” to be published in Appl. Phys. B

Ward, H.

F. Bonneau, P. Combis, J. L. Rullier, J. Vierne, H. Ward, M. Pellin, M. Savina, M. Broyer, E. Cottancin, J. Tuaillon, M. Pellarin, L. Gallais, J. Y. Natoli, M. Perra, H. Bercegol, L. Lamaignere, M. Loiseau, and J. T. Donohue, “Study of UV laser interaction with gold nanoparticles embedded in silica,” to be published in Appl. Phys. B

Williams, W.E.

E.W. Van Stryland, M.J. Soileau, A.L. Smirl, and W.E. Williams, “Pulse-width and focal-volume dependence of laser-induced breakdown,” Phys. Rev. B 23, 2144–2151 (1981)
[Crossref]

Wise, S.A.

M.W. Hooker, M.E. Thomas, S.A. Wise, and N.D. Tappan, “A ruggedness evaluation of procedures for damage threshold testing of optical materials,” NASA Technical Report, (1995)

Yagi, K.

N. Kuzuu, N. Umemura, A. Nagafuchi, K. Yagi, K. Ochi, and K. Yoshida, “Laser-induced bulk damage in various types of vitreous silica,” in Laser-Induced damage in Optical Materials : 1999, G.J. Exarhos, A.H. Guenther, M.R. Kozlowski, K.L. Lewis, and M.J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE 3902, 398–405 (2000)
[Crossref]

Yan, M.

M. Staggs, M. Yan, and M. Runkel, “Laser raster conditioning of KDP and DKDP crystals using XeCl and Nd:YAG lasers,” in Laser-Induced damage in Optical Materials : 2000, G.J. Exarhos, A.H. Guenther, M.R. Kozlowski, K.L. Lewis, and M.J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE 4347, 400–407 (2001)
[Crossref]

Yoshida, K.

N. Kuzuu, N. Umemura, A. Nagafuchi, K. Yagi, K. Ochi, and K. Yoshida, “Laser-induced bulk damage in various types of vitreous silica,” in Laser-Induced damage in Optical Materials : 1999, G.J. Exarhos, A.H. Guenther, M.R. Kozlowski, K.L. Lewis, and M.J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE 3902, 398–405 (2000)
[Crossref]

Zhurkov, S.N.

S.B. Eron’ko, S.N. Zhurkov, and A. Chmel, “Kinetics of accumulation of damage in transparent insulators subjected to repeated laser irradiation,” Soviet Physics : Solid State 20, 2064–2066 (1978)

Appl. Opt. (7)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

F. Bonneau, P. Combis, J. L. Rullier, J. Vierne, H. Ward, M. Pellin, M. Savina, M. Broyer, E. Cottancin, J. Tuaillon, M. Pellarin, L. Gallais, J. Y. Natoli, M. Perra, H. Bercegol, L. Lamaignere, M. Loiseau, and J. T. Donohue, “Study of UV laser interaction with gold nanoparticles embedded in silica,” to be published in Appl. Phys. B

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

M. Bass and H.H. Barett, “Avalanche breakdown and the probabilistic nature of laser-induced damage,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 8, 338–343 (1972)
[Crossref]

A.S. Epifanov and S.V. Garnov, “Statistical approach to theory of electron-avalanche ionization in solids,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 17, 2023 (1981)
[Crossref]

J. App. Phys. (3)

R.W. Hopper and D.R. Uhlmann, “Mechanism of inclusion damage in laser glass,” J. App. Phys. 41, 4023–4037 (1970)
[Crossref]

P.K. Bandyopadhyay and L.D. Merkle, “Laser-induced damage in quartz: A study of the influence of impurities and defects,” J. App. Phys. 63, 1392–1398 (1988)
[Crossref]

L.D. Merkle, N. Koumvakalis, and M. Bass, “Laser-induced bulk damage in SiO2 at 1.064, 0.532, and 0.355 μm,” J. App. Phys. 55, 772–775 (1984)
[Crossref]

Journal of Material Science (1)

A. Chmel, S.B. Eronko, A.M. Kondyrev, and V.Y. Nazarova, “Optical resistance of sapphire,” Journal of Material Science 28, 4673–4680 (1993)
[Crossref]

Mater. Sci. Eng. B (1)

A.E. Chmel, “Fatigue laser-induced damage in transparent materials,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 49, 175–190 (1997)
[Crossref]

NASA Technical Report (1)

M.W. Hooker, M.E. Thomas, S.A. Wise, and N.D. Tappan, “A ruggedness evaluation of procedures for damage threshold testing of optical materials,” NASA Technical Report, (1995)

Opt. Eng. (2)

S.C. Jones, P. Braunlich, R.T. Casper, and X.A. Shin, “Recent progress on laser-induced modifications and intrinsic bulk damage of wide-gap optical materials,” Opt. Eng. 28, 1039–1068 (1989)

L.D. Merkle, M. Bass, and R.T. Swimm, “Multiple pulse laser-induced bulk damage in crystalline and fused quartz at 1.064 and 0.532μm,” Opt. Eng. 22, 505 (1983)

Phys. Rev. B (3)

E.W. Van Stryland, M.J. Soileau, A.L. Smirl, and W.E. Williams, “Pulse-width and focal-volume dependence of laser-induced breakdown,” Phys. Rev. B 23, 2144–2151 (1981)
[Crossref]

S. Brawer, “Phenomenological theory of laser damage in insulators,” Phys. Rev. B 20, 3422–3441 (1979)
[Crossref]

L.D. Merkle and D. Kitriotis, “Temperature dependence of laser-induced bulk damage in SiC>2 and borolilicate glass,” Phys. Rev. B 38, 1473–1482 (1988)
[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE (4)

N. Kuzuu, N. Umemura, A. Nagafuchi, K. Yagi, K. Ochi, and K. Yoshida, “Laser-induced bulk damage in various types of vitreous silica,” in Laser-Induced damage in Optical Materials : 1999, G.J. Exarhos, A.H. Guenther, M.R. Kozlowski, K.L. Lewis, and M.J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE 3902, 398–405 (2000)
[Crossref]

M. Staggs, M. Yan, and M. Runkel, “Laser raster conditioning of KDP and DKDP crystals using XeCl and Nd:YAG lasers,” in Laser-Induced damage in Optical Materials : 2000, G.J. Exarhos, A.H. Guenther, M.R. Kozlowski, K.L. Lewis, and M.J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE 4347, 400–407 (2001)
[Crossref]

M. Runkel, J. DeYoreo, W. Sell, and D. Milam, “Laser conditioning of KDP on the optical sciences laser unsing large area beam,” in Laser-Induced damage in Optical Materials : 1997, H.E. Bennett, A.H. Guenther, M.R. Kozlowski, B.E. Newnam, and M.J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE 3244, 51–63 (2001)
[Crossref]

J. Hue, P. Garrec, J. Dijon, and P. Lyan, “R-on-1 automatic mapping : a new tool for laser damage testing,” in Laser-Induced damage in Optical Materials : 1995, A.H. Guenther, M.R. Kozlowski, B.E. Newnam, and M.J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE 2714, 90–101 (1996)
[Crossref]

Soviet Physics : Solid State (1)

S.B. Eron’ko, S.N. Zhurkov, and A. Chmel, “Kinetics of accumulation of damage in transparent insulators subjected to repeated laser irradiation,” Soviet Physics : Solid State 20, 2064–2066 (1978)

Other (3)

L. Lamaignere, M. Loiseau, H. Piombini, D. Plessis, and H. Bercegol, “Bulk damage and laser conditioning of KDP and DKDP crystals with Xe-F excimer light and the 3ω of a Nd:YAG laser,” in Laser-Induced damage in Optical Materials : 2002

ISO 11254-2, “Determination of laser-damage threshold of optical surfaces-Part 2 : S-on-1 test,” 2001

ISO 11254-1, “Determination of laser-damage threshold of optical surfaces-Part 1 : 1-on-1 test,” 2000

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Experimental set-up for laser damage testing

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Threshold curves measured in the bulk of BK7 and Suprasil, in 1-on-1 mode at 1064nm.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Images after successive shots in the bulk of a Suprasil glass at 110J/cm 2. Damage appears after the 6th shot, without any visible modification on the previous shots.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Laser damage probability curves after 1, 10, 100, 1000 shots, respectively P(1), P(10) P(100), P(1000), measured in the bulk of Suprasil at 1064nm with a spot size of 12μm. Data are fitted with the model presented in the text.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Laser damage probability curves after 1, 10, 100, 1000 shots, respectively P(1), P(10) P(100), P(1000), measured in the bulk of BK7 at 1064nm with a spot size of 12μm. Data are fitted with the model presented in the text.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Multi-shot low damage thresholds of Suprasil and BK7, obtained by fitting experimental data with equation 5. Dotted lines are logarithmic fits of these results.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Stability of the focused beam during 1000 shots at 10Hz. Beam waist is 12μm at 1064nm, with a pulse length of 7ns.

Tables Icon

Table 2. Damage probability in the bulk of BK7 after i shots (Pi ), with i=1,10, 100 or 1000. Beam waist is 12μm at 1064nm, with a pulse length of 7ns and a repetition rate of 10 Hz.

Tables Icon

Table 3. Damage probability in the bulk of Suprasil after i shots (Pi ), with i=1,10, 100 or 1000. Beam waist is 12μm at 1064nm, with a pulse length of 7ns and a repetition rate of 10 Hz.

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

P ( F ) = 1 exp ( d V T ( F ) )
V T = 4 6 π w 0 2 2 z R [ u + u 3 6 arctan ( u ) ]
u = F T 1
T = T ( N )
p ( F ) = 1 e d 4 3 π w 0 2 z R [ ( F T ( N ) 1 ) 3 6 + ( F T ( N ) 1 ) arctan ( F T ( N ) 1 ) ]
T ( N ) = 6,5 * ln ( N ) + 115 for Suprasil
T ( N ) = 4 * ln ( N ) + 76 for BK 7

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