Abstract

In this paper, a mode matching technique for highly efficient coupling between dielectric silica waveguides (SWG) and planar photonic crystal (PPC) waveguides based on setting localized defects in a PPC tapered waveguide is reported. The introduction of multiple defects is designed properly depending on mode mismatching arising from the different widths of the SWG and the PPC waveguide. The procedure to obtain the optimum defects configuration is described. Transmission efficiencies above 80% at a wavelength of 1.55μm are reported improving significantly the transmission efficiencies achieved with conventional PPC tapered structures without defects. Furthermore, the feasibility of the coupling technique for both input/output coupling over a large frequency band is shown.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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References

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Electron. Lett. (1)

P. Sanchis, J. Martí, A. García, A. Martínez and J. Blasco, "High efficiency coupling technique for planar photonic crystal waveguides," Electron. Lett. 38, 961-962 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

S. Boscolo, C. Conti, M. Midirio and C.G. Someda, "Numerical analysis of propagation and impedance matching in 2-D photonic crystal waveguides with finite length," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 304-310 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Mekis and J. D. Joannopoulos, "Tapered couplers for efficient interfacing between dielectric and photonic crystal waveguides," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 861-865 (2001).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel and R. Baets, "An out-of-pale grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 949-955 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Comput. Phys. (1)

J. P. Berenger, "A perfectly matched layer for the absorption for electromagnetic waves," J. Comput. Phys. 114, 185-200 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

T. F. Krauss, R. M. De La Rue and S. Brand, "Two-dimensional photonic bandgap structures operating at nearinfrared wavelengths," Nature 383, 699-702 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (5)

Other (1)

A. Taflove, Computational Electrodynamics (Artech, Norwood, MA, 1995).

Supplementary Material (2)

» Media 1: MOV (1576 KB)     
» Media 2: MOV (1570 KB)     

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic view of the structures considered. (a) a 2μm-wide/ 0.5μm-long and (b) a 4μm-wide/1μm-long planar photonic crystal (PPC) taper each one with a different defects configuration are used to couple light both into and out of a finite PPC waveguide from a silica waveguide (SWG). The lattice constant of the PPC is a and the radius of the rods is R.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Transmission spectra as a function of the normalized frequency for the structure shown in Fig.1(a) taking into account different SWG widths, w=1.5μm and w= 3μm, and with and without the proposed coupling technique.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Normalized transmitted power as a function of the relative position of a localized defect in the z-axis normalized to the lattice constant and (b) as a function of the radius of the defects, rext and rint , normalized to the radius of the rods, R, and located the former at zext =0.59a and the latter at zint =1.52a, both for the PPC taper shown in Fig.1(b).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Movies (both 1.6 MB) of the electric field intensity input coupling from the SWG to the PPC waveguide employing the PPC taper shown in Fig. 1(b), (a) without and (b) with the optimized two-defects configuration. [Media 2]

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Transmission spectra as a function of the normalized frequency for the structure shown in Fig.1(b) for a SWG width of 3 μm with and without the proposed coupling technique. In the former case, two spectra are depicted showing the influence of the normalized frequency employed in the optimization procedure.

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