Abstract

The Coupled Wave Theory of Kogelnik has given a well-established basis for the comprehension of how light propagates inside a hologram. This theory gives an accurate approximation for the diffraction efficiency of volume phase holograms and volume absorption holograms as well. Mixed holograms (phase and absorption) have been also treated from the point of view of this theory. For instance, Guibelalde theoretically described the diffraction efficiency of out of phase mixed volume gratings. In this work we will show that when using fixation-free rehalogenating bleaches, out of phase mixed volume gratings can be recorded on the hologram at high exposures. This is due to the oxidation products of the developer and the bleaching agent. The effects described theoretically for out of phase mixed volume hologram gratings are experimentally observed.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. L. Solymar and D. J. Cooke, Volume Holography and Volume Gratings, (Academic, London1981).
  2. R. R. A. Syms, Practical Volume Holography, (Clarendon, Oxford1990).
  3. H. Kogelnik, “Coupled wave theory for thick hologram gratings,” Bell Sys. Tech. J. 48, 2909–47 (1969).
  4. A. Beléndez, T. Beléndez, C. Neipp, and I. Pascual, “Determination of the refractive index and thickness of holographic silver halide materials by the use of polarized reflectances,” Appl. Opt. 41, 6802–08 (2002).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. E. Guibelalde, “Coupled wave analysis for out-of-phase mixed thick hologram gratings,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 16, 173–178 (1984).
    [Crossref]
  6. N. J. Phillips, A. A. Ward, R. Cullen, and D. Porter, “Advances in holographic bleaches,” Phot. Sci. Eng. 24, 120–4 (1980).
  7. B. J. Chang and C. D. Leonard, “Dichromated gelatin for the fabrication of holographic optical elements,” Appl. Opt. 18, 2407–17 (1979).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. K. S. Pennington and J. S. Harper, “Techniques for producing low-noise, improved efficiency holograms,” Appl. Opt. 9, 1643–50 (1970).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. H. I. Bjelkhagen, Silver-Halide Recording Materials, (Springer, Berlin1995).
  10. J. Crespo, A. Fimia, and J. A. Quintana, “Fixation-free methods in bleached reflection holography,” Appl. Opt. 25, 1642–5 (1986).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. P. Hariharan and C. M. Chidley, “Rehalogenating bleaches for photographic phase holograms: the influence of halide type and concentration on diffraction efficiency and scattering,” Appl. Opt. 26, 3895–8 (1987).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. P. Hariharan, “Rehalogenating bleaches for photographic phase holograms 3: Mechanism of material transfer,” Appl. Opt. 29, 2983–5 (1990).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. C. Neipp, I. Pascual, and A. Beléndez, “Over modulation effects in fixation-free rehalogenating bleached holograms,” Appl. Opt. 40, 3402–3408 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  14. C. Neipp, I. Pascual, and A. Beléndez, “Optimization of a fixation-free rehalogenating bleach for BB-640 holographic emulsion,” J. Mod. Opt. 47, 1671–1679 (2000).
  15. C. Neipp, I. Pascual, and A. Beléndez, “Fixation-free rehalogenating bleached reflection holograms recorded on BB-640 plates,” Opt. Commun. 182, 107–114 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  16. M. Ulibarrena, M. J. Méndez, L. Carretero, R. Madrigal, and A. Fimia, “Comparison of direct, rehalogenating, and solvent bleaching processes with BB-640 plates,” Appl. Opt. 41, 4120–4123 (2002).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. C. Neipp, C. Pascual, and A. Beléndez, “Mixed phase-amplitude holographic gratings recorded in bleached silver halide materials,” J. Phys. D 35, 957–967 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  18. L. Carretero, R. F. Madrigal, A. Fimia, S. Blaya, and A. Beléndez, “Study of angular responses of mixed amplitude-phase holographic gratings: shifted Borrmann effect,” Opt. Lett. 26, 786–7888 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  19. R. F. Madrigal, L. Carretero, S. Blaya, M. Ulibarrena, A. Beléndez, and y A. Fimia, “Diffraction efficiency of unbleached phase and amplitude holograms as a function of volume fraction of metallic silver,” Opt. Commun. 201, 279–282 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  20. C. Neipp, I. Pascual, and A. Beléndez, “Theoretical and experimental analysis of overmodulation effects in volume holograms recorded on Bb-640 emulsions,” J. Opt. A 3, 504–513 (2002).
    [Crossref]

2002 (5)

C. Neipp, C. Pascual, and A. Beléndez, “Mixed phase-amplitude holographic gratings recorded in bleached silver halide materials,” J. Phys. D 35, 957–967 (2002).
[Crossref]

R. F. Madrigal, L. Carretero, S. Blaya, M. Ulibarrena, A. Beléndez, and y A. Fimia, “Diffraction efficiency of unbleached phase and amplitude holograms as a function of volume fraction of metallic silver,” Opt. Commun. 201, 279–282 (2002).
[Crossref]

C. Neipp, I. Pascual, and A. Beléndez, “Theoretical and experimental analysis of overmodulation effects in volume holograms recorded on Bb-640 emulsions,” J. Opt. A 3, 504–513 (2002).
[Crossref]

M. Ulibarrena, M. J. Méndez, L. Carretero, R. Madrigal, and A. Fimia, “Comparison of direct, rehalogenating, and solvent bleaching processes with BB-640 plates,” Appl. Opt. 41, 4120–4123 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Beléndez, T. Beléndez, C. Neipp, and I. Pascual, “Determination of the refractive index and thickness of holographic silver halide materials by the use of polarized reflectances,” Appl. Opt. 41, 6802–08 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (2)

2000 (2)

C. Neipp, I. Pascual, and A. Beléndez, “Optimization of a fixation-free rehalogenating bleach for BB-640 holographic emulsion,” J. Mod. Opt. 47, 1671–1679 (2000).

C. Neipp, I. Pascual, and A. Beléndez, “Fixation-free rehalogenating bleached reflection holograms recorded on BB-640 plates,” Opt. Commun. 182, 107–114 (2000).
[Crossref]

1990 (1)

1987 (1)

1986 (1)

1984 (1)

E. Guibelalde, “Coupled wave analysis for out-of-phase mixed thick hologram gratings,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 16, 173–178 (1984).
[Crossref]

1980 (1)

N. J. Phillips, A. A. Ward, R. Cullen, and D. Porter, “Advances in holographic bleaches,” Phot. Sci. Eng. 24, 120–4 (1980).

1979 (1)

1970 (1)

1969 (1)

H. Kogelnik, “Coupled wave theory for thick hologram gratings,” Bell Sys. Tech. J. 48, 2909–47 (1969).

Beléndez, A.

C. Neipp, C. Pascual, and A. Beléndez, “Mixed phase-amplitude holographic gratings recorded in bleached silver halide materials,” J. Phys. D 35, 957–967 (2002).
[Crossref]

R. F. Madrigal, L. Carretero, S. Blaya, M. Ulibarrena, A. Beléndez, and y A. Fimia, “Diffraction efficiency of unbleached phase and amplitude holograms as a function of volume fraction of metallic silver,” Opt. Commun. 201, 279–282 (2002).
[Crossref]

C. Neipp, I. Pascual, and A. Beléndez, “Theoretical and experimental analysis of overmodulation effects in volume holograms recorded on Bb-640 emulsions,” J. Opt. A 3, 504–513 (2002).
[Crossref]

A. Beléndez, T. Beléndez, C. Neipp, and I. Pascual, “Determination of the refractive index and thickness of holographic silver halide materials by the use of polarized reflectances,” Appl. Opt. 41, 6802–08 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Carretero, R. F. Madrigal, A. Fimia, S. Blaya, and A. Beléndez, “Study of angular responses of mixed amplitude-phase holographic gratings: shifted Borrmann effect,” Opt. Lett. 26, 786–7888 (2001).
[Crossref]

C. Neipp, I. Pascual, and A. Beléndez, “Over modulation effects in fixation-free rehalogenating bleached holograms,” Appl. Opt. 40, 3402–3408 (2001).
[Crossref]

C. Neipp, I. Pascual, and A. Beléndez, “Fixation-free rehalogenating bleached reflection holograms recorded on BB-640 plates,” Opt. Commun. 182, 107–114 (2000).
[Crossref]

C. Neipp, I. Pascual, and A. Beléndez, “Optimization of a fixation-free rehalogenating bleach for BB-640 holographic emulsion,” J. Mod. Opt. 47, 1671–1679 (2000).

Beléndez, T.

Bjelkhagen, H. I.

H. I. Bjelkhagen, Silver-Halide Recording Materials, (Springer, Berlin1995).

Blaya, S.

R. F. Madrigal, L. Carretero, S. Blaya, M. Ulibarrena, A. Beléndez, and y A. Fimia, “Diffraction efficiency of unbleached phase and amplitude holograms as a function of volume fraction of metallic silver,” Opt. Commun. 201, 279–282 (2002).
[Crossref]

L. Carretero, R. F. Madrigal, A. Fimia, S. Blaya, and A. Beléndez, “Study of angular responses of mixed amplitude-phase holographic gratings: shifted Borrmann effect,” Opt. Lett. 26, 786–7888 (2001).
[Crossref]

Carretero, L.

Chang, B. J.

Chidley, C. M.

Cooke, D. J.

L. Solymar and D. J. Cooke, Volume Holography and Volume Gratings, (Academic, London1981).

Crespo, J.

Cullen, R.

N. J. Phillips, A. A. Ward, R. Cullen, and D. Porter, “Advances in holographic bleaches,” Phot. Sci. Eng. 24, 120–4 (1980).

Fimia, A.

Fimia, y A.

R. F. Madrigal, L. Carretero, S. Blaya, M. Ulibarrena, A. Beléndez, and y A. Fimia, “Diffraction efficiency of unbleached phase and amplitude holograms as a function of volume fraction of metallic silver,” Opt. Commun. 201, 279–282 (2002).
[Crossref]

Guibelalde, E.

E. Guibelalde, “Coupled wave analysis for out-of-phase mixed thick hologram gratings,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 16, 173–178 (1984).
[Crossref]

Hariharan, P.

Harper, J. S.

Kogelnik, H.

H. Kogelnik, “Coupled wave theory for thick hologram gratings,” Bell Sys. Tech. J. 48, 2909–47 (1969).

Leonard, C. D.

Madrigal, R.

Madrigal, R. F.

R. F. Madrigal, L. Carretero, S. Blaya, M. Ulibarrena, A. Beléndez, and y A. Fimia, “Diffraction efficiency of unbleached phase and amplitude holograms as a function of volume fraction of metallic silver,” Opt. Commun. 201, 279–282 (2002).
[Crossref]

L. Carretero, R. F. Madrigal, A. Fimia, S. Blaya, and A. Beléndez, “Study of angular responses of mixed amplitude-phase holographic gratings: shifted Borrmann effect,” Opt. Lett. 26, 786–7888 (2001).
[Crossref]

Méndez, M. J.

Neipp, C.

A. Beléndez, T. Beléndez, C. Neipp, and I. Pascual, “Determination of the refractive index and thickness of holographic silver halide materials by the use of polarized reflectances,” Appl. Opt. 41, 6802–08 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Neipp, C. Pascual, and A. Beléndez, “Mixed phase-amplitude holographic gratings recorded in bleached silver halide materials,” J. Phys. D 35, 957–967 (2002).
[Crossref]

C. Neipp, I. Pascual, and A. Beléndez, “Theoretical and experimental analysis of overmodulation effects in volume holograms recorded on Bb-640 emulsions,” J. Opt. A 3, 504–513 (2002).
[Crossref]

C. Neipp, I. Pascual, and A. Beléndez, “Over modulation effects in fixation-free rehalogenating bleached holograms,” Appl. Opt. 40, 3402–3408 (2001).
[Crossref]

C. Neipp, I. Pascual, and A. Beléndez, “Optimization of a fixation-free rehalogenating bleach for BB-640 holographic emulsion,” J. Mod. Opt. 47, 1671–1679 (2000).

C. Neipp, I. Pascual, and A. Beléndez, “Fixation-free rehalogenating bleached reflection holograms recorded on BB-640 plates,” Opt. Commun. 182, 107–114 (2000).
[Crossref]

Pascual, C.

C. Neipp, C. Pascual, and A. Beléndez, “Mixed phase-amplitude holographic gratings recorded in bleached silver halide materials,” J. Phys. D 35, 957–967 (2002).
[Crossref]

Pascual, I.

C. Neipp, I. Pascual, and A. Beléndez, “Theoretical and experimental analysis of overmodulation effects in volume holograms recorded on Bb-640 emulsions,” J. Opt. A 3, 504–513 (2002).
[Crossref]

A. Beléndez, T. Beléndez, C. Neipp, and I. Pascual, “Determination of the refractive index and thickness of holographic silver halide materials by the use of polarized reflectances,” Appl. Opt. 41, 6802–08 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Neipp, I. Pascual, and A. Beléndez, “Over modulation effects in fixation-free rehalogenating bleached holograms,” Appl. Opt. 40, 3402–3408 (2001).
[Crossref]

C. Neipp, I. Pascual, and A. Beléndez, “Fixation-free rehalogenating bleached reflection holograms recorded on BB-640 plates,” Opt. Commun. 182, 107–114 (2000).
[Crossref]

C. Neipp, I. Pascual, and A. Beléndez, “Optimization of a fixation-free rehalogenating bleach for BB-640 holographic emulsion,” J. Mod. Opt. 47, 1671–1679 (2000).

Pennington, K. S.

Phillips, N. J.

N. J. Phillips, A. A. Ward, R. Cullen, and D. Porter, “Advances in holographic bleaches,” Phot. Sci. Eng. 24, 120–4 (1980).

Porter, D.

N. J. Phillips, A. A. Ward, R. Cullen, and D. Porter, “Advances in holographic bleaches,” Phot. Sci. Eng. 24, 120–4 (1980).

Quintana, J. A.

Solymar, L.

L. Solymar and D. J. Cooke, Volume Holography and Volume Gratings, (Academic, London1981).

Syms, R. R. A.

R. R. A. Syms, Practical Volume Holography, (Clarendon, Oxford1990).

Ulibarrena, M.

R. F. Madrigal, L. Carretero, S. Blaya, M. Ulibarrena, A. Beléndez, and y A. Fimia, “Diffraction efficiency of unbleached phase and amplitude holograms as a function of volume fraction of metallic silver,” Opt. Commun. 201, 279–282 (2002).
[Crossref]

M. Ulibarrena, M. J. Méndez, L. Carretero, R. Madrigal, and A. Fimia, “Comparison of direct, rehalogenating, and solvent bleaching processes with BB-640 plates,” Appl. Opt. 41, 4120–4123 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ward, A. A.

N. J. Phillips, A. A. Ward, R. Cullen, and D. Porter, “Advances in holographic bleaches,” Phot. Sci. Eng. 24, 120–4 (1980).

Appl. Opt. (8)

K. S. Pennington and J. S. Harper, “Techniques for producing low-noise, improved efficiency holograms,” Appl. Opt. 9, 1643–50 (1970).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. J. Chang and C. D. Leonard, “Dichromated gelatin for the fabrication of holographic optical elements,” Appl. Opt. 18, 2407–17 (1979).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Crespo, A. Fimia, and J. A. Quintana, “Fixation-free methods in bleached reflection holography,” Appl. Opt. 25, 1642–5 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Hariharan and C. M. Chidley, “Rehalogenating bleaches for photographic phase holograms: the influence of halide type and concentration on diffraction efficiency and scattering,” Appl. Opt. 26, 3895–8 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Neipp, I. Pascual, and A. Beléndez, “Over modulation effects in fixation-free rehalogenating bleached holograms,” Appl. Opt. 40, 3402–3408 (2001).
[Crossref]

M. Ulibarrena, M. J. Méndez, L. Carretero, R. Madrigal, and A. Fimia, “Comparison of direct, rehalogenating, and solvent bleaching processes with BB-640 plates,” Appl. Opt. 41, 4120–4123 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Beléndez, T. Beléndez, C. Neipp, and I. Pascual, “Determination of the refractive index and thickness of holographic silver halide materials by the use of polarized reflectances,” Appl. Opt. 41, 6802–08 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Hariharan, “Rehalogenating bleaches for photographic phase holograms 3: Mechanism of material transfer,” Appl. Opt. 29, 2983–5 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bell Sys. Tech. J. (1)

H. Kogelnik, “Coupled wave theory for thick hologram gratings,” Bell Sys. Tech. J. 48, 2909–47 (1969).

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

C. Neipp, I. Pascual, and A. Beléndez, “Optimization of a fixation-free rehalogenating bleach for BB-640 holographic emulsion,” J. Mod. Opt. 47, 1671–1679 (2000).

J. Opt. A (1)

C. Neipp, I. Pascual, and A. Beléndez, “Theoretical and experimental analysis of overmodulation effects in volume holograms recorded on Bb-640 emulsions,” J. Opt. A 3, 504–513 (2002).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. D (1)

C. Neipp, C. Pascual, and A. Beléndez, “Mixed phase-amplitude holographic gratings recorded in bleached silver halide materials,” J. Phys. D 35, 957–967 (2002).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (2)

R. F. Madrigal, L. Carretero, S. Blaya, M. Ulibarrena, A. Beléndez, and y A. Fimia, “Diffraction efficiency of unbleached phase and amplitude holograms as a function of volume fraction of metallic silver,” Opt. Commun. 201, 279–282 (2002).
[Crossref]

C. Neipp, I. Pascual, and A. Beléndez, “Fixation-free rehalogenating bleached reflection holograms recorded on BB-640 plates,” Opt. Commun. 182, 107–114 (2000).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Opt. Quantum Electron. (1)

E. Guibelalde, “Coupled wave analysis for out-of-phase mixed thick hologram gratings,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 16, 173–178 (1984).
[Crossref]

Phot. Sci. Eng. (1)

N. J. Phillips, A. A. Ward, R. Cullen, and D. Porter, “Advances in holographic bleaches,” Phot. Sci. Eng. 24, 120–4 (1980).

Other (3)

H. I. Bjelkhagen, Silver-Halide Recording Materials, (Springer, Berlin1995).

L. Solymar and D. J. Cooke, Volume Holography and Volume Gratings, (Academic, London1981).

R. R. A. Syms, Practical Volume Holography, (Clarendon, Oxford1990).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Transmission efficiency as a function of the angle for different values of the phase difference, φ. n1 = 0.05, d = 8 μm, α0 = 0.03 μm-1 and α1 = 0.03 μm-1.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Diffraction efficiency as a function of the phase difference, φ, between the refractive index and the absorption constant for different values of the absorption constant modulation, α1 , n1 = 0.030 and α0 = 0.030 μm-1.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Experimental set-up.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Unslanted mixed diffraction gratings.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

- Transmittance as a function of the angle for a mixed diffraction grating. Parameters: n1 = 0.085, d = 6.8 μm, α0 = 0.017 μm-1, α1 = 0.012 μm-1, αs = 0.018 μm-1, φ = 0.25 rad for θ∈ [-45°,0°], φ = 4.3l rad for θ∈ [0°,45°].

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

- Transmittance as a function of the angle for a mixed diffraction grating. Parameters: n1 = 0.091, d = 6.8 μm, α0 = 0.019 μm-1, α1 = 0.014 μm-1, αs = 0.014 μm-1, φ = 4.19 rad for θ∈ [-45°,0°], φ = 0.13 rad for θ∈ [0°,45°].

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table I. Schedule procedure

Tables Icon

Table II. Bleach bath composition (modified version of R-10)

Equations (20)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Q = 2 πλd n Λ 2
n = n 0 + n 1 cos ( Kr )
α = α 0 + α 1 cos ( Kr + φ )
R ( z ) = 1 c r ( γ 1 γ 2 ) [ ( c r γ 2 + α 0 ) exp ( γ 1 z ) + ( c r γ 1 + α 0 ) exp ( γ 2 z ) ]
S ( z ) = j χ 2 c s ( γ 1 γ 2 ) [ exp ( γ 1 z ) exp ( γ 2 z ) ]
γ 1,2 = 1 2 [ α 0 c r + α 0 c s + j ϑ c s ] ± 1 2 [ ( α 0 c r α 0 c s j ϑ c s ) 2 4 χ 1 χ 2 c r c s ] 1 2
χ 1 = π n 1 λ j exp ( j φ ) α 1 2
χ 2 = π n 1 λ j exp ( j φ ) α 1 2
η = c s c r S ( d ) S ( d ) *
τ = R ( d ) R ( d ) *
τ = exp ( α s d ) · RR *
S ( d ) = j exp ( α 0 d c r ) ( a j e b ) sin [ ( a j e b ) · ( a bj e ) ] ( a bj e ) · ( a bj e )
a = n 1 λc r
b = α 1 d 2 c r
S ( d ) = j ( c r c s ) 1 2 exp ( α 0 d c r ) sin ( a jb )
η = exp ( 2 α 0 d c r ) · [ sin 2 ( a ) + sinh 2 ( b ) ]
n r = n 0 + n r 1 cos ( Kr + π )
n h = n 0 + n h 1 cos ( Kr )
α = α 0 + α 1 cos ( Kr )
n = n 0 + n 1 cos ( Kr + φ )

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