Abstract

Time-resolved Stokes vectors of transmitted optical signals were measured to differentiate normal and stunned myocardium tissues. The corresponding Mueller matrices were calculated based on the Stokes-Mueller formalism. Our experimental results indicated that the time-resolved Mueller matrices could provide information about myocardial architectural alteration in stunned myocardium. Thus, the Stokes-Mueller measurement can be a useful method in cardiovascular research.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. O. M. Hess, J. Schneider, H. Nonogi, J. D. Carroll, K. Schneider, M. Turina, and H. P. Krayenbuehl, “Myocardial structure in patients with exercise-induced ischemia,” Circulation 77, 967–977 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. S. A. Rubin, M. C. Fishbein, and H. J. Swan, “Compensatory hypertrophy in the heart after myocardial infarction in the rat,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 1, 1435–1441 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. R. A. Kloner and R. B. Jennings, “Consequences of brief ischemia: stunning, preconditioning, and their clinical implications,” Circulation 104, 2981–2989 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. A. Lochner, I. S. Harper, R. Salie, S. Genade, and A. R. Coetzee, “Halothane protects the isolated rat myocardium against excessive total intracellular calcium and structural damage during ischemia and reperfusion,” Anesth. Analg. 79, 226–233 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. S. K. Gayen and R. R. Alfano, “Sensing lesions in tissues with light,” Opt. Express 4, 475–480 (1999). http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-4-11-475.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. D. Grosenick, H. Wabnitz, H. H. Rinneberg, K. T. Moesta, and P. M. Schlag, “Development of a time-domain optical mammography and first in vivo applications,” Appl. Opt. 38, 2927–2943 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  7. C. -W. Sun, C. -Y. Wang, C. C. Yang, Y. -W Kiang, I -J. Hsu, and C. -W. Lin, “Polarization gating in ultrafast-optics imaging of skeletal muscle tissues,” Opt. Lett. 26, 432–434 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. E. Weiss and M. Morad, “Birefringence signals in mammalian and frog myocardium,” J. Gen. Physiol. 82, 79–117 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. C. -W. Sun, C. -Y. Wang, C. C. Yang, Y. -W Kiang, C. -W. Lu, I -J. Hsu, and C. -W. Lin, “Polarization dependent characteristics and polarization gating in time-resolved optical imaging of skeletal muscle tissues,” IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 7, 924–930 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  10. T. T. Tower and R. T. Tranquillo, “Alignment maps of tissues: II. Fast harmonic analysis for imaging,” Biophys. J. 81, 2964–2971 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. S. Jiao, G. Yao, and L. V. Wang, “Depth-resolved two-dimensional Stokes vectors of backscattered light and Mueller matrices of biological tissue measured with optical coherent tomography,” Appl. Opt. 39, 6318–6324 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  12. A. H. Hielscher, A. A. Eick, J. R. Mourant, D. Shen, James. P. Freyer, and I. J. Bigio, “Diffuse backscattering Mueller matrices of highly scattering media,” Opt. Express 1, 441–453 (1997). http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-1-13-441.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. V. Nigro, Y. Okazaki, A. Belsito, G. Piluso, Y. Matsuda, L. Politano, G. Nigro, C. Ventura, C. Abbondanza, A. M. Molinari, D. Acampora, M. Nishimura, Y. Hayashizaki, and G. A. Puca, “Identification of the Syrian hamstercardiomyopathy gene”, Human Molecular Genetics,  6, 601–607 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (4)

R. A. Kloner and R. B. Jennings, “Consequences of brief ischemia: stunning, preconditioning, and their clinical implications,” Circulation 104, 2981–2989 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. -W. Sun, C. -Y. Wang, C. C. Yang, Y. -W Kiang, I -J. Hsu, and C. -W. Lin, “Polarization gating in ultrafast-optics imaging of skeletal muscle tissues,” Opt. Lett. 26, 432–434 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. -W. Sun, C. -Y. Wang, C. C. Yang, Y. -W Kiang, C. -W. Lu, I -J. Hsu, and C. -W. Lin, “Polarization dependent characteristics and polarization gating in time-resolved optical imaging of skeletal muscle tissues,” IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 7, 924–930 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. T. Tower and R. T. Tranquillo, “Alignment maps of tissues: II. Fast harmonic analysis for imaging,” Biophys. J. 81, 2964–2971 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

1999 (2)

1997 (2)

A. H. Hielscher, A. A. Eick, J. R. Mourant, D. Shen, James. P. Freyer, and I. J. Bigio, “Diffuse backscattering Mueller matrices of highly scattering media,” Opt. Express 1, 441–453 (1997). http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-1-13-441.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Nigro, Y. Okazaki, A. Belsito, G. Piluso, Y. Matsuda, L. Politano, G. Nigro, C. Ventura, C. Abbondanza, A. M. Molinari, D. Acampora, M. Nishimura, Y. Hayashizaki, and G. A. Puca, “Identification of the Syrian hamstercardiomyopathy gene”, Human Molecular Genetics,  6, 601–607 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

A. Lochner, I. S. Harper, R. Salie, S. Genade, and A. R. Coetzee, “Halothane protects the isolated rat myocardium against excessive total intracellular calcium and structural damage during ischemia and reperfusion,” Anesth. Analg. 79, 226–233 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988 (1)

O. M. Hess, J. Schneider, H. Nonogi, J. D. Carroll, K. Schneider, M. Turina, and H. P. Krayenbuehl, “Myocardial structure in patients with exercise-induced ischemia,” Circulation 77, 967–977 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1983 (2)

S. A. Rubin, M. C. Fishbein, and H. J. Swan, “Compensatory hypertrophy in the heart after myocardial infarction in the rat,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 1, 1435–1441 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. E. Weiss and M. Morad, “Birefringence signals in mammalian and frog myocardium,” J. Gen. Physiol. 82, 79–117 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Abbondanza, C.

V. Nigro, Y. Okazaki, A. Belsito, G. Piluso, Y. Matsuda, L. Politano, G. Nigro, C. Ventura, C. Abbondanza, A. M. Molinari, D. Acampora, M. Nishimura, Y. Hayashizaki, and G. A. Puca, “Identification of the Syrian hamstercardiomyopathy gene”, Human Molecular Genetics,  6, 601–607 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Acampora, D.

V. Nigro, Y. Okazaki, A. Belsito, G. Piluso, Y. Matsuda, L. Politano, G. Nigro, C. Ventura, C. Abbondanza, A. M. Molinari, D. Acampora, M. Nishimura, Y. Hayashizaki, and G. A. Puca, “Identification of the Syrian hamstercardiomyopathy gene”, Human Molecular Genetics,  6, 601–607 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alfano, R. R.

Belsito, A.

V. Nigro, Y. Okazaki, A. Belsito, G. Piluso, Y. Matsuda, L. Politano, G. Nigro, C. Ventura, C. Abbondanza, A. M. Molinari, D. Acampora, M. Nishimura, Y. Hayashizaki, and G. A. Puca, “Identification of the Syrian hamstercardiomyopathy gene”, Human Molecular Genetics,  6, 601–607 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bigio, I. J.

Carroll, J. D.

O. M. Hess, J. Schneider, H. Nonogi, J. D. Carroll, K. Schneider, M. Turina, and H. P. Krayenbuehl, “Myocardial structure in patients with exercise-induced ischemia,” Circulation 77, 967–977 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Coetzee, A. R.

A. Lochner, I. S. Harper, R. Salie, S. Genade, and A. R. Coetzee, “Halothane protects the isolated rat myocardium against excessive total intracellular calcium and structural damage during ischemia and reperfusion,” Anesth. Analg. 79, 226–233 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eick, A. A.

Fishbein, M. C.

S. A. Rubin, M. C. Fishbein, and H. J. Swan, “Compensatory hypertrophy in the heart after myocardial infarction in the rat,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 1, 1435–1441 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Freyer, James. P.

Gayen, S. K.

Genade, S.

A. Lochner, I. S. Harper, R. Salie, S. Genade, and A. R. Coetzee, “Halothane protects the isolated rat myocardium against excessive total intracellular calcium and structural damage during ischemia and reperfusion,” Anesth. Analg. 79, 226–233 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grosenick, D.

Harper, I. S.

A. Lochner, I. S. Harper, R. Salie, S. Genade, and A. R. Coetzee, “Halothane protects the isolated rat myocardium against excessive total intracellular calcium and structural damage during ischemia and reperfusion,” Anesth. Analg. 79, 226–233 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hayashizaki, Y.

V. Nigro, Y. Okazaki, A. Belsito, G. Piluso, Y. Matsuda, L. Politano, G. Nigro, C. Ventura, C. Abbondanza, A. M. Molinari, D. Acampora, M. Nishimura, Y. Hayashizaki, and G. A. Puca, “Identification of the Syrian hamstercardiomyopathy gene”, Human Molecular Genetics,  6, 601–607 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hess, O. M.

O. M. Hess, J. Schneider, H. Nonogi, J. D. Carroll, K. Schneider, M. Turina, and H. P. Krayenbuehl, “Myocardial structure in patients with exercise-induced ischemia,” Circulation 77, 967–977 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hielscher, A. H.

Hsu, I -J.

C. -W. Sun, C. -Y. Wang, C. C. Yang, Y. -W Kiang, I -J. Hsu, and C. -W. Lin, “Polarization gating in ultrafast-optics imaging of skeletal muscle tissues,” Opt. Lett. 26, 432–434 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. -W. Sun, C. -Y. Wang, C. C. Yang, Y. -W Kiang, C. -W. Lu, I -J. Hsu, and C. -W. Lin, “Polarization dependent characteristics and polarization gating in time-resolved optical imaging of skeletal muscle tissues,” IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 7, 924–930 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jennings, R. B.

R. A. Kloner and R. B. Jennings, “Consequences of brief ischemia: stunning, preconditioning, and their clinical implications,” Circulation 104, 2981–2989 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jiao, S.

Kiang, Y. -W

C. -W. Sun, C. -Y. Wang, C. C. Yang, Y. -W Kiang, I -J. Hsu, and C. -W. Lin, “Polarization gating in ultrafast-optics imaging of skeletal muscle tissues,” Opt. Lett. 26, 432–434 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. -W. Sun, C. -Y. Wang, C. C. Yang, Y. -W Kiang, C. -W. Lu, I -J. Hsu, and C. -W. Lin, “Polarization dependent characteristics and polarization gating in time-resolved optical imaging of skeletal muscle tissues,” IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 7, 924–930 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kloner, R. A.

R. A. Kloner and R. B. Jennings, “Consequences of brief ischemia: stunning, preconditioning, and their clinical implications,” Circulation 104, 2981–2989 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krayenbuehl, H. P.

O. M. Hess, J. Schneider, H. Nonogi, J. D. Carroll, K. Schneider, M. Turina, and H. P. Krayenbuehl, “Myocardial structure in patients with exercise-induced ischemia,” Circulation 77, 967–977 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, C. -W.

C. -W. Sun, C. -Y. Wang, C. C. Yang, Y. -W Kiang, C. -W. Lu, I -J. Hsu, and C. -W. Lin, “Polarization dependent characteristics and polarization gating in time-resolved optical imaging of skeletal muscle tissues,” IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 7, 924–930 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. -W. Sun, C. -Y. Wang, C. C. Yang, Y. -W Kiang, I -J. Hsu, and C. -W. Lin, “Polarization gating in ultrafast-optics imaging of skeletal muscle tissues,” Opt. Lett. 26, 432–434 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lochner, A.

A. Lochner, I. S. Harper, R. Salie, S. Genade, and A. R. Coetzee, “Halothane protects the isolated rat myocardium against excessive total intracellular calcium and structural damage during ischemia and reperfusion,” Anesth. Analg. 79, 226–233 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lu, C. -W.

C. -W. Sun, C. -Y. Wang, C. C. Yang, Y. -W Kiang, C. -W. Lu, I -J. Hsu, and C. -W. Lin, “Polarization dependent characteristics and polarization gating in time-resolved optical imaging of skeletal muscle tissues,” IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 7, 924–930 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Matsuda, Y.

V. Nigro, Y. Okazaki, A. Belsito, G. Piluso, Y. Matsuda, L. Politano, G. Nigro, C. Ventura, C. Abbondanza, A. M. Molinari, D. Acampora, M. Nishimura, Y. Hayashizaki, and G. A. Puca, “Identification of the Syrian hamstercardiomyopathy gene”, Human Molecular Genetics,  6, 601–607 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moesta, K. T.

Molinari, A. M.

V. Nigro, Y. Okazaki, A. Belsito, G. Piluso, Y. Matsuda, L. Politano, G. Nigro, C. Ventura, C. Abbondanza, A. M. Molinari, D. Acampora, M. Nishimura, Y. Hayashizaki, and G. A. Puca, “Identification of the Syrian hamstercardiomyopathy gene”, Human Molecular Genetics,  6, 601–607 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Morad, M.

R. E. Weiss and M. Morad, “Birefringence signals in mammalian and frog myocardium,” J. Gen. Physiol. 82, 79–117 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mourant, J. R.

Nigro, G.

V. Nigro, Y. Okazaki, A. Belsito, G. Piluso, Y. Matsuda, L. Politano, G. Nigro, C. Ventura, C. Abbondanza, A. M. Molinari, D. Acampora, M. Nishimura, Y. Hayashizaki, and G. A. Puca, “Identification of the Syrian hamstercardiomyopathy gene”, Human Molecular Genetics,  6, 601–607 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nigro, V.

V. Nigro, Y. Okazaki, A. Belsito, G. Piluso, Y. Matsuda, L. Politano, G. Nigro, C. Ventura, C. Abbondanza, A. M. Molinari, D. Acampora, M. Nishimura, Y. Hayashizaki, and G. A. Puca, “Identification of the Syrian hamstercardiomyopathy gene”, Human Molecular Genetics,  6, 601–607 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nishimura, M.

V. Nigro, Y. Okazaki, A. Belsito, G. Piluso, Y. Matsuda, L. Politano, G. Nigro, C. Ventura, C. Abbondanza, A. M. Molinari, D. Acampora, M. Nishimura, Y. Hayashizaki, and G. A. Puca, “Identification of the Syrian hamstercardiomyopathy gene”, Human Molecular Genetics,  6, 601–607 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nonogi, H.

O. M. Hess, J. Schneider, H. Nonogi, J. D. Carroll, K. Schneider, M. Turina, and H. P. Krayenbuehl, “Myocardial structure in patients with exercise-induced ischemia,” Circulation 77, 967–977 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Okazaki, Y.

V. Nigro, Y. Okazaki, A. Belsito, G. Piluso, Y. Matsuda, L. Politano, G. Nigro, C. Ventura, C. Abbondanza, A. M. Molinari, D. Acampora, M. Nishimura, Y. Hayashizaki, and G. A. Puca, “Identification of the Syrian hamstercardiomyopathy gene”, Human Molecular Genetics,  6, 601–607 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Piluso, G.

V. Nigro, Y. Okazaki, A. Belsito, G. Piluso, Y. Matsuda, L. Politano, G. Nigro, C. Ventura, C. Abbondanza, A. M. Molinari, D. Acampora, M. Nishimura, Y. Hayashizaki, and G. A. Puca, “Identification of the Syrian hamstercardiomyopathy gene”, Human Molecular Genetics,  6, 601–607 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Politano, L.

V. Nigro, Y. Okazaki, A. Belsito, G. Piluso, Y. Matsuda, L. Politano, G. Nigro, C. Ventura, C. Abbondanza, A. M. Molinari, D. Acampora, M. Nishimura, Y. Hayashizaki, and G. A. Puca, “Identification of the Syrian hamstercardiomyopathy gene”, Human Molecular Genetics,  6, 601–607 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Puca, G. A.

V. Nigro, Y. Okazaki, A. Belsito, G. Piluso, Y. Matsuda, L. Politano, G. Nigro, C. Ventura, C. Abbondanza, A. M. Molinari, D. Acampora, M. Nishimura, Y. Hayashizaki, and G. A. Puca, “Identification of the Syrian hamstercardiomyopathy gene”, Human Molecular Genetics,  6, 601–607 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rinneberg, H. H.

Rubin, S. A.

S. A. Rubin, M. C. Fishbein, and H. J. Swan, “Compensatory hypertrophy in the heart after myocardial infarction in the rat,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 1, 1435–1441 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Salie, R.

A. Lochner, I. S. Harper, R. Salie, S. Genade, and A. R. Coetzee, “Halothane protects the isolated rat myocardium against excessive total intracellular calcium and structural damage during ischemia and reperfusion,” Anesth. Analg. 79, 226–233 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schlag, P. M.

Schneider, J.

O. M. Hess, J. Schneider, H. Nonogi, J. D. Carroll, K. Schneider, M. Turina, and H. P. Krayenbuehl, “Myocardial structure in patients with exercise-induced ischemia,” Circulation 77, 967–977 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schneider, K.

O. M. Hess, J. Schneider, H. Nonogi, J. D. Carroll, K. Schneider, M. Turina, and H. P. Krayenbuehl, “Myocardial structure in patients with exercise-induced ischemia,” Circulation 77, 967–977 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shen, D.

Sun, C. -W.

C. -W. Sun, C. -Y. Wang, C. C. Yang, Y. -W Kiang, I -J. Hsu, and C. -W. Lin, “Polarization gating in ultrafast-optics imaging of skeletal muscle tissues,” Opt. Lett. 26, 432–434 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. -W. Sun, C. -Y. Wang, C. C. Yang, Y. -W Kiang, C. -W. Lu, I -J. Hsu, and C. -W. Lin, “Polarization dependent characteristics and polarization gating in time-resolved optical imaging of skeletal muscle tissues,” IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 7, 924–930 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Swan, H. J.

S. A. Rubin, M. C. Fishbein, and H. J. Swan, “Compensatory hypertrophy in the heart after myocardial infarction in the rat,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 1, 1435–1441 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tower, T. T.

T. T. Tower and R. T. Tranquillo, “Alignment maps of tissues: II. Fast harmonic analysis for imaging,” Biophys. J. 81, 2964–2971 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tranquillo, R. T.

T. T. Tower and R. T. Tranquillo, “Alignment maps of tissues: II. Fast harmonic analysis for imaging,” Biophys. J. 81, 2964–2971 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Turina, M.

O. M. Hess, J. Schneider, H. Nonogi, J. D. Carroll, K. Schneider, M. Turina, and H. P. Krayenbuehl, “Myocardial structure in patients with exercise-induced ischemia,” Circulation 77, 967–977 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ventura, C.

V. Nigro, Y. Okazaki, A. Belsito, G. Piluso, Y. Matsuda, L. Politano, G. Nigro, C. Ventura, C. Abbondanza, A. M. Molinari, D. Acampora, M. Nishimura, Y. Hayashizaki, and G. A. Puca, “Identification of the Syrian hamstercardiomyopathy gene”, Human Molecular Genetics,  6, 601–607 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wabnitz, H.

Wang, C. -Y.

C. -W. Sun, C. -Y. Wang, C. C. Yang, Y. -W Kiang, I -J. Hsu, and C. -W. Lin, “Polarization gating in ultrafast-optics imaging of skeletal muscle tissues,” Opt. Lett. 26, 432–434 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. -W. Sun, C. -Y. Wang, C. C. Yang, Y. -W Kiang, C. -W. Lu, I -J. Hsu, and C. -W. Lin, “Polarization dependent characteristics and polarization gating in time-resolved optical imaging of skeletal muscle tissues,” IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 7, 924–930 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L. V.

Weiss, R. E.

R. E. Weiss and M. Morad, “Birefringence signals in mammalian and frog myocardium,” J. Gen. Physiol. 82, 79–117 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, C. C.

C. -W. Sun, C. -Y. Wang, C. C. Yang, Y. -W Kiang, C. -W. Lu, I -J. Hsu, and C. -W. Lin, “Polarization dependent characteristics and polarization gating in time-resolved optical imaging of skeletal muscle tissues,” IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 7, 924–930 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. -W. Sun, C. -Y. Wang, C. C. Yang, Y. -W Kiang, I -J. Hsu, and C. -W. Lin, “Polarization gating in ultrafast-optics imaging of skeletal muscle tissues,” Opt. Lett. 26, 432–434 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yao, G.

Anesth. Analg. (1)

A. Lochner, I. S. Harper, R. Salie, S. Genade, and A. R. Coetzee, “Halothane protects the isolated rat myocardium against excessive total intracellular calcium and structural damage during ischemia and reperfusion,” Anesth. Analg. 79, 226–233 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Biophys. J. (1)

T. T. Tower and R. T. Tranquillo, “Alignment maps of tissues: II. Fast harmonic analysis for imaging,” Biophys. J. 81, 2964–2971 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Circulation (2)

R. A. Kloner and R. B. Jennings, “Consequences of brief ischemia: stunning, preconditioning, and their clinical implications,” Circulation 104, 2981–2989 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. M. Hess, J. Schneider, H. Nonogi, J. D. Carroll, K. Schneider, M. Turina, and H. P. Krayenbuehl, “Myocardial structure in patients with exercise-induced ischemia,” Circulation 77, 967–977 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Human Molecular Genetics (1)

V. Nigro, Y. Okazaki, A. Belsito, G. Piluso, Y. Matsuda, L. Politano, G. Nigro, C. Ventura, C. Abbondanza, A. M. Molinari, D. Acampora, M. Nishimura, Y. Hayashizaki, and G. A. Puca, “Identification of the Syrian hamstercardiomyopathy gene”, Human Molecular Genetics,  6, 601–607 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. (1)

C. -W. Sun, C. -Y. Wang, C. C. Yang, Y. -W Kiang, C. -W. Lu, I -J. Hsu, and C. -W. Lin, “Polarization dependent characteristics and polarization gating in time-resolved optical imaging of skeletal muscle tissues,” IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 7, 924–930 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. (1)

S. A. Rubin, M. C. Fishbein, and H. J. Swan, “Compensatory hypertrophy in the heart after myocardial infarction in the rat,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 1, 1435–1441 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Gen. Physiol. (1)

R. E. Weiss and M. Morad, “Birefringence signals in mammalian and frog myocardium,” J. Gen. Physiol. 82, 79–117 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (1)

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Experimental setup. BP: beam splitter; P: polarizer; HW: half-wave plate; QW: quarter-wave plate; D: trigger detector.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Measured time-resolved polarization components of normal myocardium.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Microphotographs (under 400X magnification) of (a) normal and (b) stunned myocardium.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Time-resolved Stokes vectors of (a) normal and (b) stunned myocardium.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Time-resolved Mueller matrices of (a) normal and (b) stunned myocardium.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Microphotograph (under 400X magnification) of cardiomyopathic myocardium.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Time-resolved Mueller matrices of (a) normal and (b) cardiomyopathic myocardium.

Equations (2)

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S = [ S 0 S 1 S 2 S 3 ] = [ H + V H V 2 P H V 2 R H V ] .
M = 1 2 [ S H + S V S H S V 2 S P ( S H + S V ) 2 S R ( S H + S V ) ] .

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