Abstract

Numerical simulations are used to study the temporal and spectral characteristics of broadband supercontinua generated in photonic crystal fiber. In particular, the simulations are used to follow the evolution with propagation distance of the temporal intensity, the spectrum, and the cross-correlation frequency resolved optical gating (XFROG) trace. The simulations allow several important physical processes responsible for supercontinuum generation to be identified and, moreover, illustrate how the XFROG trace provides an intuitive means of interpreting correlated temporal and spectral features of the supercontinuum. Good qualitative agreement with preliminary XFROG measurements is observed.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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2002 (6)

2001 (3)

B. R. Washburn, S. E. Ralph, P. A. Lacourt, J. M. Dudley, W. T. Rhodes, R. S. Windeler, and S. Coen, “Tunable near-infrared femtosecond soliton generation in photonic crystal fibers,” Electron. Lett. 37, 1510–1512 (2001).
[Crossref]

S. Coen, A. H. L. Chau, R. Leonhardt, J. D. Harvey, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, “White light supercontinuum generation with 60-ps pump pulses in a photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett. 26, 1356–1358 (2001).
[Crossref]

A. V. Husakou and J. Hermann, “Supercontinuum Generation of Higher Order Solitons by Fission in Photonic Crystal Fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 203901 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (2)

1989 (2)

M. N. Islam, G. Sucha, I. Bar-Joseph, M. Wegener, J. P. Gordon, and D. S. Chemla, “Femtosecond distributed soliton spectrum in fibers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 1149–1166 (1989).
[Crossref]

K. J. Blow and D. Wood, “Theoretical description of transient stimulated Raman scattering in optical fibers,” IEEE J. Quant. Electron. 25, 2665–2673 (1989).
[Crossref]

1986 (1)

Agrawal, G. P.

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, Academic Press, Second Edition (2001).

Bar-Joseph, I.

Belardi, W.

Birks, T. A.

Blow, K. J.

K. J. Blow and D. Wood, “Theoretical description of transient stimulated Raman scattering in optical fibers,” IEEE J. Quant. Electron. 25, 2665–2673 (1989).
[Crossref]

Chau, A. H. L.

Chemla, D. S.

Chen, H. H.

Coen, S.

Dudley, J. M.

Eggleton, B. J.

Gaeta, A.

Galvanauskas, A.

L. Xu, X. Gu, M. Kimmel, P. O’Shea, R. Trebino, and A. Galvanauskas, “Ultra-broadband IR continuum generation and its phase measurement using cross-correlation FROG,” Paper CTuN1, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Opt. Soc. America (2001).

Gordon, J. P.

Griebner, U.

J. Herrmann, U. Griebner, N. Zhavoronkov, A. Husakou, D. Nickel, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russell, and G. Korn,”Experimental Evidence for Supercontinuum Generation by Fission of Higher-Order Solitons in Photonic Fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173901 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grossard, N.

Gu, X.

X. Gu, L. Xu, M. Kimmel, E. Zeek, P. O’Shea, A. P. Shreenath, R. Trebino, and R. S. Windeler, “Frequency-resolved optical gating and single-shot spectral measurements reveal fine structure in microstructure fiber continuum, Opt. Lett. 27, 1174–1176 (2002).
[Crossref]

L. Xu, X. Gu, M. Kimmel, P. O’Shea, R. Trebino, and A. Galvanauskas, “Ultra-broadband IR continuum generation and its phase measurement using cross-correlation FROG,” Paper CTuN1, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Opt. Soc. America (2001).

Harvey, J. D.

Hermann, J.

A. V. Husakou and J. Hermann, “Supercontinuum Generation of Higher Order Solitons by Fission in Photonic Crystal Fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 203901 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Herrmann, J.

J. Herrmann, U. Griebner, N. Zhavoronkov, A. Husakou, D. Nickel, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russell, and G. Korn,”Experimental Evidence for Supercontinuum Generation by Fission of Higher-Order Solitons in Photonic Fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173901 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Husakou, A.

J. Herrmann, U. Griebner, N. Zhavoronkov, A. Husakou, D. Nickel, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russell, and G. Korn,”Experimental Evidence for Supercontinuum Generation by Fission of Higher-Order Solitons in Photonic Fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173901 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Husakou, A. V.

A. V. Husakou and J. Hermann, “Supercontinuum Generation of Higher Order Solitons by Fission in Photonic Crystal Fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 203901 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Islam, M. N.

Kimmel, M.

X. Gu, L. Xu, M. Kimmel, E. Zeek, P. O’Shea, A. P. Shreenath, R. Trebino, and R. S. Windeler, “Frequency-resolved optical gating and single-shot spectral measurements reveal fine structure in microstructure fiber continuum, Opt. Lett. 27, 1174–1176 (2002).
[Crossref]

L. Xu, X. Gu, M. Kimmel, P. O’Shea, R. Trebino, and A. Galvanauskas, “Ultra-broadband IR continuum generation and its phase measurement using cross-correlation FROG,” Paper CTuN1, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Opt. Soc. America (2001).

Knight, J. C.

J. Herrmann, U. Griebner, N. Zhavoronkov, A. Husakou, D. Nickel, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russell, and G. Korn,”Experimental Evidence for Supercontinuum Generation by Fission of Higher-Order Solitons in Photonic Fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173901 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Coen, A. H. L. Chau, R. Leonhardt, J. D. Harvey, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, “White light supercontinuum generation with 60-ps pump pulses in a photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett. 26, 1356–1358 (2001).
[Crossref]

Korn, G.

J. Herrmann, U. Griebner, N. Zhavoronkov, A. Husakou, D. Nickel, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russell, and G. Korn,”Experimental Evidence for Supercontinuum Generation by Fission of Higher-Order Solitons in Photonic Fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173901 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lacourt, P. A.

B. R. Washburn, S. E. Ralph, P. A. Lacourt, J. M. Dudley, W. T. Rhodes, R. S. Windeler, and S. Coen, “Tunable near-infrared femtosecond soliton generation in photonic crystal fibers,” Electron. Lett. 37, 1510–1512 (2001).
[Crossref]

Lee, Y. C.

Leonhardt, R.

Maillotte, H.

Malinowski, A.

Menyuk, C. R.

Monro, T. M.

Nickel, D.

J. Herrmann, U. Griebner, N. Zhavoronkov, A. Husakou, D. Nickel, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russell, and G. Korn,”Experimental Evidence for Supercontinuum Generation by Fission of Higher-Order Solitons in Photonic Fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173901 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O’Shea, P.

X. Gu, L. Xu, M. Kimmel, E. Zeek, P. O’Shea, A. P. Shreenath, R. Trebino, and R. S. Windeler, “Frequency-resolved optical gating and single-shot spectral measurements reveal fine structure in microstructure fiber continuum, Opt. Lett. 27, 1174–1176 (2002).
[Crossref]

L. Xu, X. Gu, M. Kimmel, P. O’Shea, R. Trebino, and A. Galvanauskas, “Ultra-broadband IR continuum generation and its phase measurement using cross-correlation FROG,” Paper CTuN1, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Opt. Soc. America (2001).

Piper, A.

Price, J. H. V.

Provino, L.

Ralph, S. E.

B. R. Washburn, S. E. Ralph, P. A. Lacourt, J. M. Dudley, W. T. Rhodes, R. S. Windeler, and S. Coen, “Tunable near-infrared femtosecond soliton generation in photonic crystal fibers,” Electron. Lett. 37, 1510–1512 (2001).
[Crossref]

Ranka, J. K.

Rhodes, W. T.

B. R. Washburn, S. E. Ralph, P. A. Lacourt, J. M. Dudley, W. T. Rhodes, R. S. Windeler, and S. Coen, “Tunable near-infrared femtosecond soliton generation in photonic crystal fibers,” Electron. Lett. 37, 1510–1512 (2001).
[Crossref]

Richardson, D. J.

Russell, P. St. J.

J. Herrmann, U. Griebner, N. Zhavoronkov, A. Husakou, D. Nickel, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russell, and G. Korn,”Experimental Evidence for Supercontinuum Generation by Fission of Higher-Order Solitons in Photonic Fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173901 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Coen, A. H. L. Chau, R. Leonhardt, J. D. Harvey, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, “White light supercontinuum generation with 60-ps pump pulses in a photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett. 26, 1356–1358 (2001).
[Crossref]

T. A. Birks, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, “Supercontinuum generation in tapered fibres,” Opt. Lett. 25, 1415–1417(2000).
[Crossref]

Shreenath, A. P.

Stentz, A. J.

Sucha, G.

Trebino, R.

X. Gu, L. Xu, M. Kimmel, E. Zeek, P. O’Shea, A. P. Shreenath, R. Trebino, and R. S. Windeler, “Frequency-resolved optical gating and single-shot spectral measurements reveal fine structure in microstructure fiber continuum, Opt. Lett. 27, 1174–1176 (2002).
[Crossref]

L. Xu, X. Gu, M. Kimmel, P. O’Shea, R. Trebino, and A. Galvanauskas, “Ultra-broadband IR continuum generation and its phase measurement using cross-correlation FROG,” Paper CTuN1, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Opt. Soc. America (2001).

Wadsworth, W. J.

J. Herrmann, U. Griebner, N. Zhavoronkov, A. Husakou, D. Nickel, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russell, and G. Korn,”Experimental Evidence for Supercontinuum Generation by Fission of Higher-Order Solitons in Photonic Fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173901 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Coen, A. H. L. Chau, R. Leonhardt, J. D. Harvey, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, “White light supercontinuum generation with 60-ps pump pulses in a photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett. 26, 1356–1358 (2001).
[Crossref]

T. A. Birks, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, “Supercontinuum generation in tapered fibres,” Opt. Lett. 25, 1415–1417(2000).
[Crossref]

Wai, P. K. A.

Washburn, B. R.

B. R. Washburn, S. E. Ralph, P. A. Lacourt, J. M. Dudley, W. T. Rhodes, R. S. Windeler, and S. Coen, “Tunable near-infrared femtosecond soliton generation in photonic crystal fibers,” Electron. Lett. 37, 1510–1512 (2001).
[Crossref]

Wegener, M.

Windeler, R. S.

Wood, D.

K. J. Blow and D. Wood, “Theoretical description of transient stimulated Raman scattering in optical fibers,” IEEE J. Quant. Electron. 25, 2665–2673 (1989).
[Crossref]

Xu, L.

X. Gu, L. Xu, M. Kimmel, E. Zeek, P. O’Shea, A. P. Shreenath, R. Trebino, and R. S. Windeler, “Frequency-resolved optical gating and single-shot spectral measurements reveal fine structure in microstructure fiber continuum, Opt. Lett. 27, 1174–1176 (2002).
[Crossref]

L. Xu, X. Gu, M. Kimmel, P. O’Shea, R. Trebino, and A. Galvanauskas, “Ultra-broadband IR continuum generation and its phase measurement using cross-correlation FROG,” Paper CTuN1, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Opt. Soc. America (2001).

Zeek, E.

Zhavoronkov, N.

J. Herrmann, U. Griebner, N. Zhavoronkov, A. Husakou, D. Nickel, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russell, and G. Korn,”Experimental Evidence for Supercontinuum Generation by Fission of Higher-Order Solitons in Photonic Fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173901 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Electron. Lett. (1)

B. R. Washburn, S. E. Ralph, P. A. Lacourt, J. M. Dudley, W. T. Rhodes, R. S. Windeler, and S. Coen, “Tunable near-infrared femtosecond soliton generation in photonic crystal fibers,” Electron. Lett. 37, 1510–1512 (2001).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quant. Electron. (1)

K. J. Blow and D. Wood, “Theoretical description of transient stimulated Raman scattering in optical fibers,” IEEE J. Quant. Electron. 25, 2665–2673 (1989).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (7)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

A. V. Husakou and J. Hermann, “Supercontinuum Generation of Higher Order Solitons by Fission in Photonic Crystal Fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 203901 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Herrmann, U. Griebner, N. Zhavoronkov, A. Husakou, D. Nickel, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russell, and G. Korn,”Experimental Evidence for Supercontinuum Generation by Fission of Higher-Order Solitons in Photonic Fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173901 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (2)

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, Academic Press, Second Edition (2001).

L. Xu, X. Gu, M. Kimmel, P. O’Shea, R. Trebino, and A. Galvanauskas, “Ultra-broadband IR continuum generation and its phase measurement using cross-correlation FROG,” Paper CTuN1, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Opt. Soc. America (2001).

Supplementary Material (1)

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Spectral and (b) temporal evolution in microstructure fiber of an injected 10kW peak power 30 fs input pulse injected at 800 nm.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Detailed view of output (a) temporal and (b) spectral characteristics.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(917 KB) Calculated XFROG trace with its structure correlated with the intensity and spectrum showing evolution with propagation distance. Note the nonlinear wavelength axis used in the plot of the fundamental SC spectrum.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Measured and Retrieved XFROG traces with the structure of the measured trace correlated with the retrieved intensity and spectrum. Note the nonlinear wavelength axis used in the plot of the fundamental SC spectrum. The exploded view illustrates the low amplitude oscillations in the retrieved intensity.

Metrics