Abstract

We report the guidance of dry micron-sized dielectric particles in hollow core photonic crystal fiber. The particles were levitated in air and then coupled to the air-core of the fiber using an Argon ion laser beam operating at a wavelength of 514 nm. The diameter of the hollow core of the fiber is 20 μm. A laser power of 80 mW was sufficient to levitate a 5 μm diameter polystyrene sphere and guide it through a ∼150 mm long hollow-core crystal photonic fiber. The speed of the guided particle was measured to be around 1 cm/s.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. Ashkin, “Acceleration and trapping of particles by radiation pressure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 24(4), 156 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  2. K. Svoboda and S. M. Block, “Biological applications of optical forces,” Annu. Rev. Biophys. Biomol. Struct. 23, 247 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. H. Misawa, N. Kitamura, and H. Masuhara, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 113, 7859 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. J. Renn, O. Vdovin, and C. E. Wiemanet al., “Laser-Guided Atoms in Hollow-core Optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 3253 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. A. Ashkin and J. M. Dziedzic, “Optical trapping and manipulation of viruses and bacteria,” Science 235 (1517–1520) (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. E. Higurashi, H. Ukita, and H. Tanakaet al., “Optically induced rotation of anisotropic micro-objects fabricated by surface micromachining,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 2209–2210 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  7. L. P. Ghislain and W. W. Webb, “Scanning-force microscope based on an optical trap,” Opt. Lett. 18, 1678–1680 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M.J. Renn, R. Pastel, and H. J. Lewandowski, “Laser Guidance and Trapping of Mesoscale Particles in Hollow-core Optical fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(7), 1574 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  9. E. A. J. Marcatili and R. A. Schmeltzer, “Hollow Metallic and Dielectric Wave-guides for Long Distance Optical Transmission and Lasers,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. (July 1964), 1783–1809 (1964).
  10. M. J. Renn and R. Pastel, “Particle manipulation and surface patterning by laser guidance,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 16(6), 3859 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  11. R.F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, and J. C. Knightet al., “Single-Mode Photonic Band Gap Guidance of light in Air,” science 285, 1537–1539 (1999).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. J. C. Knight and P. St. J. Russel, “New Ways to Guide Light,” Science 296, 276–277 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russellet al., Opt. Lett. 21, 1547 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. K. F. Ren, G. Grehan, and G. gouesbet, “Prediction of the reverse radiation pressure by generalised Lorenz-Mie theory,” Appl. Opt. 35, 2702–2710 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. R. C. Gauthier and S. Wallace, “Optical levitation of spheres: analytical development and numerical computations of the force equations,” J. Opt. Sci. Am. B 12, 1680–1685 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  16. R. C. Gauthier, “Trapping model for the low-index ring-shaped micro-object in a focused, lowest-order Gaussian laser-beam profile,” J. Opt. Sci. Am. B 14, 782–789 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  17. S. Nemoto and H. Togo, “Axial force acting on a dielectric sphere in a focused laser beam,” Appl. Opt. 37(27), 6386 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  18. J. A. West, J.C. Fajardo, and M.T. Gallagheret al., “Demonstration of an IR-optimized air-core photonic band-gap fiber,” presented at the ECOC 2000. 26th European Conference on Optical Communication. ., Berlin, Germany, 2000 (unpublished).
  19. F. Benabid, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, (in preparation).
  20. A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, and J. E. Bjorkholmet al., “Observation of a single-beam gradient force optical trap for dielectric particles,” Opt. Lett. 11(5), 288 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. J. Happel and H. Brenner, Low Reynolds Number Hydrodynamics (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N. J., 1965).
  22. N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, and C. M. Smithet al., “Low Loss (13 dB/km) Air Core Photonic Band-Gap Fibre,” presented at the Ecoc 2002, Copenhagen, 2002 (unpublished).

2002 (1)

J. C. Knight and P. St. J. Russel, “New Ways to Guide Light,” Science 296, 276–277 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (2)

R.F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, and J. C. Knightet al., “Single-Mode Photonic Band Gap Guidance of light in Air,” science 285, 1537–1539 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M.J. Renn, R. Pastel, and H. J. Lewandowski, “Laser Guidance and Trapping of Mesoscale Particles in Hollow-core Optical fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(7), 1574 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

M. J. Renn and R. Pastel, “Particle manipulation and surface patterning by laser guidance,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 16(6), 3859 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Nemoto and H. Togo, “Axial force acting on a dielectric sphere in a focused laser beam,” Appl. Opt. 37(27), 6386 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

R. C. Gauthier, “Trapping model for the low-index ring-shaped micro-object in a focused, lowest-order Gaussian laser-beam profile,” J. Opt. Sci. Am. B 14, 782–789 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

1995 (2)

R. C. Gauthier and S. Wallace, “Optical levitation of spheres: analytical development and numerical computations of the force equations,” J. Opt. Sci. Am. B 12, 1680–1685 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Renn, O. Vdovin, and C. E. Wiemanet al., “Laser-Guided Atoms in Hollow-core Optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 3253 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (2)

K. Svoboda and S. M. Block, “Biological applications of optical forces,” Annu. Rev. Biophys. Biomol. Struct. 23, 247 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Higurashi, H. Ukita, and H. Tanakaet al., “Optically induced rotation of anisotropic micro-objects fabricated by surface micromachining,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 2209–2210 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

1991 (1)

H. Misawa, N. Kitamura, and H. Masuhara, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 113, 7859 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

A. Ashkin and J. M. Dziedzic, “Optical trapping and manipulation of viruses and bacteria,” Science 235 (1517–1520) (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986 (1)

1970 (1)

A. Ashkin, “Acceleration and trapping of particles by radiation pressure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 24(4), 156 (1970).
[CrossRef]

1964 (1)

E. A. J. Marcatili and R. A. Schmeltzer, “Hollow Metallic and Dielectric Wave-guides for Long Distance Optical Transmission and Lasers,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. (July 1964), 1783–1809 (1964).

Ashkin, A.

A. Ashkin and J. M. Dziedzic, “Optical trapping and manipulation of viruses and bacteria,” Science 235 (1517–1520) (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, and J. E. Bjorkholmet al., “Observation of a single-beam gradient force optical trap for dielectric particles,” Opt. Lett. 11(5), 288 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ashkin, “Acceleration and trapping of particles by radiation pressure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 24(4), 156 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Benabid, F.

F. Benabid, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, (in preparation).

Birks, T. A.

Bjorkholm, J. E.

Block, S. M.

K. Svoboda and S. M. Block, “Biological applications of optical forces,” Annu. Rev. Biophys. Biomol. Struct. 23, 247 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brenner, H.

J. Happel and H. Brenner, Low Reynolds Number Hydrodynamics (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N. J., 1965).

Cregan, R.F.

R.F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, and J. C. Knightet al., “Single-Mode Photonic Band Gap Guidance of light in Air,” science 285, 1537–1539 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dziedzic, J. M.

Fajardo, J.C.

J. A. West, J.C. Fajardo, and M.T. Gallagheret al., “Demonstration of an IR-optimized air-core photonic band-gap fiber,” presented at the ECOC 2000. 26th European Conference on Optical Communication. ., Berlin, Germany, 2000 (unpublished).

Gallagher, M. T.

N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, and C. M. Smithet al., “Low Loss (13 dB/km) Air Core Photonic Band-Gap Fibre,” presented at the Ecoc 2002, Copenhagen, 2002 (unpublished).

Gallagher, M.T.

J. A. West, J.C. Fajardo, and M.T. Gallagheret al., “Demonstration of an IR-optimized air-core photonic band-gap fiber,” presented at the ECOC 2000. 26th European Conference on Optical Communication. ., Berlin, Germany, 2000 (unpublished).

Gauthier, R. C.

R. C. Gauthier, “Trapping model for the low-index ring-shaped micro-object in a focused, lowest-order Gaussian laser-beam profile,” J. Opt. Sci. Am. B 14, 782–789 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Gauthier and S. Wallace, “Optical levitation of spheres: analytical development and numerical computations of the force equations,” J. Opt. Sci. Am. B 12, 1680–1685 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ghislain, L. P.

gouesbet, G.

Grehan, G.

Happel, J.

J. Happel and H. Brenner, Low Reynolds Number Hydrodynamics (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N. J., 1965).

Higurashi, E.

E. Higurashi, H. Ukita, and H. Tanakaet al., “Optically induced rotation of anisotropic micro-objects fabricated by surface micromachining,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 2209–2210 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kitamura, N.

H. Misawa, N. Kitamura, and H. Masuhara, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 113, 7859 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Knight, J. C.

J. C. Knight and P. St. J. Russel, “New Ways to Guide Light,” Science 296, 276–277 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R.F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, and J. C. Knightet al., “Single-Mode Photonic Band Gap Guidance of light in Air,” science 285, 1537–1539 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russellet al., Opt. Lett. 21, 1547 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Benabid, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, (in preparation).

Lewandowski, H. J.

M.J. Renn, R. Pastel, and H. J. Lewandowski, “Laser Guidance and Trapping of Mesoscale Particles in Hollow-core Optical fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(7), 1574 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mangan, B. J.

R.F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, and J. C. Knightet al., “Single-Mode Photonic Band Gap Guidance of light in Air,” science 285, 1537–1539 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marcatili, E. A. J.

E. A. J. Marcatili and R. A. Schmeltzer, “Hollow Metallic and Dielectric Wave-guides for Long Distance Optical Transmission and Lasers,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. (July 1964), 1783–1809 (1964).

Masuhara, H.

H. Misawa, N. Kitamura, and H. Masuhara, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 113, 7859 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Misawa, H.

H. Misawa, N. Kitamura, and H. Masuhara, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 113, 7859 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Nemoto, S.

Pastel, R.

M.J. Renn, R. Pastel, and H. J. Lewandowski, “Laser Guidance and Trapping of Mesoscale Particles in Hollow-core Optical fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(7), 1574 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Renn and R. Pastel, “Particle manipulation and surface patterning by laser guidance,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 16(6), 3859 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ren, K. F.

Renn, M. J.

M. J. Renn and R. Pastel, “Particle manipulation and surface patterning by laser guidance,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 16(6), 3859 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Renn, O. Vdovin, and C. E. Wiemanet al., “Laser-Guided Atoms in Hollow-core Optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 3253 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Renn, M.J.

M.J. Renn, R. Pastel, and H. J. Lewandowski, “Laser Guidance and Trapping of Mesoscale Particles in Hollow-core Optical fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(7), 1574 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Russel, P. St. J.

J. C. Knight and P. St. J. Russel, “New Ways to Guide Light,” Science 296, 276–277 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Russell, P. St. J.

Schmeltzer, R. A.

E. A. J. Marcatili and R. A. Schmeltzer, “Hollow Metallic and Dielectric Wave-guides for Long Distance Optical Transmission and Lasers,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. (July 1964), 1783–1809 (1964).

Smith, C. M.

N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, and C. M. Smithet al., “Low Loss (13 dB/km) Air Core Photonic Band-Gap Fibre,” presented at the Ecoc 2002, Copenhagen, 2002 (unpublished).

Svoboda, K.

K. Svoboda and S. M. Block, “Biological applications of optical forces,” Annu. Rev. Biophys. Biomol. Struct. 23, 247 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tanaka, H.

E. Higurashi, H. Ukita, and H. Tanakaet al., “Optically induced rotation of anisotropic micro-objects fabricated by surface micromachining,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 2209–2210 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Togo, H.

Ukita, H.

E. Higurashi, H. Ukita, and H. Tanakaet al., “Optically induced rotation of anisotropic micro-objects fabricated by surface micromachining,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 2209–2210 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Vdovin, O.

M. J. Renn, O. Vdovin, and C. E. Wiemanet al., “Laser-Guided Atoms in Hollow-core Optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 3253 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Venkataraman, N.

N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, and C. M. Smithet al., “Low Loss (13 dB/km) Air Core Photonic Band-Gap Fibre,” presented at the Ecoc 2002, Copenhagen, 2002 (unpublished).

Wallace, S.

R. C. Gauthier and S. Wallace, “Optical levitation of spheres: analytical development and numerical computations of the force equations,” J. Opt. Sci. Am. B 12, 1680–1685 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Webb, W. W.

West, J. A.

J. A. West, J.C. Fajardo, and M.T. Gallagheret al., “Demonstration of an IR-optimized air-core photonic band-gap fiber,” presented at the ECOC 2000. 26th European Conference on Optical Communication. ., Berlin, Germany, 2000 (unpublished).

Wieman, C. E.

M. J. Renn, O. Vdovin, and C. E. Wiemanet al., “Laser-Guided Atoms in Hollow-core Optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 3253 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Annu. Rev. Biophys. Biomol. Struct. (1)

K. Svoboda and S. M. Block, “Biological applications of optical forces,” Annu. Rev. Biophys. Biomol. Struct. 23, 247 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

E. Higurashi, H. Ukita, and H. Tanakaet al., “Optically induced rotation of anisotropic micro-objects fabricated by surface micromachining,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 2209–2210 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bell Syst. Tech. J. (1)

E. A. J. Marcatili and R. A. Schmeltzer, “Hollow Metallic and Dielectric Wave-guides for Long Distance Optical Transmission and Lasers,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. (July 1964), 1783–1809 (1964).

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

H. Misawa, N. Kitamura, and H. Masuhara, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 113, 7859 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Sci. Am. B (2)

R. C. Gauthier and S. Wallace, “Optical levitation of spheres: analytical development and numerical computations of the force equations,” J. Opt. Sci. Am. B 12, 1680–1685 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Gauthier, “Trapping model for the low-index ring-shaped micro-object in a focused, lowest-order Gaussian laser-beam profile,” J. Opt. Sci. Am. B 14, 782–789 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (1)

M. J. Renn and R. Pastel, “Particle manipulation and surface patterning by laser guidance,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 16(6), 3859 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

A. Ashkin, “Acceleration and trapping of particles by radiation pressure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 24(4), 156 (1970).
[CrossRef]

M.J. Renn, R. Pastel, and H. J. Lewandowski, “Laser Guidance and Trapping of Mesoscale Particles in Hollow-core Optical fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(7), 1574 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Renn, O. Vdovin, and C. E. Wiemanet al., “Laser-Guided Atoms in Hollow-core Optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 3253 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (2)

A. Ashkin and J. M. Dziedzic, “Optical trapping and manipulation of viruses and bacteria,” Science 235 (1517–1520) (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R.F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, and J. C. Knightet al., “Single-Mode Photonic Band Gap Guidance of light in Air,” science 285, 1537–1539 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Knight and P. St. J. Russel, “New Ways to Guide Light,” Science 296, 276–277 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (4)

J. A. West, J.C. Fajardo, and M.T. Gallagheret al., “Demonstration of an IR-optimized air-core photonic band-gap fiber,” presented at the ECOC 2000. 26th European Conference on Optical Communication. ., Berlin, Germany, 2000 (unpublished).

F. Benabid, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, (in preparation).

J. Happel and H. Brenner, Low Reynolds Number Hydrodynamics (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N. J., 1965).

N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, and C. M. Smithet al., “Low Loss (13 dB/km) Air Core Photonic Band-Gap Fibre,” presented at the Ecoc 2002, Copenhagen, 2002 (unpublished).

Supplementary Material (2)

» Media 1: MPG (168 KB)     
» Media 2: MPG (2290 KB)     

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Experimental set-up of the particle levitation and guidance. See text for details.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) The transmission spectrum of the HC-PCF used here for particle levitation. (b) The micrograph of the exit end of a ∼5 cm long HC-PCF as it is seen from a microscope.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) The schematic of the particle levitation (b) The axial force as a function of the distance waist-particle. The power is 80 mW, the solid circle represent the experimental data.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

A sequence of a polystyrene particle (pointed out by an arrow) being levitated. The time spacing between consecutive frames is 67 ms, and each frame corresponds to a captured scene size of 2.5x2.5 mm2. The sequence is extracted from the movie (2.24 MB) (see fig. 5) of levitated particles and coupled to the fiber.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(2.24 MB) video of real time particles levitation.

Fig 6.
Fig 6.

Calculated magnitude of the axial force (Fz ) and the gradient force (F grad) on 5 μm diameter polystyrene particle at the entrance of 20 μm hollow-core HC-PCF in function of the radial position of the sphere central position. The laser power is 80 mW and coupled to lowest-loss mode.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Sequence of a polystyrene particle (pointed out by an arrow) being guided into HC-PCF. The time spacing between two consecutive frames is 67 ms. Each frame corresponds to a captured scene size of 0.9x0.9 mm2. The frames were extracted from the movie (176 KB).

Fig 8.
Fig 8.

(176 KB) video showing a polystyrene particle being guided in ∼1 mm section of the HC-PCF.

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

d F z = n P 0 c I r z d A ,
m z ̈ = m g 6 π η air a z ˙ + F z ( z ) ,
I r z I 0 J 0 [ 2.4 r r co ] 2 e α loss z ,
F z = P 0 c 128 π 5 a 6 3 λ 4 ( n 2 1 n 2 + 2 ) 2 1 0.846 r co 2 J 0 2 [ 2.405 r r co ]
F grad = P 0 c π a 3 2 ( n 2 1 n 2 + 2 ) 4.81 0.846 r co 3 J 0 [ 2.405 r r co ] J 1 [ 2.405 r r co ]
k = P 0 c π a 3 2 ( n 2 1 n 2 + 2 ) 2.4 0.846 r co 4

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