Abstract

We demonstrate experimentally the lithography technique to fabricate a large computer-generated diffractive optical element (DOE) pattern on a concave lens surface with precise alignment by using a laser direct writer. We obtained photoresist film with uniform thickness on the large concave substrate by selecting proper spin-coating parameters, which mainly involve spin rate, spin acceleration, and viscosity of the photoresist. We obtained a square line profile on the concave lens surface. We can write lines that range in width from 0.7 to 10 μm using a single pass of the laser beam. We have designed and fabricated a grating on the concave lens surface using the laser direct writing lithography technique. It is believed that this technique can also transfer large DOE patterns, with a continuous surface relief, onto a convex or concave lens (mirror) surface.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. H. Burge, D. S. Anderson, T. D. Milster, and C. L. Vernold, �??Measurement of a convex secondary mirror using a holographic test plat,�?? in Advanced Technology Optical Telescopes V, Larry M. stepp, ed., Proc. SPIE 2199, 193-198 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  2. Tatsuo Harada, Shigeo Moriyama, and Toshiaki Kita, �??Mechanically Ruled Stigmatic Concave Gratings,�?? Japanese J. Appl. Phys. 14, 175-179 (1974).
  3. Michael T.Gale, Markus Rossi, Jorn Pedersen, and Helmut Schutz, �??Fabrication of continuous-relief microoptical elements by direct laser writing in photoresists,�?? Opt. Eng. 33, 3556-3566 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  4. Nicholas F. Borrelli, Microoptics technology, Marcel Dekker, Inc.(New York, 1999).
  5. Rebecca J. Jackman, Scott T. Brittain, Allan Adams, Mara G. Prentiss, and George M. Whitesides, �??Design and Fabrication of Topologically Complex, Three-Dimensional Microstructures,�?? Science 280, 2091-2098 (1998)
    [CrossRef]
  6. Cynthia L. Vernold and Thomas D. Milster, �??Non-photolithographic fabrication of large computer-generrated diffractive optical elements,�?? in Current Developments in Optical Design and Optical Engineering IV, Robert. E. Fischer and Warren J. Smith, eds., Proc. SPIE 2263, 125-133 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Zhenwu Lu and Zhicheng Weng, �??Lens centering by using binary phase grating,�?? in Current Developments in Lens Design and Optical Systems Engineering, Robert E. Fischer, R. Barry Johnson, Warren J. Smith and William H.Swantner, eds., Proc. SPIE 4093, 176-180 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  8. Tom D. Milster and Cynthia L. Vernold, �??Technique for aligning optical and mechanical axes based on a rotating linear grating,�?? Opt. Eng. 34, 2840-2844 (1995).
    [CrossRef]

Japanese J. Appl. Phys.

Tatsuo Harada, Shigeo Moriyama, and Toshiaki Kita, �??Mechanically Ruled Stigmatic Concave Gratings,�?? Japanese J. Appl. Phys. 14, 175-179 (1974).

Opt. Eng.

Michael T.Gale, Markus Rossi, Jorn Pedersen, and Helmut Schutz, �??Fabrication of continuous-relief microoptical elements by direct laser writing in photoresists,�?? Opt. Eng. 33, 3556-3566 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Tom D. Milster and Cynthia L. Vernold, �??Technique for aligning optical and mechanical axes based on a rotating linear grating,�?? Opt. Eng. 34, 2840-2844 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

Cynthia L. Vernold and Thomas D. Milster, �??Non-photolithographic fabrication of large computer-generrated diffractive optical elements,�?? in Current Developments in Optical Design and Optical Engineering IV, Robert. E. Fischer and Warren J. Smith, eds., Proc. SPIE 2263, 125-133 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Zhenwu Lu and Zhicheng Weng, �??Lens centering by using binary phase grating,�?? in Current Developments in Lens Design and Optical Systems Engineering, Robert E. Fischer, R. Barry Johnson, Warren J. Smith and William H.Swantner, eds., Proc. SPIE 4093, 176-180 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Burge, D. S. Anderson, T. D. Milster, and C. L. Vernold, �??Measurement of a convex secondary mirror using a holographic test plat,�?? in Advanced Technology Optical Telescopes V, Larry M. stepp, ed., Proc. SPIE 2199, 193-198 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Science

Rebecca J. Jackman, Scott T. Brittain, Allan Adams, Mara G. Prentiss, and George M. Whitesides, �??Design and Fabrication of Topologically Complex, Three-Dimensional Microstructures,�?? Science 280, 2091-2098 (1998)
[CrossRef]

Other

Nicholas F. Borrelli, Microoptics technology, Marcel Dekker, Inc.(New York, 1999).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of our laser direct writer.

Fig.2
Fig.2

Three-dimensional plot of the grating profile.

Fig.3
Fig.3

Two-dimensional plot of the grating profile.

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