Abstract

We demonstrate experimentally the lithography technique to fabricate a large computer-generated diffractive optical element (DOE) pattern on a concave lens surface with precise alignment by using a laser direct writer. We obtained photoresist film with uniform thickness on the large concave substrate by selecting proper spin-coating parameters, which mainly involve spin rate, spin acceleration, and viscosity of the photoresist. We obtained a square line profile on the concave lens surface. We can write lines that range in width from 0.7 to 10 μm using a single pass of the laser beam. We have designed and fabricated a grating on the concave lens surface using the laser direct writing lithography technique. It is believed that this technique can also transfer large DOE patterns, with a continuous surface relief, onto a convex or concave lens (mirror) surface.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. H. Burge , D. S. Anderson , T. D. Milster , and C. L. Vernold , “ Measurement of a convex secondary mirror using a holographic test plat ,” in Advanced Technology Optical Telescopes V, Larry M. stepp , ed., Proc. SPIE   2199 , 193 – 198 ( 1994 ).
    [Crossref]
  2. Tatsuo Harada , Shigeo Moriyama , and Toshiaki Kita , “ Mechanically Ruled Stigmatic Concave Gratings ,” Japanese Journal of Applied Physics ,   14 , 175 – 179 ( 1974 ).
  3. Michael T. Gale , Markus Rossi , Jorn Pedersen , and Helmut Schutz , “ Fabrication of continuous-relief micro-optical elements by direct laser writing in photoresists ,” Opt. Eng.   33 , 3556 – 3566 ( 1994 ).
    [Crossref]
  4. Nicholas F. Borrelli , Microoptics technology, Marcel Dekker, Inc.( New York , 1999 ).
  5. Rebecca J. Jackman , Scott T. Brittain , Allan Adams , Mara G. Prentiss , and George M. Whitesides , “ Design and Fabrication of Topologically Complex, Three-Dimensional Microstructures ,” Science. ,   280 , 2091 – 2098 ( 1998 )
    [Crossref]
  6. Cynthia L. Vernold and Thomas D. Milster , “ Non-photolithographic fabrication of large computer-generrated diffractive optical elements ,” in Current Developments in Optical Design and Optical Engineering IV, Robert. E. Fischer and Warren J. Smith , eds., Proc. SPIE   2263 , 125 – 133 ( 1994 ).
    [Crossref]
  7. Zhenwu Lu and Zhicheng Weng , “ Lens centering by using binary phase grating ,” in Current Developments in Lens Design and Optical Systems Engineering, Robert E. Fischer , R. Barry Johnson , Warren J. Smith , and William H. Swantner , eds., Proc. SPIE.   4093 , 176 – 180 ( 2000 ).
    [Crossref]
  8. Tom D. Milster and Cynthia L. Vernold , “ Technique for aligning optical and mechanical axes based on a rotating linear grating ,” Opt. Eng ,   34 , 2840 – 2844 ( 1995 ).
    [Crossref]

2000 (1)

Zhenwu Lu and Zhicheng Weng , “ Lens centering by using binary phase grating ,” in Current Developments in Lens Design and Optical Systems Engineering, Robert E. Fischer , R. Barry Johnson , Warren J. Smith , and William H. Swantner , eds., Proc. SPIE.   4093 , 176 – 180 ( 2000 ).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

Rebecca J. Jackman , Scott T. Brittain , Allan Adams , Mara G. Prentiss , and George M. Whitesides , “ Design and Fabrication of Topologically Complex, Three-Dimensional Microstructures ,” Science. ,   280 , 2091 – 2098 ( 1998 )
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

Tom D. Milster and Cynthia L. Vernold , “ Technique for aligning optical and mechanical axes based on a rotating linear grating ,” Opt. Eng ,   34 , 2840 – 2844 ( 1995 ).
[Crossref]

1994 (3)

Michael T. Gale , Markus Rossi , Jorn Pedersen , and Helmut Schutz , “ Fabrication of continuous-relief micro-optical elements by direct laser writing in photoresists ,” Opt. Eng.   33 , 3556 – 3566 ( 1994 ).
[Crossref]

Cynthia L. Vernold and Thomas D. Milster , “ Non-photolithographic fabrication of large computer-generrated diffractive optical elements ,” in Current Developments in Optical Design and Optical Engineering IV, Robert. E. Fischer and Warren J. Smith , eds., Proc. SPIE   2263 , 125 – 133 ( 1994 ).
[Crossref]

J. H. Burge , D. S. Anderson , T. D. Milster , and C. L. Vernold , “ Measurement of a convex secondary mirror using a holographic test plat ,” in Advanced Technology Optical Telescopes V, Larry M. stepp , ed., Proc. SPIE   2199 , 193 – 198 ( 1994 ).
[Crossref]

1974 (1)

Tatsuo Harada , Shigeo Moriyama , and Toshiaki Kita , “ Mechanically Ruled Stigmatic Concave Gratings ,” Japanese Journal of Applied Physics ,   14 , 175 – 179 ( 1974 ).

Adams, Allan

Rebecca J. Jackman , Scott T. Brittain , Allan Adams , Mara G. Prentiss , and George M. Whitesides , “ Design and Fabrication of Topologically Complex, Three-Dimensional Microstructures ,” Science. ,   280 , 2091 – 2098 ( 1998 )
[Crossref]

Anderson, D. S.

J. H. Burge , D. S. Anderson , T. D. Milster , and C. L. Vernold , “ Measurement of a convex secondary mirror using a holographic test plat ,” in Advanced Technology Optical Telescopes V, Larry M. stepp , ed., Proc. SPIE   2199 , 193 – 198 ( 1994 ).
[Crossref]

Borrelli, Nicholas F.

Nicholas F. Borrelli , Microoptics technology, Marcel Dekker, Inc.( New York , 1999 ).

Brittain, Scott T.

Rebecca J. Jackman , Scott T. Brittain , Allan Adams , Mara G. Prentiss , and George M. Whitesides , “ Design and Fabrication of Topologically Complex, Three-Dimensional Microstructures ,” Science. ,   280 , 2091 – 2098 ( 1998 )
[Crossref]

Burge, J. H.

J. H. Burge , D. S. Anderson , T. D. Milster , and C. L. Vernold , “ Measurement of a convex secondary mirror using a holographic test plat ,” in Advanced Technology Optical Telescopes V, Larry M. stepp , ed., Proc. SPIE   2199 , 193 – 198 ( 1994 ).
[Crossref]

Gale, Michael T.

Michael T. Gale , Markus Rossi , Jorn Pedersen , and Helmut Schutz , “ Fabrication of continuous-relief micro-optical elements by direct laser writing in photoresists ,” Opt. Eng.   33 , 3556 – 3566 ( 1994 ).
[Crossref]

Harada, Tatsuo

Tatsuo Harada , Shigeo Moriyama , and Toshiaki Kita , “ Mechanically Ruled Stigmatic Concave Gratings ,” Japanese Journal of Applied Physics ,   14 , 175 – 179 ( 1974 ).

Jackman, Rebecca J.

Rebecca J. Jackman , Scott T. Brittain , Allan Adams , Mara G. Prentiss , and George M. Whitesides , “ Design and Fabrication of Topologically Complex, Three-Dimensional Microstructures ,” Science. ,   280 , 2091 – 2098 ( 1998 )
[Crossref]

Kita, Toshiaki

Tatsuo Harada , Shigeo Moriyama , and Toshiaki Kita , “ Mechanically Ruled Stigmatic Concave Gratings ,” Japanese Journal of Applied Physics ,   14 , 175 – 179 ( 1974 ).

Lu, Zhenwu

Zhenwu Lu and Zhicheng Weng , “ Lens centering by using binary phase grating ,” in Current Developments in Lens Design and Optical Systems Engineering, Robert E. Fischer , R. Barry Johnson , Warren J. Smith , and William H. Swantner , eds., Proc. SPIE.   4093 , 176 – 180 ( 2000 ).
[Crossref]

Milster, T. D.

J. H. Burge , D. S. Anderson , T. D. Milster , and C. L. Vernold , “ Measurement of a convex secondary mirror using a holographic test plat ,” in Advanced Technology Optical Telescopes V, Larry M. stepp , ed., Proc. SPIE   2199 , 193 – 198 ( 1994 ).
[Crossref]

Milster, Thomas D.

Cynthia L. Vernold and Thomas D. Milster , “ Non-photolithographic fabrication of large computer-generrated diffractive optical elements ,” in Current Developments in Optical Design and Optical Engineering IV, Robert. E. Fischer and Warren J. Smith , eds., Proc. SPIE   2263 , 125 – 133 ( 1994 ).
[Crossref]

Milster, Tom D.

Tom D. Milster and Cynthia L. Vernold , “ Technique for aligning optical and mechanical axes based on a rotating linear grating ,” Opt. Eng ,   34 , 2840 – 2844 ( 1995 ).
[Crossref]

Moriyama, Shigeo

Tatsuo Harada , Shigeo Moriyama , and Toshiaki Kita , “ Mechanically Ruled Stigmatic Concave Gratings ,” Japanese Journal of Applied Physics ,   14 , 175 – 179 ( 1974 ).

Pedersen, Jorn

Michael T. Gale , Markus Rossi , Jorn Pedersen , and Helmut Schutz , “ Fabrication of continuous-relief micro-optical elements by direct laser writing in photoresists ,” Opt. Eng.   33 , 3556 – 3566 ( 1994 ).
[Crossref]

Prentiss, Mara G.

Rebecca J. Jackman , Scott T. Brittain , Allan Adams , Mara G. Prentiss , and George M. Whitesides , “ Design and Fabrication of Topologically Complex, Three-Dimensional Microstructures ,” Science. ,   280 , 2091 – 2098 ( 1998 )
[Crossref]

Rossi, Markus

Michael T. Gale , Markus Rossi , Jorn Pedersen , and Helmut Schutz , “ Fabrication of continuous-relief micro-optical elements by direct laser writing in photoresists ,” Opt. Eng.   33 , 3556 – 3566 ( 1994 ).
[Crossref]

Schutz, Helmut

Michael T. Gale , Markus Rossi , Jorn Pedersen , and Helmut Schutz , “ Fabrication of continuous-relief micro-optical elements by direct laser writing in photoresists ,” Opt. Eng.   33 , 3556 – 3566 ( 1994 ).
[Crossref]

Vernold, C. L.

J. H. Burge , D. S. Anderson , T. D. Milster , and C. L. Vernold , “ Measurement of a convex secondary mirror using a holographic test plat ,” in Advanced Technology Optical Telescopes V, Larry M. stepp , ed., Proc. SPIE   2199 , 193 – 198 ( 1994 ).
[Crossref]

Vernold, Cynthia L.

Tom D. Milster and Cynthia L. Vernold , “ Technique for aligning optical and mechanical axes based on a rotating linear grating ,” Opt. Eng ,   34 , 2840 – 2844 ( 1995 ).
[Crossref]

Cynthia L. Vernold and Thomas D. Milster , “ Non-photolithographic fabrication of large computer-generrated diffractive optical elements ,” in Current Developments in Optical Design and Optical Engineering IV, Robert. E. Fischer and Warren J. Smith , eds., Proc. SPIE   2263 , 125 – 133 ( 1994 ).
[Crossref]

Weng, Zhicheng

Zhenwu Lu and Zhicheng Weng , “ Lens centering by using binary phase grating ,” in Current Developments in Lens Design and Optical Systems Engineering, Robert E. Fischer , R. Barry Johnson , Warren J. Smith , and William H. Swantner , eds., Proc. SPIE.   4093 , 176 – 180 ( 2000 ).
[Crossref]

Whitesides, George M.

Rebecca J. Jackman , Scott T. Brittain , Allan Adams , Mara G. Prentiss , and George M. Whitesides , “ Design and Fabrication of Topologically Complex, Three-Dimensional Microstructures ,” Science. ,   280 , 2091 – 2098 ( 1998 )
[Crossref]

Japanese Journal of Applied Physics (1)

Tatsuo Harada , Shigeo Moriyama , and Toshiaki Kita , “ Mechanically Ruled Stigmatic Concave Gratings ,” Japanese Journal of Applied Physics ,   14 , 175 – 179 ( 1974 ).

Opt. Eng (1)

Tom D. Milster and Cynthia L. Vernold , “ Technique for aligning optical and mechanical axes based on a rotating linear grating ,” Opt. Eng ,   34 , 2840 – 2844 ( 1995 ).
[Crossref]

Opt. Eng. (1)

Michael T. Gale , Markus Rossi , Jorn Pedersen , and Helmut Schutz , “ Fabrication of continuous-relief micro-optical elements by direct laser writing in photoresists ,” Opt. Eng.   33 , 3556 – 3566 ( 1994 ).
[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE (2)

J. H. Burge , D. S. Anderson , T. D. Milster , and C. L. Vernold , “ Measurement of a convex secondary mirror using a holographic test plat ,” in Advanced Technology Optical Telescopes V, Larry M. stepp , ed., Proc. SPIE   2199 , 193 – 198 ( 1994 ).
[Crossref]

Cynthia L. Vernold and Thomas D. Milster , “ Non-photolithographic fabrication of large computer-generrated diffractive optical elements ,” in Current Developments in Optical Design and Optical Engineering IV, Robert. E. Fischer and Warren J. Smith , eds., Proc. SPIE   2263 , 125 – 133 ( 1994 ).
[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE. (1)

Zhenwu Lu and Zhicheng Weng , “ Lens centering by using binary phase grating ,” in Current Developments in Lens Design and Optical Systems Engineering, Robert E. Fischer , R. Barry Johnson , Warren J. Smith , and William H. Swantner , eds., Proc. SPIE.   4093 , 176 – 180 ( 2000 ).
[Crossref]

Science. (1)

Rebecca J. Jackman , Scott T. Brittain , Allan Adams , Mara G. Prentiss , and George M. Whitesides , “ Design and Fabrication of Topologically Complex, Three-Dimensional Microstructures ,” Science. ,   280 , 2091 – 2098 ( 1998 )
[Crossref]

Other (1)

Nicholas F. Borrelli , Microoptics technology, Marcel Dekker, Inc.( New York , 1999 ).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of our laser direct writer.

Fig.2
Fig.2

Three-dimensional plot of the grating profile.

Fig.3
Fig.3

Two-dimensional plot of the grating profile.

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