Abstract

We present the experimental observation of bright amplitude squeezed light from a singly resonant second harmonic generator (SHG) based on a periodically poled potassium titanyl phosphate (KTP) crystal. Contrary to conventional SHG, the interacting waves in this device couple efficiently using quasi phase matching (QPM) and more importantly QPM allows access to higher valued elements of the nonlinear tensor than is possible under the constraint of birefringence phase matching. We observe a noise reduction of 13% below the shot noise limit in the generated second harmonic field. This noise reduction is greater than what could be expected using normal birefringence phase matched KTP with the same experimental parameters. Excellent agreement between experiment and theory is found.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. R. Paschotta, M. Collett, P. Kurz, K. Fielder, H.A. Bachor, and J. Mlynek, “Bright squeezed light from a singly resonant frequency doubler,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 3807 (1994).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. D.K. Serkland, M.M. Fejer, R.L. Byer, and Y. Yamamoto, “Squeezing in a quasi-phase-matched LiNbO3 waveguide,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1649 (1995).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. G. S. Kanter, P. Kumar, R. V. Roussev, J. Kurz, K. R. Parameswaran, and M. M. Fejer, “Squeezing in a LiNbO3 integrated optical waveguide circuit,” Opt. Express 10, 177–182 (2002).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. D.J. Lovering, J.A. Levenson, P. Vidakovic, J. Webjörn, and P.St.J. Rusell, “Noiseless optical amplification in quasi-phase-matched bulk lithium niobate,” Opt.Lett. 21, 1439 (1996).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. E.M. Daly and A.I. Ferguson, “Parametric amplification and squeezing of a mode-locked pulse train: A comparison of MgO:LiNbO3 with bulk periodically poled LiNbO3,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 043807 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  6. K.S. Zhang, T. Coudreau, M. Martinelli, A. Maitre, and C. Fabre, “Generation of bright squeezed light at 1.06 μm using cascaded nonlinearities in triply resonant cw periodically-poled lithium niobate optical parametric oscillator,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 033815 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  7. M.J. Lawrence, R.L. Byer, M.M. Fejer, W. Bowen, P.K. Lam, and H.A. Bachor, “Squeezed singly resonant second-harmonic generation in periodically poled lithium niobate,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 1592 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  8. M.E. Anderson, M. Beck, M.G. Raymer, and J.D. Bierlein, “Quadrature squeezing with ultrashort pulses in nonlinear-optical waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 20, 620 (1995).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. C. Pedersen, “Development of optical parametric oscillators,” Ph.D. thesis, (1994).
  10. R.W.P. Drever, J.L. Hall, F.V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G.M. Ford, A.J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
    [Crossref]
  11. I. Juwiler, A. Arie, A. Skliar, and G. Rosenman, “Efficient quasi-phase-matched frequency doubling with phase compensation by a wedged crystal in a standing-wave external cavity,” Opt. Lett. 24, 1236 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  12. H.P. Yuen and V.W.S. Chan, “Noise in homodyne and heterodyne detection,” Opt. Lett. 8, 177 (1983).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. C.W. Gardiner and M.J. Collett, “Input and output in damped quantum systems: Quantum stochastic differential equations and master equation,” Phys. Rev. A 31, 3761(1985).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. Malcolm B. Gray, Daniel A. Shaddock, Charles C. Harb, and H-A Bachor, “Photodetector designs for low-noise, broadband, and high-power applications,” Rev.Sci.Ins. 69, 3755 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  15. M.J. Collett and R.B. Levien, “Two-photon-loss model of intracaity second-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 43, 5068 (1991).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. This value is extracted from the following reference:A.G. White, M.S. Taubman, T.C. Ralph, P.K. Lam, D.E. McClelland, and H.-A. Bachor, “Experimental test of modular noise propagation theory for quantum optics,” Phys. Rev. A 54, 3400 (1996).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. G.D. Boyd and D.A. Kleinman, “Parametric interaction of focused gaussian light beams,” J. Appl. Phys. 39, 3597 (1968).
    [Crossref]
  18. Z.Y. Ou, S.F. Pereira, E.S. Polzik, and H.J. Kimble, “85% efficiency for cw frequency doubling from 1.08 μm to 0.54 μm,” Opt. Lett. 17, 640 (1992).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. G. Breitenbach, T. Müller, S.F. Pereira, J.-Ph. Poizat, S. Schiller, and J. Mlynek, “Squeezed vacuum from a monolithic optical parametric oscillator,” J. Opt. Soc. Am B 12, 2304 (1995).
    [Crossref]

2002 (2)

2001 (1)

K.S. Zhang, T. Coudreau, M. Martinelli, A. Maitre, and C. Fabre, “Generation of bright squeezed light at 1.06 μm using cascaded nonlinearities in triply resonant cw periodically-poled lithium niobate optical parametric oscillator,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 033815 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

E.M. Daly and A.I. Ferguson, “Parametric amplification and squeezing of a mode-locked pulse train: A comparison of MgO:LiNbO3 with bulk periodically poled LiNbO3,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 043807 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

1998 (1)

Malcolm B. Gray, Daniel A. Shaddock, Charles C. Harb, and H-A Bachor, “Photodetector designs for low-noise, broadband, and high-power applications,” Rev.Sci.Ins. 69, 3755 (1998).
[Crossref]

1996 (2)

This value is extracted from the following reference:A.G. White, M.S. Taubman, T.C. Ralph, P.K. Lam, D.E. McClelland, and H.-A. Bachor, “Experimental test of modular noise propagation theory for quantum optics,” Phys. Rev. A 54, 3400 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D.J. Lovering, J.A. Levenson, P. Vidakovic, J. Webjörn, and P.St.J. Rusell, “Noiseless optical amplification in quasi-phase-matched bulk lithium niobate,” Opt.Lett. 21, 1439 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1995 (3)

1994 (2)

R. Paschotta, M. Collett, P. Kurz, K. Fielder, H.A. Bachor, and J. Mlynek, “Bright squeezed light from a singly resonant frequency doubler,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 3807 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Pedersen, “Development of optical parametric oscillators,” Ph.D. thesis, (1994).

1992 (1)

1991 (1)

M.J. Collett and R.B. Levien, “Two-photon-loss model of intracaity second-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 43, 5068 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1985 (1)

C.W. Gardiner and M.J. Collett, “Input and output in damped quantum systems: Quantum stochastic differential equations and master equation,” Phys. Rev. A 31, 3761(1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1983 (2)

H.P. Yuen and V.W.S. Chan, “Noise in homodyne and heterodyne detection,” Opt. Lett. 8, 177 (1983).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R.W.P. Drever, J.L. Hall, F.V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G.M. Ford, A.J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
[Crossref]

1968 (1)

G.D. Boyd and D.A. Kleinman, “Parametric interaction of focused gaussian light beams,” J. Appl. Phys. 39, 3597 (1968).
[Crossref]

Anderson, M.E.

Arie, A.

Bachor, H.A.

M.J. Lawrence, R.L. Byer, M.M. Fejer, W. Bowen, P.K. Lam, and H.A. Bachor, “Squeezed singly resonant second-harmonic generation in periodically poled lithium niobate,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 1592 (2002).
[Crossref]

R. Paschotta, M. Collett, P. Kurz, K. Fielder, H.A. Bachor, and J. Mlynek, “Bright squeezed light from a singly resonant frequency doubler,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 3807 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bachor, H.-A.

This value is extracted from the following reference:A.G. White, M.S. Taubman, T.C. Ralph, P.K. Lam, D.E. McClelland, and H.-A. Bachor, “Experimental test of modular noise propagation theory for quantum optics,” Phys. Rev. A 54, 3400 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bachor, H-A

Malcolm B. Gray, Daniel A. Shaddock, Charles C. Harb, and H-A Bachor, “Photodetector designs for low-noise, broadband, and high-power applications,” Rev.Sci.Ins. 69, 3755 (1998).
[Crossref]

Beck, M.

Bierlein, J.D.

Bowen, W.

Boyd, G.D.

G.D. Boyd and D.A. Kleinman, “Parametric interaction of focused gaussian light beams,” J. Appl. Phys. 39, 3597 (1968).
[Crossref]

Breitenbach, G.

G. Breitenbach, T. Müller, S.F. Pereira, J.-Ph. Poizat, S. Schiller, and J. Mlynek, “Squeezed vacuum from a monolithic optical parametric oscillator,” J. Opt. Soc. Am B 12, 2304 (1995).
[Crossref]

Byer, R.L.

Chan, V.W.S.

Collett, M.

R. Paschotta, M. Collett, P. Kurz, K. Fielder, H.A. Bachor, and J. Mlynek, “Bright squeezed light from a singly resonant frequency doubler,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 3807 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Collett, M.J.

M.J. Collett and R.B. Levien, “Two-photon-loss model of intracaity second-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 43, 5068 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C.W. Gardiner and M.J. Collett, “Input and output in damped quantum systems: Quantum stochastic differential equations and master equation,” Phys. Rev. A 31, 3761(1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Coudreau, T.

K.S. Zhang, T. Coudreau, M. Martinelli, A. Maitre, and C. Fabre, “Generation of bright squeezed light at 1.06 μm using cascaded nonlinearities in triply resonant cw periodically-poled lithium niobate optical parametric oscillator,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 033815 (2001).
[Crossref]

Daly, E.M.

E.M. Daly and A.I. Ferguson, “Parametric amplification and squeezing of a mode-locked pulse train: A comparison of MgO:LiNbO3 with bulk periodically poled LiNbO3,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 043807 (2000).
[Crossref]

Drever, R.W.P.

R.W.P. Drever, J.L. Hall, F.V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G.M. Ford, A.J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
[Crossref]

Fabre, C.

K.S. Zhang, T. Coudreau, M. Martinelli, A. Maitre, and C. Fabre, “Generation of bright squeezed light at 1.06 μm using cascaded nonlinearities in triply resonant cw periodically-poled lithium niobate optical parametric oscillator,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 033815 (2001).
[Crossref]

Fejer, M. M.

Fejer, M.M.

Ferguson, A.I.

E.M. Daly and A.I. Ferguson, “Parametric amplification and squeezing of a mode-locked pulse train: A comparison of MgO:LiNbO3 with bulk periodically poled LiNbO3,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 043807 (2000).
[Crossref]

Fielder, K.

R. Paschotta, M. Collett, P. Kurz, K. Fielder, H.A. Bachor, and J. Mlynek, “Bright squeezed light from a singly resonant frequency doubler,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 3807 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ford, G.M.

R.W.P. Drever, J.L. Hall, F.V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G.M. Ford, A.J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
[Crossref]

Gardiner, C.W.

C.W. Gardiner and M.J. Collett, “Input and output in damped quantum systems: Quantum stochastic differential equations and master equation,” Phys. Rev. A 31, 3761(1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gray, Malcolm B.

Malcolm B. Gray, Daniel A. Shaddock, Charles C. Harb, and H-A Bachor, “Photodetector designs for low-noise, broadband, and high-power applications,” Rev.Sci.Ins. 69, 3755 (1998).
[Crossref]

Hall, J.L.

R.W.P. Drever, J.L. Hall, F.V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G.M. Ford, A.J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
[Crossref]

Harb, Charles C.

Malcolm B. Gray, Daniel A. Shaddock, Charles C. Harb, and H-A Bachor, “Photodetector designs for low-noise, broadband, and high-power applications,” Rev.Sci.Ins. 69, 3755 (1998).
[Crossref]

Hough, J.

R.W.P. Drever, J.L. Hall, F.V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G.M. Ford, A.J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
[Crossref]

Juwiler, I.

Kanter, G. S.

Kimble, H.J.

Kleinman, D.A.

G.D. Boyd and D.A. Kleinman, “Parametric interaction of focused gaussian light beams,” J. Appl. Phys. 39, 3597 (1968).
[Crossref]

Kowalski, F.V.

R.W.P. Drever, J.L. Hall, F.V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G.M. Ford, A.J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
[Crossref]

Kumar, P.

Kurz, J.

Kurz, P.

R. Paschotta, M. Collett, P. Kurz, K. Fielder, H.A. Bachor, and J. Mlynek, “Bright squeezed light from a singly resonant frequency doubler,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 3807 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lam, P.K.

M.J. Lawrence, R.L. Byer, M.M. Fejer, W. Bowen, P.K. Lam, and H.A. Bachor, “Squeezed singly resonant second-harmonic generation in periodically poled lithium niobate,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 1592 (2002).
[Crossref]

This value is extracted from the following reference:A.G. White, M.S. Taubman, T.C. Ralph, P.K. Lam, D.E. McClelland, and H.-A. Bachor, “Experimental test of modular noise propagation theory for quantum optics,” Phys. Rev. A 54, 3400 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lawrence, M.J.

Levenson, J.A.

D.J. Lovering, J.A. Levenson, P. Vidakovic, J. Webjörn, and P.St.J. Rusell, “Noiseless optical amplification in quasi-phase-matched bulk lithium niobate,” Opt.Lett. 21, 1439 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Levien, R.B.

M.J. Collett and R.B. Levien, “Two-photon-loss model of intracaity second-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 43, 5068 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lovering, D.J.

D.J. Lovering, J.A. Levenson, P. Vidakovic, J. Webjörn, and P.St.J. Rusell, “Noiseless optical amplification in quasi-phase-matched bulk lithium niobate,” Opt.Lett. 21, 1439 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Maitre, A.

K.S. Zhang, T. Coudreau, M. Martinelli, A. Maitre, and C. Fabre, “Generation of bright squeezed light at 1.06 μm using cascaded nonlinearities in triply resonant cw periodically-poled lithium niobate optical parametric oscillator,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 033815 (2001).
[Crossref]

Martinelli, M.

K.S. Zhang, T. Coudreau, M. Martinelli, A. Maitre, and C. Fabre, “Generation of bright squeezed light at 1.06 μm using cascaded nonlinearities in triply resonant cw periodically-poled lithium niobate optical parametric oscillator,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 033815 (2001).
[Crossref]

McClelland, D.E.

This value is extracted from the following reference:A.G. White, M.S. Taubman, T.C. Ralph, P.K. Lam, D.E. McClelland, and H.-A. Bachor, “Experimental test of modular noise propagation theory for quantum optics,” Phys. Rev. A 54, 3400 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mlynek, J.

G. Breitenbach, T. Müller, S.F. Pereira, J.-Ph. Poizat, S. Schiller, and J. Mlynek, “Squeezed vacuum from a monolithic optical parametric oscillator,” J. Opt. Soc. Am B 12, 2304 (1995).
[Crossref]

R. Paschotta, M. Collett, P. Kurz, K. Fielder, H.A. Bachor, and J. Mlynek, “Bright squeezed light from a singly resonant frequency doubler,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 3807 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Müller, T.

G. Breitenbach, T. Müller, S.F. Pereira, J.-Ph. Poizat, S. Schiller, and J. Mlynek, “Squeezed vacuum from a monolithic optical parametric oscillator,” J. Opt. Soc. Am B 12, 2304 (1995).
[Crossref]

Munley, A.J.

R.W.P. Drever, J.L. Hall, F.V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G.M. Ford, A.J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
[Crossref]

Ou, Z.Y.

Parameswaran, K. R.

Paschotta, R.

R. Paschotta, M. Collett, P. Kurz, K. Fielder, H.A. Bachor, and J. Mlynek, “Bright squeezed light from a singly resonant frequency doubler,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 3807 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pedersen, C.

C. Pedersen, “Development of optical parametric oscillators,” Ph.D. thesis, (1994).

Pereira, S.F.

G. Breitenbach, T. Müller, S.F. Pereira, J.-Ph. Poizat, S. Schiller, and J. Mlynek, “Squeezed vacuum from a monolithic optical parametric oscillator,” J. Opt. Soc. Am B 12, 2304 (1995).
[Crossref]

Z.Y. Ou, S.F. Pereira, E.S. Polzik, and H.J. Kimble, “85% efficiency for cw frequency doubling from 1.08 μm to 0.54 μm,” Opt. Lett. 17, 640 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Poizat, J.-Ph.

G. Breitenbach, T. Müller, S.F. Pereira, J.-Ph. Poizat, S. Schiller, and J. Mlynek, “Squeezed vacuum from a monolithic optical parametric oscillator,” J. Opt. Soc. Am B 12, 2304 (1995).
[Crossref]

Polzik, E.S.

Ralph, T.C.

This value is extracted from the following reference:A.G. White, M.S. Taubman, T.C. Ralph, P.K. Lam, D.E. McClelland, and H.-A. Bachor, “Experimental test of modular noise propagation theory for quantum optics,” Phys. Rev. A 54, 3400 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Raymer, M.G.

Rosenman, G.

Roussev, R. V.

Rusell, P.St.J.

D.J. Lovering, J.A. Levenson, P. Vidakovic, J. Webjörn, and P.St.J. Rusell, “Noiseless optical amplification in quasi-phase-matched bulk lithium niobate,” Opt.Lett. 21, 1439 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schiller, S.

G. Breitenbach, T. Müller, S.F. Pereira, J.-Ph. Poizat, S. Schiller, and J. Mlynek, “Squeezed vacuum from a monolithic optical parametric oscillator,” J. Opt. Soc. Am B 12, 2304 (1995).
[Crossref]

Serkland, D.K.

Shaddock, Daniel A.

Malcolm B. Gray, Daniel A. Shaddock, Charles C. Harb, and H-A Bachor, “Photodetector designs for low-noise, broadband, and high-power applications,” Rev.Sci.Ins. 69, 3755 (1998).
[Crossref]

Skliar, A.

Taubman, M.S.

This value is extracted from the following reference:A.G. White, M.S. Taubman, T.C. Ralph, P.K. Lam, D.E. McClelland, and H.-A. Bachor, “Experimental test of modular noise propagation theory for quantum optics,” Phys. Rev. A 54, 3400 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vidakovic, P.

D.J. Lovering, J.A. Levenson, P. Vidakovic, J. Webjörn, and P.St.J. Rusell, “Noiseless optical amplification in quasi-phase-matched bulk lithium niobate,” Opt.Lett. 21, 1439 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ward, H.

R.W.P. Drever, J.L. Hall, F.V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G.M. Ford, A.J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
[Crossref]

Webjörn, J.

D.J. Lovering, J.A. Levenson, P. Vidakovic, J. Webjörn, and P.St.J. Rusell, “Noiseless optical amplification in quasi-phase-matched bulk lithium niobate,” Opt.Lett. 21, 1439 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

White, A.G.

This value is extracted from the following reference:A.G. White, M.S. Taubman, T.C. Ralph, P.K. Lam, D.E. McClelland, and H.-A. Bachor, “Experimental test of modular noise propagation theory for quantum optics,” Phys. Rev. A 54, 3400 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yamamoto, Y.

Yuen, H.P.

Zhang, K.S.

K.S. Zhang, T. Coudreau, M. Martinelli, A. Maitre, and C. Fabre, “Generation of bright squeezed light at 1.06 μm using cascaded nonlinearities in triply resonant cw periodically-poled lithium niobate optical parametric oscillator,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 033815 (2001).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

R.W.P. Drever, J.L. Hall, F.V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G.M. Ford, A.J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

G.D. Boyd and D.A. Kleinman, “Parametric interaction of focused gaussian light beams,” J. Appl. Phys. 39, 3597 (1968).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am B (1)

G. Breitenbach, T. Müller, S.F. Pereira, J.-Ph. Poizat, S. Schiller, and J. Mlynek, “Squeezed vacuum from a monolithic optical parametric oscillator,” J. Opt. Soc. Am B 12, 2304 (1995).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (5)

Opt.Lett. (1)

D.J. Lovering, J.A. Levenson, P. Vidakovic, J. Webjörn, and P.St.J. Rusell, “Noiseless optical amplification in quasi-phase-matched bulk lithium niobate,” Opt.Lett. 21, 1439 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ph.D. thesis (1)

C. Pedersen, “Development of optical parametric oscillators,” Ph.D. thesis, (1994).

Phys. Rev. A (5)

E.M. Daly and A.I. Ferguson, “Parametric amplification and squeezing of a mode-locked pulse train: A comparison of MgO:LiNbO3 with bulk periodically poled LiNbO3,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 043807 (2000).
[Crossref]

K.S. Zhang, T. Coudreau, M. Martinelli, A. Maitre, and C. Fabre, “Generation of bright squeezed light at 1.06 μm using cascaded nonlinearities in triply resonant cw periodically-poled lithium niobate optical parametric oscillator,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 033815 (2001).
[Crossref]

C.W. Gardiner and M.J. Collett, “Input and output in damped quantum systems: Quantum stochastic differential equations and master equation,” Phys. Rev. A 31, 3761(1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M.J. Collett and R.B. Levien, “Two-photon-loss model of intracaity second-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 43, 5068 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

This value is extracted from the following reference:A.G. White, M.S. Taubman, T.C. Ralph, P.K. Lam, D.E. McClelland, and H.-A. Bachor, “Experimental test of modular noise propagation theory for quantum optics,” Phys. Rev. A 54, 3400 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

R. Paschotta, M. Collett, P. Kurz, K. Fielder, H.A. Bachor, and J. Mlynek, “Bright squeezed light from a singly resonant frequency doubler,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 3807 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rev.Sci.Ins. (1)

Malcolm B. Gray, Daniel A. Shaddock, Charles C. Harb, and H-A Bachor, “Photodetector designs for low-noise, broadband, and high-power applications,” Rev.Sci.Ins. 69, 3755 (1998).
[Crossref]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

A schematic diagram of the experimental setup.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Amplitude noise of our Nd:YAG laser as a function of frequency. Trace a is the noise power spectrum of the laser field before it enters the mode-cleaner, trace b is the noise spectrum of the mode-cleaner output field and trace c is the quantum noise limit. The dip at low frequencies is caused by the notch filter in our detectors while the modulation at 19.5 MHz is for locking the cavity. RBW=300kHz, VBW=1kHz.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Spectra of the amplitude noise for the squeezed second harmonic field and for the vacuum field. The latter defines the QNL. Spectra are obtained with RBW=3MHz and VBW=1kHz.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Amplitude noise power and QNL is observed at 10MHz in zero span mode with RBW=300 kHz and VBW=300 Hz.

Equations (1)

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V ( Ω ) = 1 2 P c 2 Γ nl 2 ( 1 2 ( T + L ) + 3 2 P c Γ nl ) 2 + ( Ω τ ) 2

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