Abstract

We report that irradiation of femtosecond laser pulses moves a microscopic bubble inside crystalline calcium fluoride and amorphous silica glass. In situ observation revealed that the bubble moves against the direction of propagation of laser pulses as far as 2 microns. We also demonstrate the lateral movement of a void along the axis perpendicular to the beam propagation axis by shifting the laser focus.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. E. N. Glezer, M. Milosavljevic, L. Huang, R. J. Finlay, T.-H. Her, J. P. Callan, and E. Mazur, "Three-dimensional optical storage inside transparent materials,�?? Opt. Lett. 21, 2023-2025 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. N. Glezer and E. Mazur, �??Ultrafast-laser driven micro-explosions in transparent materials,�?? Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 882-884 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  3. W. Watanabe, T. Toma, K. Yamada, J. Nishii, K. Hayashi, and K. Itoh, �??Optical seizing and merging of voids in silica glass with infrared femtosecond laser pulses,�?? Opt. Lett. 25, 1669-1671 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  4. K. M. Davis, K. Miura, N. Sugimoto, and H. Hirao, �??Writing waveguides in glass with a femtosecond laser,�?? Opt. Lett. 21, 1729-1731 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, �??Photowritten optical waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser,�?? Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329-3331 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  6. K. Yamada, T. Toma, W. Watanabe, J. Nishii, and K. Itoh, �??In situ observation of photoinduced refractive index changes in filaments formed in glasses by femtosecond laser pulses,�?? Opt. Lett. 26, 19-21 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  7. C. B. Schaffer, A. Brodeur, J. F. Garca, and E. Mazur, �??Micromachining bulk glass by use of femtosecond laser pulses with nanojoule energy,�?? Opt. Lett. 26, 93-95 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  8. D. Homoelle, W. Wielandy, A. L. Gaeta, E. F. Borrelli, and C. Smith, �??Infraredphotosensitivity in silica glasses exposed to femtosecondlaser pulses,�?? Opt. Lett. 24, 1311-1313 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  9. L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, �??Writing of permanent birefringent microlayers in bulk fused silica with femtosecond laser pulses,�?? Opt. Commun. 171, 279-284 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. M. Streltsov and N. F. Borrelli, �??Fabrication and analysis of a directional coupler written in glass by nanojoule femtosecond laser pulses,�?? Opt. Lett. 26, 42-44 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  11. C. B. Schaffer, A. Brodeur, and E. Mazur, �??Laser-induced breakdown and damage in bulk transparent materials induced by tightly focused femtosecond laser pulses,�?? Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 1784-1794 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  12. Z. Bor, �??Distortion of femtosecond laser pulses in lenses and lens systems,�?? J. Mod. Opt. 35, 1907-1918 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. Kempe, U. Stamm, B. Wilhelmi, and W. Rudolph, �??Spatial and temporal transformation of femtosecond laser pulses by lenses and lens systems,�?? J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 1158-1165 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. Qiu, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, �??Three-dimensional optical memory using glasses as a recording medium through a multi-photon absorption process,�?? Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, 2263-2266 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  15. J. W. Chan, T. Huser, S. Risbud, and D. M. Krol, �??Structural changes in fused silica after exposure to focused femtosecond laser pulses,�?? Opt. Lett. 26, 1726-1728 (2001).
    [CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

N. Glezer and E. Mazur, �??Ultrafast-laser driven micro-explosions in transparent materials,�?? Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 882-884 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, �??Photowritten optical waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser,�?? Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329-3331 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

Z. Bor, �??Distortion of femtosecond laser pulses in lenses and lens systems,�?? J. Mod. Opt. 35, 1907-1918 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

J. Qiu, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, �??Three-dimensional optical memory using glasses as a recording medium through a multi-photon absorption process,�?? Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, 2263-2266 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

C. B. Schaffer, A. Brodeur, and E. Mazur, �??Laser-induced breakdown and damage in bulk transparent materials induced by tightly focused femtosecond laser pulses,�?? Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 1784-1794 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, �??Writing of permanent birefringent microlayers in bulk fused silica with femtosecond laser pulses,�?? Opt. Commun. 171, 279-284 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (8)

D. Homoelle, W. Wielandy, A. L. Gaeta, E. F. Borrelli, and C. Smith, �??Infraredphotosensitivity in silica glasses exposed to femtosecondlaser pulses,�?? Opt. Lett. 24, 1311-1313 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Davis, K. Miura, N. Sugimoto, and H. Hirao, �??Writing waveguides in glass with a femtosecond laser,�?? Opt. Lett. 21, 1729-1731 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. N. Glezer, M. Milosavljevic, L. Huang, R. J. Finlay, T.-H. Her, J. P. Callan, and E. Mazur, "Three-dimensional optical storage inside transparent materials,�?? Opt. Lett. 21, 2023-2025 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Watanabe, T. Toma, K. Yamada, J. Nishii, K. Hayashi, and K. Itoh, �??Optical seizing and merging of voids in silica glass with infrared femtosecond laser pulses,�?? Opt. Lett. 25, 1669-1671 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. Yamada, T. Toma, W. Watanabe, J. Nishii, and K. Itoh, �??In situ observation of photoinduced refractive index changes in filaments formed in glasses by femtosecond laser pulses,�?? Opt. Lett. 26, 19-21 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Streltsov and N. F. Borrelli, �??Fabrication and analysis of a directional coupler written in glass by nanojoule femtosecond laser pulses,�?? Opt. Lett. 26, 42-44 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. B. Schaffer, A. Brodeur, J. F. Garca, and E. Mazur, �??Micromachining bulk glass by use of femtosecond laser pulses with nanojoule energy,�?? Opt. Lett. 26, 93-95 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Chan, T. Huser, S. Risbud, and D. M. Krol, �??Structural changes in fused silica after exposure to focused femtosecond laser pulses,�?? Opt. Lett. 26, 1726-1728 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Supplementary Material (2)

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of experimental setup for creation by femtosecond laser pulses and in situ observation of voids. ND, HWP, and P denote neutral density filter, half-wave plate, and polarizer, respectively. OB1 and OB2 indicate objective lenses. L1 and L2 indicate lenses.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Optical movement of a void under irradiation by successive laser shots. Side view of void was observed under illumination unpolarized halogen lamp.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(2MB) Optical movement of a void under successive irradiation of laser shots. Energy : (a) 386 nJ/pulse and (b) 299 nJ/pulse, respcetively. The small circular spot in the left of each figure indicates the absolute position in the images. The number of shots is indicated upper right. [Media 1] [Media 2]

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Distance of movement of a void. ☐denotes the shape becomes elliptical along the optical axis..

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Lateral movement of a void perpendicular to the beam propagation axis. The void moves by 2 μm along the direction perpendicular to optical axis.

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