Abstract

A negative-tone sensitive SiO2/TiO2 organic-inorganic hybrid sol-gel material was synthesized and characterized for fabrication of multilevel micro-optical elements by direct electron-beam lithography. The exposure was carried out by an in-house modified electron-beam writing system using LEO SEM-982 with Elphy Quantum exposure beam-blanking control system at 25keV. The hybrid Sol-Gel material demonstrated a superb sensitivity for doses between 0.22μC/cm2 and 0.33μC/cm2.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. S. I. Najafi, Ti Touam, R. Sara, M. P. Andrews, and M. A. Farada, “Sol-Gel Glass Waveguide and Grating on Silicon,” J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 1640–1646(1998).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  7. J. T. Rantala, R. S. Penner, S. Honkanen, J. Vahakangas, M. Fallahi, and N. Peyghambarian, “Negative-tone Hybrid Sol-Gel Material for Electron-Beam Lithography,” Thin Solid Films 345, 185–187 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  8. J. T. Rantala, R. S. Penner, S. Honkanen, J. Vahakangas, M. Fallahi, and N. Peyghambarian, “Sol-Gel Hybrid Glass Diffractive Element by Direct Electron-Beam Exposure,” Electronics Lett 34, 455–456 (1998).
    [Crossref]

2002 (1)

2001 (1)

H.J. Jiang, X.-C. Yuan, Y. C. Chan, and G. L. Ng, “Single-step Fabrication of Surface Relief Diffractive Optical Elements on Hybrid Sol-Gel Glass,” Opt. Eng. 40, 2017–2021 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

1999 (2)

J. T. Rantala, R. S. Penner, S. Honkanen, J. Vahakangas, M. Fallahi, and N. Peyghambarian, “Negative-tone Hybrid Sol-Gel Material for Electron-Beam Lithography,” Thin Solid Films 345, 185–187 (1999).
[Crossref]

P. Äyräs, J.T. Rantala, S. Honkanen, S.B. Memdes, and N. Peyghambarian, “Diffraction gratings in sol-gel films by direct contact printing using a UV-mercury lamp,” Opt. Commun. 162, 215–218 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (2)

J. T. Rantala, R. S. Penner, S. Honkanen, J. Vahakangas, M. Fallahi, and N. Peyghambarian, “Sol-Gel Hybrid Glass Diffractive Element by Direct Electron-Beam Exposure,” Electronics Lett 34, 455–456 (1998).
[Crossref]

S. I. Najafi, Ti Touam, R. Sara, M. P. Andrews, and M. A. Farada, “Sol-Gel Glass Waveguide and Grating on Silicon,” J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 1640–1646(1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

P. Coudray, P. Etienne, Y. Moreau, J. Porque, and S.I. Najafi, “Sol-gel channel waveguide on silicon: fast direct imprinting and low cost fabrication,” Opt. Commun. 143, 199–202(1997).
[Crossref]

Andrews, M. P.

Äyräs, P.

P. Äyräs, J.T. Rantala, S. Honkanen, S.B. Memdes, and N. Peyghambarian, “Diffraction gratings in sol-gel films by direct contact printing using a UV-mercury lamp,” Opt. Commun. 162, 215–218 (1999).
[Crossref]

Chan, Y. C.

H.J. Jiang, X.-C. Yuan, Y. C. Chan, and G. L. Ng, “Single-step Fabrication of Surface Relief Diffractive Optical Elements on Hybrid Sol-Gel Glass,” Opt. Eng. 40, 2017–2021 (2001).
[Crossref]

Cheong, W. C.

Coudray, P.

P. Coudray, P. Etienne, Y. Moreau, J. Porque, and S.I. Najafi, “Sol-gel channel waveguide on silicon: fast direct imprinting and low cost fabrication,” Opt. Commun. 143, 199–202(1997).
[Crossref]

Etienne, P.

P. Coudray, P. Etienne, Y. Moreau, J. Porque, and S.I. Najafi, “Sol-gel channel waveguide on silicon: fast direct imprinting and low cost fabrication,” Opt. Commun. 143, 199–202(1997).
[Crossref]

Fallahi, M.

J. T. Rantala, R. S. Penner, S. Honkanen, J. Vahakangas, M. Fallahi, and N. Peyghambarian, “Negative-tone Hybrid Sol-Gel Material for Electron-Beam Lithography,” Thin Solid Films 345, 185–187 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. T. Rantala, R. S. Penner, S. Honkanen, J. Vahakangas, M. Fallahi, and N. Peyghambarian, “Sol-Gel Hybrid Glass Diffractive Element by Direct Electron-Beam Exposure,” Electronics Lett 34, 455–456 (1998).
[Crossref]

Farada, M. A.

Honkanen, S.

J. T. Rantala, R. S. Penner, S. Honkanen, J. Vahakangas, M. Fallahi, and N. Peyghambarian, “Negative-tone Hybrid Sol-Gel Material for Electron-Beam Lithography,” Thin Solid Films 345, 185–187 (1999).
[Crossref]

P. Äyräs, J.T. Rantala, S. Honkanen, S.B. Memdes, and N. Peyghambarian, “Diffraction gratings in sol-gel films by direct contact printing using a UV-mercury lamp,” Opt. Commun. 162, 215–218 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. T. Rantala, R. S. Penner, S. Honkanen, J. Vahakangas, M. Fallahi, and N. Peyghambarian, “Sol-Gel Hybrid Glass Diffractive Element by Direct Electron-Beam Exposure,” Electronics Lett 34, 455–456 (1998).
[Crossref]

Jiang, H.J.

H.J. Jiang, X.-C. Yuan, Y. C. Chan, and G. L. Ng, “Single-step Fabrication of Surface Relief Diffractive Optical Elements on Hybrid Sol-Gel Glass,” Opt. Eng. 40, 2017–2021 (2001).
[Crossref]

Kintaka, K.

Memdes, S.B.

P. Äyräs, J.T. Rantala, S. Honkanen, S.B. Memdes, and N. Peyghambarian, “Diffraction gratings in sol-gel films by direct contact printing using a UV-mercury lamp,” Opt. Commun. 162, 215–218 (1999).
[Crossref]

Moreau, Y.

P. Coudray, P. Etienne, Y. Moreau, J. Porque, and S.I. Najafi, “Sol-gel channel waveguide on silicon: fast direct imprinting and low cost fabrication,” Opt. Commun. 143, 199–202(1997).
[Crossref]

Najafi, S. I.

Najafi, S.I.

P. Coudray, P. Etienne, Y. Moreau, J. Porque, and S.I. Najafi, “Sol-gel channel waveguide on silicon: fast direct imprinting and low cost fabrication,” Opt. Commun. 143, 199–202(1997).
[Crossref]

Ng, G. L.

H.J. Jiang, X.-C. Yuan, Y. C. Chan, and G. L. Ng, “Single-step Fabrication of Surface Relief Diffractive Optical Elements on Hybrid Sol-Gel Glass,” Opt. Eng. 40, 2017–2021 (2001).
[Crossref]

Ngo, N. Q.

Nishii, J.

Penner, R. S.

J. T. Rantala, R. S. Penner, S. Honkanen, J. Vahakangas, M. Fallahi, and N. Peyghambarian, “Negative-tone Hybrid Sol-Gel Material for Electron-Beam Lithography,” Thin Solid Films 345, 185–187 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. T. Rantala, R. S. Penner, S. Honkanen, J. Vahakangas, M. Fallahi, and N. Peyghambarian, “Sol-Gel Hybrid Glass Diffractive Element by Direct Electron-Beam Exposure,” Electronics Lett 34, 455–456 (1998).
[Crossref]

Peyghambarian, N.

P. Äyräs, J.T. Rantala, S. Honkanen, S.B. Memdes, and N. Peyghambarian, “Diffraction gratings in sol-gel films by direct contact printing using a UV-mercury lamp,” Opt. Commun. 162, 215–218 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. T. Rantala, R. S. Penner, S. Honkanen, J. Vahakangas, M. Fallahi, and N. Peyghambarian, “Negative-tone Hybrid Sol-Gel Material for Electron-Beam Lithography,” Thin Solid Films 345, 185–187 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. T. Rantala, R. S. Penner, S. Honkanen, J. Vahakangas, M. Fallahi, and N. Peyghambarian, “Sol-Gel Hybrid Glass Diffractive Element by Direct Electron-Beam Exposure,” Electronics Lett 34, 455–456 (1998).
[Crossref]

Porque, J.

P. Coudray, P. Etienne, Y. Moreau, J. Porque, and S.I. Najafi, “Sol-gel channel waveguide on silicon: fast direct imprinting and low cost fabrication,” Opt. Commun. 143, 199–202(1997).
[Crossref]

Rantala, J. T.

J. T. Rantala, R. S. Penner, S. Honkanen, J. Vahakangas, M. Fallahi, and N. Peyghambarian, “Negative-tone Hybrid Sol-Gel Material for Electron-Beam Lithography,” Thin Solid Films 345, 185–187 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. T. Rantala, R. S. Penner, S. Honkanen, J. Vahakangas, M. Fallahi, and N. Peyghambarian, “Sol-Gel Hybrid Glass Diffractive Element by Direct Electron-Beam Exposure,” Electronics Lett 34, 455–456 (1998).
[Crossref]

Rantala, J.T.

P. Äyräs, J.T. Rantala, S. Honkanen, S.B. Memdes, and N. Peyghambarian, “Diffraction gratings in sol-gel films by direct contact printing using a UV-mercury lamp,” Opt. Commun. 162, 215–218 (1999).
[Crossref]

Sara, R.

Tohge, N.

Touam, Ti

Vahakangas, J.

J. T. Rantala, R. S. Penner, S. Honkanen, J. Vahakangas, M. Fallahi, and N. Peyghambarian, “Negative-tone Hybrid Sol-Gel Material for Electron-Beam Lithography,” Thin Solid Films 345, 185–187 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. T. Rantala, R. S. Penner, S. Honkanen, J. Vahakangas, M. Fallahi, and N. Peyghambarian, “Sol-Gel Hybrid Glass Diffractive Element by Direct Electron-Beam Exposure,” Electronics Lett 34, 455–456 (1998).
[Crossref]

Yu, W. X.

Yuan, X.-C.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Electronics Lett (1)

J. T. Rantala, R. S. Penner, S. Honkanen, J. Vahakangas, M. Fallahi, and N. Peyghambarian, “Sol-Gel Hybrid Glass Diffractive Element by Direct Electron-Beam Exposure,” Electronics Lett 34, 455–456 (1998).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Opt. Commun. (2)

P. Coudray, P. Etienne, Y. Moreau, J. Porque, and S.I. Najafi, “Sol-gel channel waveguide on silicon: fast direct imprinting and low cost fabrication,” Opt. Commun. 143, 199–202(1997).
[Crossref]

P. Äyräs, J.T. Rantala, S. Honkanen, S.B. Memdes, and N. Peyghambarian, “Diffraction gratings in sol-gel films by direct contact printing using a UV-mercury lamp,” Opt. Commun. 162, 215–218 (1999).
[Crossref]

Opt. Eng. (1)

H.J. Jiang, X.-C. Yuan, Y. C. Chan, and G. L. Ng, “Single-step Fabrication of Surface Relief Diffractive Optical Elements on Hybrid Sol-Gel Glass,” Opt. Eng. 40, 2017–2021 (2001).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (1)

Thin Solid Films (1)

J. T. Rantala, R. S. Penner, S. Honkanen, J. Vahakangas, M. Fallahi, and N. Peyghambarian, “Negative-tone Hybrid Sol-Gel Material for Electron-Beam Lithography,” Thin Solid Films 345, 185–187 (1999).
[Crossref]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Sol-Gel film thickness after development in IPA or acetone and post-baking vs. exposure.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Sol-Gel film thickness after development in IPA vs. exposure for the different photo-inhibitor percentage.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

4μm pitch blazed grating built in the hybrid sol-gel exposed @ 25keV

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