Abstract

The unique dispersive and nonlinear properties of air-silica microstructure fibers lead to supercontinuum generation at modest pulse energies. We report the results of a comprehensive experimental and numerical study of the initial stages of supercontinuum generation. The influence of initial peak power on the development of a Raman soliton is quantified. The role of dispersion on the spectral development within this pre-supercontinuum regime is determined by varying the excitation wavelength near the zero dispersion point. Good agreement is obtained between the experiments and simulations, which reveal that intrapulse Raman scattering and anti-Stokes generation occur for low power and short propagation distance.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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References

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Appl. Opt.

Electron. Lett.

B. R. Washburn, S. E. Ralph, P. A. Lacourt, J. M. Dudley, W. T. Rhodes, R. S. Windeler, and S. Coen, �??Tunable near-infrared femtosecond soliton generation in photonic crystal fibers,�?? Electron. Lett. 37, 1510-1511 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

K. J. Blow and D. Wood, "Theoretical description of transient stimulated Raman scattering in optical fibers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 2665-2673 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. A

N. Akhmediev and M. Karlsson, �??Cherenkov radiation emitted by solitons in optical fibers,�?? Phys. Rev. A 51, 2602-2607 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

J. Herrmann, U. Grebner, N. Zhavoronkov, A. Husakou, D. Nickel, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, P. S. J. Russell, and G. Korn, �??Experimental evidence for supercontinuum generation by fission of higher-order solitons in photonic fibers,�?? Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173901-173903 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic Press, 1995), Chap. 2.

Supplementary Material (3)

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Measured spectra as a function of peak power, P 0, for an input pulse centered at λ0=780 nm. (b) The corresponding simulated spectra as a function of P 0.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(810 kB) Spectral propagation movie of an initial 110 fs sech2 pulse at λ0=780 nm with P 0=440 W, through 1.7 m of ASMF. Each frame is the current spectrum at position z in the fiber.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(802 kB) Temporal propagation movie of an initial 110 fs sech2 pulse at λ0=780 nm with P 0=440 W, through 1.7 m of ASMF. Each frame is the temporal envelope at position z in the fiber.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Measured spectra taken with P 0= 76 W while varying λ0, from 770 nm to 820 nm. The zero GVD wavelength is indicated by the red vertical line. An anti-Stokes component appears as λ0 is decreased to λ ZGVD . (b) Simulated spectra as a function of λ0 for P 0= 76 W.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(808 kB)The propagation of an initial 110 fs sech2 pulse at λ0=806 nm with P 0=440 W, through 1.7 m of ASMF. Each frame is the current spectrum at position z in the fiber.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(a) The wavelength dependence of the anti-Stokes component with varying third-order dispersion β3. The term β3,ASMF represents the actual third-order dispersion coefficient of the ASMF. The anti-Stokes wavelength was red-shifted for increasing β3 while all other β m remain constant. Note also the anti-Stokes component was missing for β3=0 and a new Stokes component is present for β3=-β3,ASMF . (b) Anti-Stokes components for simulations with and without SRS. The top plot shows the spectrum at z=0.30 m while the bottom plot is at z=1.70 m.

Equations (2)

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E z t z = α 2 E Absorption ( m = 2 β m i m 1 m ! m t m ) E + Dispersion
i γ [ ( 1 f R ) ( E 2 E SPM 2 i ω 0 t ( E 2 E ) Self Steepening ) + f R ( 1 + i ω 0 t ) ( E 0 h R ( t ) E ( z , t t ) 2 dt ) SRS ] Nonlinearity

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