Abstract

Z-cut (C-plane), X-cut (M-plane), Y-cut (A-plane) LiNbO3 and LiTaO3 substrates were annealed at high temperature over 1000 °C in air. On all annealed substrates, atomic scale step structures with uniform height were observed, which demonstrates that the surfaces of the substrates become atomically smooth. The step height on Z-cut substrates was 0.25 ± 0.02 nm, which was well accordance with the distance between oxygen layers along the c-axis of the hexagonal unit cell of LiNbO3 and LiTaO3 crystals. The step heights on X-cut and on Y-cut substrates were 0.45 ± 0.04 nm and 0.50 ± 0.05 nm, respectively, which corresponded well with the distances between A-planes and M-planes in the unit cell.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. D. K. Fork, F. Armani-Leplingard, and J. J. Kingston, “Optical losses in ferroelectric oxide thin films,” Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc.,  36, 155–166 (1995).
  2. K. Matsubara, P. Fons, A. Yamada, M. Watanabe, and S. Niki, “Epitaxial growth of ZnO thin films on LiNbO3 substrates,” Thin Solid Films 347, 238–240 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  3. Q. Zhang, S. F. Yoon, S. Zhgoon, B. Gan, J. Ahn, and A. Revkov Rusli, “Study of diamond-like carbon films on LiNbO3,” Thin Solid Films 360, 274–277 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  4. T. Kawaguchi, M. Imaeda, M. Minakata, T. Tanikuchi, and T. Fukuda, “Growth of LiNbO3/LiNb1-xTaxO3 multilayered waveguides on LiNbO3 by liquid phase epitaxy,” J. Crys. Growth 166, 489–492 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  5. R. H. Kim, H. H. Park, and G. T. Joo, “The growth of LiNbO3 (006) om MgO (001) and LiTaO3 (012) substrates by sol-gel procedure,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 169–170, 564(2001).
    [Crossref]
  6. M. Kawasaki, K. Takahashi, T. Maeda, R. Tsuchiya, M. Shinohara, O. Ishiyama, T. Yonezawa, and H. Koinuma, “Atomic surface modification and characterization of SrTiO3 single crystal,” Science 266, 1540–1542 (1994).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. M. Yoshimoto, T. Maeda, T. Ohnishi, H. Koinuma, O. Ishiyama, M. Shinohara, M. Kubo, R. Miura, and A. Miyamoto, “Atomic-scale formation of ultrasmooth surface on sapphire substrates for high-quality thin-film fabrication,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2615–2617 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  8. A. M. Prokhorov and Y. S. Kuz’minov, Physics and Chemistry of Crystalline Lithium Niobate (Adam Hilger, New York, 1990).
  9. D.R. Giese, “Atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy study of MgO(110) surface faceting,” Surf. Sci. 457, 326–336 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  10. J. R. Heffelfinger, M.W. Bench, and C.B. Carter, “Steps and the structure of the (0001) α-alumina surface,” Surf. Sci. 370, L168–172 (1997).
    [Crossref]

2001 (1)

R. H. Kim, H. H. Park, and G. T. Joo, “The growth of LiNbO3 (006) om MgO (001) and LiTaO3 (012) substrates by sol-gel procedure,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 169–170, 564(2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (2)

D.R. Giese, “Atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy study of MgO(110) surface faceting,” Surf. Sci. 457, 326–336 (2000).
[Crossref]

Q. Zhang, S. F. Yoon, S. Zhgoon, B. Gan, J. Ahn, and A. Revkov Rusli, “Study of diamond-like carbon films on LiNbO3,” Thin Solid Films 360, 274–277 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

K. Matsubara, P. Fons, A. Yamada, M. Watanabe, and S. Niki, “Epitaxial growth of ZnO thin films on LiNbO3 substrates,” Thin Solid Films 347, 238–240 (1999).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

J. R. Heffelfinger, M.W. Bench, and C.B. Carter, “Steps and the structure of the (0001) α-alumina surface,” Surf. Sci. 370, L168–172 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

T. Kawaguchi, M. Imaeda, M. Minakata, T. Tanikuchi, and T. Fukuda, “Growth of LiNbO3/LiNb1-xTaxO3 multilayered waveguides on LiNbO3 by liquid phase epitaxy,” J. Crys. Growth 166, 489–492 (1996).
[Crossref]

1995 (2)

D. K. Fork, F. Armani-Leplingard, and J. J. Kingston, “Optical losses in ferroelectric oxide thin films,” Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc.,  36, 155–166 (1995).

M. Yoshimoto, T. Maeda, T. Ohnishi, H. Koinuma, O. Ishiyama, M. Shinohara, M. Kubo, R. Miura, and A. Miyamoto, “Atomic-scale formation of ultrasmooth surface on sapphire substrates for high-quality thin-film fabrication,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2615–2617 (1995).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

M. Kawasaki, K. Takahashi, T. Maeda, R. Tsuchiya, M. Shinohara, O. Ishiyama, T. Yonezawa, and H. Koinuma, “Atomic surface modification and characterization of SrTiO3 single crystal,” Science 266, 1540–1542 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ahn, J.

Q. Zhang, S. F. Yoon, S. Zhgoon, B. Gan, J. Ahn, and A. Revkov Rusli, “Study of diamond-like carbon films on LiNbO3,” Thin Solid Films 360, 274–277 (2000).
[Crossref]

Armani-Leplingard, F.

D. K. Fork, F. Armani-Leplingard, and J. J. Kingston, “Optical losses in ferroelectric oxide thin films,” Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc.,  36, 155–166 (1995).

Bench, M.W.

J. R. Heffelfinger, M.W. Bench, and C.B. Carter, “Steps and the structure of the (0001) α-alumina surface,” Surf. Sci. 370, L168–172 (1997).
[Crossref]

Carter, C.B.

J. R. Heffelfinger, M.W. Bench, and C.B. Carter, “Steps and the structure of the (0001) α-alumina surface,” Surf. Sci. 370, L168–172 (1997).
[Crossref]

Fons, P.

K. Matsubara, P. Fons, A. Yamada, M. Watanabe, and S. Niki, “Epitaxial growth of ZnO thin films on LiNbO3 substrates,” Thin Solid Films 347, 238–240 (1999).
[Crossref]

Fork, D. K.

D. K. Fork, F. Armani-Leplingard, and J. J. Kingston, “Optical losses in ferroelectric oxide thin films,” Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc.,  36, 155–166 (1995).

Fukuda, T.

T. Kawaguchi, M. Imaeda, M. Minakata, T. Tanikuchi, and T. Fukuda, “Growth of LiNbO3/LiNb1-xTaxO3 multilayered waveguides on LiNbO3 by liquid phase epitaxy,” J. Crys. Growth 166, 489–492 (1996).
[Crossref]

Gan, B.

Q. Zhang, S. F. Yoon, S. Zhgoon, B. Gan, J. Ahn, and A. Revkov Rusli, “Study of diamond-like carbon films on LiNbO3,” Thin Solid Films 360, 274–277 (2000).
[Crossref]

Giese, D.R.

D.R. Giese, “Atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy study of MgO(110) surface faceting,” Surf. Sci. 457, 326–336 (2000).
[Crossref]

Heffelfinger, J. R.

J. R. Heffelfinger, M.W. Bench, and C.B. Carter, “Steps and the structure of the (0001) α-alumina surface,” Surf. Sci. 370, L168–172 (1997).
[Crossref]

Imaeda, M.

T. Kawaguchi, M. Imaeda, M. Minakata, T. Tanikuchi, and T. Fukuda, “Growth of LiNbO3/LiNb1-xTaxO3 multilayered waveguides on LiNbO3 by liquid phase epitaxy,” J. Crys. Growth 166, 489–492 (1996).
[Crossref]

Ishiyama, O.

M. Yoshimoto, T. Maeda, T. Ohnishi, H. Koinuma, O. Ishiyama, M. Shinohara, M. Kubo, R. Miura, and A. Miyamoto, “Atomic-scale formation of ultrasmooth surface on sapphire substrates for high-quality thin-film fabrication,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2615–2617 (1995).
[Crossref]

M. Kawasaki, K. Takahashi, T. Maeda, R. Tsuchiya, M. Shinohara, O. Ishiyama, T. Yonezawa, and H. Koinuma, “Atomic surface modification and characterization of SrTiO3 single crystal,” Science 266, 1540–1542 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Joo, G. T.

R. H. Kim, H. H. Park, and G. T. Joo, “The growth of LiNbO3 (006) om MgO (001) and LiTaO3 (012) substrates by sol-gel procedure,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 169–170, 564(2001).
[Crossref]

Kawaguchi, T.

T. Kawaguchi, M. Imaeda, M. Minakata, T. Tanikuchi, and T. Fukuda, “Growth of LiNbO3/LiNb1-xTaxO3 multilayered waveguides on LiNbO3 by liquid phase epitaxy,” J. Crys. Growth 166, 489–492 (1996).
[Crossref]

Kawasaki, M.

M. Kawasaki, K. Takahashi, T. Maeda, R. Tsuchiya, M. Shinohara, O. Ishiyama, T. Yonezawa, and H. Koinuma, “Atomic surface modification and characterization of SrTiO3 single crystal,” Science 266, 1540–1542 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, R. H.

R. H. Kim, H. H. Park, and G. T. Joo, “The growth of LiNbO3 (006) om MgO (001) and LiTaO3 (012) substrates by sol-gel procedure,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 169–170, 564(2001).
[Crossref]

Kingston, J. J.

D. K. Fork, F. Armani-Leplingard, and J. J. Kingston, “Optical losses in ferroelectric oxide thin films,” Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc.,  36, 155–166 (1995).

Koinuma, H.

M. Yoshimoto, T. Maeda, T. Ohnishi, H. Koinuma, O. Ishiyama, M. Shinohara, M. Kubo, R. Miura, and A. Miyamoto, “Atomic-scale formation of ultrasmooth surface on sapphire substrates for high-quality thin-film fabrication,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2615–2617 (1995).
[Crossref]

M. Kawasaki, K. Takahashi, T. Maeda, R. Tsuchiya, M. Shinohara, O. Ishiyama, T. Yonezawa, and H. Koinuma, “Atomic surface modification and characterization of SrTiO3 single crystal,” Science 266, 1540–1542 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kubo, M.

M. Yoshimoto, T. Maeda, T. Ohnishi, H. Koinuma, O. Ishiyama, M. Shinohara, M. Kubo, R. Miura, and A. Miyamoto, “Atomic-scale formation of ultrasmooth surface on sapphire substrates for high-quality thin-film fabrication,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2615–2617 (1995).
[Crossref]

Kuz’minov, Y. S.

A. M. Prokhorov and Y. S. Kuz’minov, Physics and Chemistry of Crystalline Lithium Niobate (Adam Hilger, New York, 1990).

Maeda, T.

M. Yoshimoto, T. Maeda, T. Ohnishi, H. Koinuma, O. Ishiyama, M. Shinohara, M. Kubo, R. Miura, and A. Miyamoto, “Atomic-scale formation of ultrasmooth surface on sapphire substrates for high-quality thin-film fabrication,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2615–2617 (1995).
[Crossref]

M. Kawasaki, K. Takahashi, T. Maeda, R. Tsuchiya, M. Shinohara, O. Ishiyama, T. Yonezawa, and H. Koinuma, “Atomic surface modification and characterization of SrTiO3 single crystal,” Science 266, 1540–1542 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Matsubara, K.

K. Matsubara, P. Fons, A. Yamada, M. Watanabe, and S. Niki, “Epitaxial growth of ZnO thin films on LiNbO3 substrates,” Thin Solid Films 347, 238–240 (1999).
[Crossref]

Minakata, M.

T. Kawaguchi, M. Imaeda, M. Minakata, T. Tanikuchi, and T. Fukuda, “Growth of LiNbO3/LiNb1-xTaxO3 multilayered waveguides on LiNbO3 by liquid phase epitaxy,” J. Crys. Growth 166, 489–492 (1996).
[Crossref]

Miura, R.

M. Yoshimoto, T. Maeda, T. Ohnishi, H. Koinuma, O. Ishiyama, M. Shinohara, M. Kubo, R. Miura, and A. Miyamoto, “Atomic-scale formation of ultrasmooth surface on sapphire substrates for high-quality thin-film fabrication,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2615–2617 (1995).
[Crossref]

Miyamoto, A.

M. Yoshimoto, T. Maeda, T. Ohnishi, H. Koinuma, O. Ishiyama, M. Shinohara, M. Kubo, R. Miura, and A. Miyamoto, “Atomic-scale formation of ultrasmooth surface on sapphire substrates for high-quality thin-film fabrication,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2615–2617 (1995).
[Crossref]

Niki, S.

K. Matsubara, P. Fons, A. Yamada, M. Watanabe, and S. Niki, “Epitaxial growth of ZnO thin films on LiNbO3 substrates,” Thin Solid Films 347, 238–240 (1999).
[Crossref]

Ohnishi, T.

M. Yoshimoto, T. Maeda, T. Ohnishi, H. Koinuma, O. Ishiyama, M. Shinohara, M. Kubo, R. Miura, and A. Miyamoto, “Atomic-scale formation of ultrasmooth surface on sapphire substrates for high-quality thin-film fabrication,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2615–2617 (1995).
[Crossref]

Park, H. H.

R. H. Kim, H. H. Park, and G. T. Joo, “The growth of LiNbO3 (006) om MgO (001) and LiTaO3 (012) substrates by sol-gel procedure,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 169–170, 564(2001).
[Crossref]

Prokhorov, A. M.

A. M. Prokhorov and Y. S. Kuz’minov, Physics and Chemistry of Crystalline Lithium Niobate (Adam Hilger, New York, 1990).

Revkov Rusli, A.

Q. Zhang, S. F. Yoon, S. Zhgoon, B. Gan, J. Ahn, and A. Revkov Rusli, “Study of diamond-like carbon films on LiNbO3,” Thin Solid Films 360, 274–277 (2000).
[Crossref]

Shinohara, M.

M. Yoshimoto, T. Maeda, T. Ohnishi, H. Koinuma, O. Ishiyama, M. Shinohara, M. Kubo, R. Miura, and A. Miyamoto, “Atomic-scale formation of ultrasmooth surface on sapphire substrates for high-quality thin-film fabrication,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2615–2617 (1995).
[Crossref]

M. Kawasaki, K. Takahashi, T. Maeda, R. Tsuchiya, M. Shinohara, O. Ishiyama, T. Yonezawa, and H. Koinuma, “Atomic surface modification and characterization of SrTiO3 single crystal,” Science 266, 1540–1542 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Takahashi, K.

M. Kawasaki, K. Takahashi, T. Maeda, R. Tsuchiya, M. Shinohara, O. Ishiyama, T. Yonezawa, and H. Koinuma, “Atomic surface modification and characterization of SrTiO3 single crystal,” Science 266, 1540–1542 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tanikuchi, T.

T. Kawaguchi, M. Imaeda, M. Minakata, T. Tanikuchi, and T. Fukuda, “Growth of LiNbO3/LiNb1-xTaxO3 multilayered waveguides on LiNbO3 by liquid phase epitaxy,” J. Crys. Growth 166, 489–492 (1996).
[Crossref]

Tsuchiya, R.

M. Kawasaki, K. Takahashi, T. Maeda, R. Tsuchiya, M. Shinohara, O. Ishiyama, T. Yonezawa, and H. Koinuma, “Atomic surface modification and characterization of SrTiO3 single crystal,” Science 266, 1540–1542 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Watanabe, M.

K. Matsubara, P. Fons, A. Yamada, M. Watanabe, and S. Niki, “Epitaxial growth of ZnO thin films on LiNbO3 substrates,” Thin Solid Films 347, 238–240 (1999).
[Crossref]

Yamada, A.

K. Matsubara, P. Fons, A. Yamada, M. Watanabe, and S. Niki, “Epitaxial growth of ZnO thin films on LiNbO3 substrates,” Thin Solid Films 347, 238–240 (1999).
[Crossref]

Yonezawa, T.

M. Kawasaki, K. Takahashi, T. Maeda, R. Tsuchiya, M. Shinohara, O. Ishiyama, T. Yonezawa, and H. Koinuma, “Atomic surface modification and characterization of SrTiO3 single crystal,” Science 266, 1540–1542 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yoon, S. F.

Q. Zhang, S. F. Yoon, S. Zhgoon, B. Gan, J. Ahn, and A. Revkov Rusli, “Study of diamond-like carbon films on LiNbO3,” Thin Solid Films 360, 274–277 (2000).
[Crossref]

Yoshimoto, M.

M. Yoshimoto, T. Maeda, T. Ohnishi, H. Koinuma, O. Ishiyama, M. Shinohara, M. Kubo, R. Miura, and A. Miyamoto, “Atomic-scale formation of ultrasmooth surface on sapphire substrates for high-quality thin-film fabrication,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2615–2617 (1995).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Q.

Q. Zhang, S. F. Yoon, S. Zhgoon, B. Gan, J. Ahn, and A. Revkov Rusli, “Study of diamond-like carbon films on LiNbO3,” Thin Solid Films 360, 274–277 (2000).
[Crossref]

Zhgoon, S.

Q. Zhang, S. F. Yoon, S. Zhgoon, B. Gan, J. Ahn, and A. Revkov Rusli, “Study of diamond-like carbon films on LiNbO3,” Thin Solid Films 360, 274–277 (2000).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

M. Yoshimoto, T. Maeda, T. Ohnishi, H. Koinuma, O. Ishiyama, M. Shinohara, M. Kubo, R. Miura, and A. Miyamoto, “Atomic-scale formation of ultrasmooth surface on sapphire substrates for high-quality thin-film fabrication,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2615–2617 (1995).
[Crossref]

Appl. Surf. Sci. (1)

R. H. Kim, H. H. Park, and G. T. Joo, “The growth of LiNbO3 (006) om MgO (001) and LiTaO3 (012) substrates by sol-gel procedure,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 169–170, 564(2001).
[Crossref]

J. Crys. Growth (1)

T. Kawaguchi, M. Imaeda, M. Minakata, T. Tanikuchi, and T. Fukuda, “Growth of LiNbO3/LiNb1-xTaxO3 multilayered waveguides on LiNbO3 by liquid phase epitaxy,” J. Crys. Growth 166, 489–492 (1996).
[Crossref]

Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. (1)

D. K. Fork, F. Armani-Leplingard, and J. J. Kingston, “Optical losses in ferroelectric oxide thin films,” Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc.,  36, 155–166 (1995).

Science (1)

M. Kawasaki, K. Takahashi, T. Maeda, R. Tsuchiya, M. Shinohara, O. Ishiyama, T. Yonezawa, and H. Koinuma, “Atomic surface modification and characterization of SrTiO3 single crystal,” Science 266, 1540–1542 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Surf. Sci. (2)

D.R. Giese, “Atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy study of MgO(110) surface faceting,” Surf. Sci. 457, 326–336 (2000).
[Crossref]

J. R. Heffelfinger, M.W. Bench, and C.B. Carter, “Steps and the structure of the (0001) α-alumina surface,” Surf. Sci. 370, L168–172 (1997).
[Crossref]

Thin Solid Films (2)

K. Matsubara, P. Fons, A. Yamada, M. Watanabe, and S. Niki, “Epitaxial growth of ZnO thin films on LiNbO3 substrates,” Thin Solid Films 347, 238–240 (1999).
[Crossref]

Q. Zhang, S. F. Yoon, S. Zhgoon, B. Gan, J. Ahn, and A. Revkov Rusli, “Study of diamond-like carbon films on LiNbO3,” Thin Solid Films 360, 274–277 (2000).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

A. M. Prokhorov and Y. S. Kuz’minov, Physics and Chemistry of Crystalline Lithium Niobate (Adam Hilger, New York, 1990).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

AFM image and the cross sectional profile of the surface on as-supplied Z-cut LiNbO3 substrate.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Surface images and the cross sectional profiles of (a) Z-cut, (b) X-cut, and (c) Y-cut LiNbO3 substrates annealed at 1000°C for 5hr in air.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Surface images of (a) Z-cut, (b) X-cut, and (c) Y-cut LiTaO3 substrates annealed at 1000°C for 5hr in air.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Schematic diagrams of (a) the packed sequence of atoms along c-axis direction, indicatimg the spacing of 0.231 nm between the flat oxygen triple layers, (b) the ideal arrangement of the atoms on the (0001) basal plane in unit cell of LiNbO3 and LiTaO3 crystals.

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