Abstract

This paper presents fabrication and characterization of ridge waveguide InGaAs/InGaAsP/InP lasers with an operating wavelength of 1.5µm using reactive ion etching (RIE), chemically assisted ion beam etching (CAIBE) and wet etching techniques. Characterization results of the lasers with 2μm-wide waveguides are given of the two etching methods comparatively using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), L-I-V (Light-current-voltage) and spectral measurement techniques. Additionally, a comparison of wet and RIE etched lasers with 20μm-wide waveguide is also discussed. Highly smooth (2.1±0.4nm rms surface roughness) and vertical (~90°) structures are obtained using RIE, in which the 2μm-wide fabricated devices exhibit better performance over the CAIBE etched ones.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. D. E. Ibbotson and D. L. Flamm, �??Plasma etching for III-V compound devices.2,�?? Solid State Tech. 31, 105 (1988).
  2. J. W. Lee, J. Hong, C. R. Abernathy, E. S. Lambers, S. J. Pearton, W. S. Hobson and F. Ren, �??Cl2/Ar plasma etching of binary, ternary, and quaternary In- based compound semiconductors,�?? J. Vac. Sci. Tech. B 14, 2567-2573C (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. Allen and P. Silverberg, �??Methane-hydrogen III-V metal-organic reactive ion etching,�?? Semiconductor Sci. Tech. 6, 287-289 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  4. C. S.Whelan, T. E. Kazior andK. Y. Hur, �??High rate CH4:H2 plasma etch processes for InP,�?? J. Vac. Sci. Tech. B 15, 1728-1732 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  5. Y. Yuba, K. Gamo, H. Toba, X. G. He and S. Namba, �??Ion beametching of InP. I. Ar ion beametching and fabrication of grating for integrated circuits,�?? Jap. J. of Appl. Phys. 22, 1206-1210 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  6. R. A. Mikhnev, S. K. Shtandel, M. I. Martynov and E. D. Olshanskii, �??How ion-beam etching affects the surface quality of optical articles,�?? J. of Optical Technology 66, 1032-1034 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  7. W. Katzschner, U. Niggebrugge, R. Lofflerr and H. Schroter-Janssen, �??Reactive ion beam etching of InP with N2 and N2/O2 mixtures,�?? Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 230-232 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  8. F. Frost, A. Schindler and F. Bigl, �??Reactive ion beam etching of InSb and InAs with ultrasmooth surfaces,�?? Semiconductor Science and Tech. 13, 523-527 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. Daleiden, K. Czotscher, C. Hoffmann, R. Kiefer, S. Klussmann, S.Muller, A. Nutsch, W. Pletschen, S. Weisser, G. Trankle, J. Braunstein and G. Weimann, �??Sidewall slope control of chemically assisted ionbeam etched structures in InP-based materials,�?? J. Vac. Sci. Tech. B 16, 1864-1866 (1998)
    [CrossRef]
  10. G. Vollrath, A. Schlachetzki and F. Fiedler, �??Ion-beam milling of InGaAsP alloys with N2/O2-mixtures,�?? Jap. J. of Appl. Phys. Part 1-Regular Papers Short Notes & Review Papers 37, 1715-1720 (1998)
  11. J. E. Schramm, D. I. Babic, E. L. Hu, J. E. Bowers and J. L. Merz, �??Fabrication of high-aspect-ratio InPbased vertical-cavity laser mirrors using CH4/H2/O2/Ar reactive ion etching,�?? J. Vac. Sci. Tech. B 15, 2031-2036 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  12. N. Nunoya, M. Makamura, M. Morshed, S. Tamura and S. Arai, �??High-performance 1.55m wavelength GaInAsP-InP distributed-feedback lasers with wirelike active regions,�?? IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 249-258 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  13. C. S. Sundararaman, H. Lafontaine, S. Poulin, A. Mouton and J. F. Currie, �??Reactive sputtering of InP in N2 and N2 /O2 plasmas,�?? J. Vac. Sci. Tech. B 9, 1433-1439 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  14. C. F. Calstrom, G. Landgren and S. Anand, �??Low energy ion beam etching of InP using methane chemistry,�?? J. Vac. Sci. Tech. B 16, 1018-1023 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  15. B. Cakmak and I. H. White, �??Ion beam and chemically assisted ion beam etching of InP with anisotropic and smooth structures,�?? Semicond. Sci. Technol. 16, 139-146 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  16. S. Yu, P. Heard, B. Cakmak, R. V. Penty and I.H. White, �??Surface diagnostics of dry etched III-V semiconductor samples using focused ion beam and secondary ion mass spectrometry (FIB-SIMS),�?? J. Vac. Sci. Tech. B 17, 3080-3084 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  17. W. Katzschner, A. Steckenborn, R. Loffler and N. Grote, �??Ion beam milling of InP with an Ar/O2 �??gas mixture,�?? Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 352-354 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  18. J. Gowar, Optical communication systems (Prentice Hall International Ltd., Hertfordshire U.K, 1993), Chap. 19.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

W. Katzschner, U. Niggebrugge, R. Lofflerr and H. Schroter-Janssen, �??Reactive ion beam etching of InP with N2 and N2/O2 mixtures,�?? Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 230-232 (1986).
[CrossRef]

W. Katzschner, A. Steckenborn, R. Loffler and N. Grote, �??Ion beam milling of InP with an Ar/O2 �??gas mixture,�?? Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 352-354 (1984).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

N. Nunoya, M. Makamura, M. Morshed, S. Tamura and S. Arai, �??High-performance 1.55m wavelength GaInAsP-InP distributed-feedback lasers with wirelike active regions,�?? IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 249-258 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. of Optical Technology

R. A. Mikhnev, S. K. Shtandel, M. I. Martynov and E. D. Olshanskii, �??How ion-beam etching affects the surface quality of optical articles,�?? J. of Optical Technology 66, 1032-1034 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Tech. B

J. W. Lee, J. Hong, C. R. Abernathy, E. S. Lambers, S. J. Pearton, W. S. Hobson and F. Ren, �??Cl2/Ar plasma etching of binary, ternary, and quaternary In- based compound semiconductors,�?? J. Vac. Sci. Tech. B 14, 2567-2573C (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. S.Whelan, T. E. Kazior andK. Y. Hur, �??High rate CH4:H2 plasma etch processes for InP,�?? J. Vac. Sci. Tech. B 15, 1728-1732 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Sundararaman, H. Lafontaine, S. Poulin, A. Mouton and J. F. Currie, �??Reactive sputtering of InP in N2 and N2 /O2 plasmas,�?? J. Vac. Sci. Tech. B 9, 1433-1439 (1991).
[CrossRef]

C. F. Calstrom, G. Landgren and S. Anand, �??Low energy ion beam etching of InP using methane chemistry,�?? J. Vac. Sci. Tech. B 16, 1018-1023 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Daleiden, K. Czotscher, C. Hoffmann, R. Kiefer, S. Klussmann, S.Muller, A. Nutsch, W. Pletschen, S. Weisser, G. Trankle, J. Braunstein and G. Weimann, �??Sidewall slope control of chemically assisted ionbeam etched structures in InP-based materials,�?? J. Vac. Sci. Tech. B 16, 1864-1866 (1998)
[CrossRef]

J. E. Schramm, D. I. Babic, E. L. Hu, J. E. Bowers and J. L. Merz, �??Fabrication of high-aspect-ratio InPbased vertical-cavity laser mirrors using CH4/H2/O2/Ar reactive ion etching,�?? J. Vac. Sci. Tech. B 15, 2031-2036 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Yu, P. Heard, B. Cakmak, R. V. Penty and I.H. White, �??Surface diagnostics of dry etched III-V semiconductor samples using focused ion beam and secondary ion mass spectrometry (FIB-SIMS),�?? J. Vac. Sci. Tech. B 17, 3080-3084 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jap. J. of Appl. Phys.

G. Vollrath, A. Schlachetzki and F. Fiedler, �??Ion-beam milling of InGaAsP alloys with N2/O2-mixtures,�?? Jap. J. of Appl. Phys. Part 1-Regular Papers Short Notes & Review Papers 37, 1715-1720 (1998)

Y. Yuba, K. Gamo, H. Toba, X. G. He and S. Namba, �??Ion beametching of InP. I. Ar ion beametching and fabrication of grating for integrated circuits,�?? Jap. J. of Appl. Phys. 22, 1206-1210 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Semicond. Sci. Technol.

B. Cakmak and I. H. White, �??Ion beam and chemically assisted ion beam etching of InP with anisotropic and smooth structures,�?? Semicond. Sci. Technol. 16, 139-146 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Semiconductor Sci. Tech.

S. Allen and P. Silverberg, �??Methane-hydrogen III-V metal-organic reactive ion etching,�?? Semiconductor Sci. Tech. 6, 287-289 (1991).
[CrossRef]

F. Frost, A. Schindler and F. Bigl, �??Reactive ion beam etching of InSb and InAs with ultrasmooth surfaces,�?? Semiconductor Science and Tech. 13, 523-527 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Solid State Tech.

D. E. Ibbotson and D. L. Flamm, �??Plasma etching for III-V compound devices.2,�?? Solid State Tech. 31, 105 (1988).

Other

J. Gowar, Optical communication systems (Prentice Hall International Ltd., Hertfordshire U.K, 1993), Chap. 19.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Surface/sidewall structure, (b) AFM measurement, and (c) etch profile of the RIE etched lasers

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Surface/sidewall structure, (b) AFM measurement, and (c) etch profile of the CAIBE etched lasers

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

L-I-V characteristics of 2μm wide and 400μm long (a) RIE and (b) CAIBE etched lasers, and (c) spectral characteristic for both

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Optimized parameters during RIE and CAIBE etching of InGaAs/InGaAsP/InP

Tables Icon

Table 2. Material parameters of wet and RIE etched InGaAs/InGaAsP/InP lasers with 20μm width and 400μm length

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