Abstract

This paper presents fabrication and characterization of ridge waveguide InGaAs/InGaAsP/InP lasers with an operating wavelength of 1.5µm using reactive ion etching (RIE), chemically assisted ion beam etching (CAIBE) and wet etching techniques. Characterization results of the lasers with 2μm-wide waveguides are given of the two etching methods comparatively using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), L-I-V (Light-current-voltage) and spectral measurement techniques. Additionally, a comparison of wet and RIE etched lasers with 20μm-wide waveguide is also discussed. Highly smooth (2.1±0.4nm rms surface roughness) and vertical (~90°) structures are obtained using RIE, in which the 2μm-wide fabricated devices exhibit better performance over the CAIBE etched ones.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. E. Ibbotson and D. L. Flamm, “Plasma etching for III-V compound devices.2,” Solid State Tech. 31, 105 (1988).
  2. J. W. Lee, J. Hong, C. R. Abernathy, E. S. Lambers, S. J. Pearton, W. S. Hobson, and F. Ren, “Cl2/Ar plasma etching of binary, ternary, and quaternary In- based compound semiconductors,” J. Vac. Sci. Tech. B 14, 2567–2573C (1996).
    [Crossref]
  3. S. Allen and P. Silverberg, “Methane-hydrogen III-V metal-organic reactive ion etching,” Semiconductor Sci. Tech. 6, 287–289 (1991).
    [Crossref]
  4. C. S. Whelan, T. E. Kazior, and K. Y. Hur, “High rate CH4:H2 plasma etch processes for InP,” J. Vac. Sci. Tech. B 15, 1728–1732 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  5. Y. Yuba, K. Gamo, H. Toba, X. G. He, and S. Namba, “Ion beam etching of InP. I. Ar ion beam etching and fabrication of grating for integrated circuits,” Jap. J. of Appl. Phys. 22, 1206–1210 (1983).
    [Crossref]
  6. R. A. Mikhnev, S. K. Shtandel, M. I. Martynov, and E. D. Olshanskii, “How ion-beam etching affects the surface quality of optical articles,” J. of Optical Technology 66, 1032–1034 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  7. W. Katzschner, U. Niggebrugge, R. Lofflerr, and H. Schroter-Janssen, “Reactive ion beam etching of InP with N2 and N2/O2 mixtures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 230–232 (1986).
    [Crossref]
  8. F. Frost, A. Schindler, and F. Bigl, “Reactive ion beam etching of InSb and InAs with ultrasmooth surfaces”, Semiconductor Science and Tech. 13, 523–527 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  9. J. Daleiden, K. Czotscher, C. Hoffmann, R. Kiefer, S. Klussmann, S. Muller, A. Nutsch, W. Pletschen, S. Weisser, G. Trankle, J. Braunstein, and G. Weimann, “Sidewall slope control of chemically assisted ion-beam etched structures in InP-based materials,” J. Vac. Sci. Tech. B 16, 1864–1866 (1998)
    [Crossref]
  10. G. Vollrath, A. Schlachetzki, and F. Fiedler, “Ion-beam milling of InGaAsP alloys with N2/O2-mixtures,” Jap. J. of Appl. Phys. Part 1-Regular Papers Short Notes & Review Papers,  37, 1715–1720 (1998)
  11. J. E. Schramm, D. I. Babic, E. L. Hu, J. E. Bowers, and J. L. Merz, “Fabrication of high-aspect-ratio InP-based vertical-cavity laser mirrors using CH4/H2/O2/Ar reactive ion etching,” J. Vac. Sci. Tech. B 15, 2031–2036 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  12. N. Nunoya, M. Makamura, M. Morshed, S. Tamura, and S. Arai, “High-performance 1.55μm wavelength GaInAsP-InP distributed-feedback lasers with wirelike active regions,” IEEE J. Selected Topics in Q. Elec 7, 249–258 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  13. C. S. Sundararaman, H. Lafontaine, S. Poulin, A. Mouton, and J. F. Currie, “Reactive sputtering of InP in N2and N2/O2 plasmas,” J. Vac. Sci. Tech. B 9, 1433–1439 (1991).
    [Crossref]
  14. C. F. Calstrom, G. Landgren, and S. Anand, “Low energy ion beam etching of InP using methane chemistry,” J. Vac. Sci. Tech. B 16, 1018–1023 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  15. B. Cakmak and I. H. White, “Ion beam and chemically assisted ion beam etching of InP with anisotropic and smooth structures,” Semicond. Sci. Technol 16, 139–146 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  16. S. Yu, P. Heard, B. Cakmak, R. V. Penty, and I.H. White, “Surface diagnostics of dry etched III-V semiconductor samples using focused ion beam and secondary ion mass spectrometry (FIB-SIMS),” J. Vac. Sci. Tech. B 17, 3080–3084 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  17. W. Katzschner, A. Steckenborn, R. Loffler, and N. Grote, “Ion beam milling of InP with an Ar/O2 -gasmixture,” Appl. Phys. Lett 44, 352–354 (1984).
    [Crossref]
  18. J. Gowar, Optical communication systems (Prentice Hall International Ltd., Hertfordshire U.K,1993), Chap. 19.

2001 (2)

N. Nunoya, M. Makamura, M. Morshed, S. Tamura, and S. Arai, “High-performance 1.55μm wavelength GaInAsP-InP distributed-feedback lasers with wirelike active regions,” IEEE J. Selected Topics in Q. Elec 7, 249–258 (2001).
[Crossref]

B. Cakmak and I. H. White, “Ion beam and chemically assisted ion beam etching of InP with anisotropic and smooth structures,” Semicond. Sci. Technol 16, 139–146 (2001).
[Crossref]

1999 (2)

S. Yu, P. Heard, B. Cakmak, R. V. Penty, and I.H. White, “Surface diagnostics of dry etched III-V semiconductor samples using focused ion beam and secondary ion mass spectrometry (FIB-SIMS),” J. Vac. Sci. Tech. B 17, 3080–3084 (1999).
[Crossref]

R. A. Mikhnev, S. K. Shtandel, M. I. Martynov, and E. D. Olshanskii, “How ion-beam etching affects the surface quality of optical articles,” J. of Optical Technology 66, 1032–1034 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (4)

C. F. Calstrom, G. Landgren, and S. Anand, “Low energy ion beam etching of InP using methane chemistry,” J. Vac. Sci. Tech. B 16, 1018–1023 (1998).
[Crossref]

F. Frost, A. Schindler, and F. Bigl, “Reactive ion beam etching of InSb and InAs with ultrasmooth surfaces”, Semiconductor Science and Tech. 13, 523–527 (1998).
[Crossref]

J. Daleiden, K. Czotscher, C. Hoffmann, R. Kiefer, S. Klussmann, S. Muller, A. Nutsch, W. Pletschen, S. Weisser, G. Trankle, J. Braunstein, and G. Weimann, “Sidewall slope control of chemically assisted ion-beam etched structures in InP-based materials,” J. Vac. Sci. Tech. B 16, 1864–1866 (1998)
[Crossref]

G. Vollrath, A. Schlachetzki, and F. Fiedler, “Ion-beam milling of InGaAsP alloys with N2/O2-mixtures,” Jap. J. of Appl. Phys. Part 1-Regular Papers Short Notes & Review Papers,  37, 1715–1720 (1998)

1997 (2)

J. E. Schramm, D. I. Babic, E. L. Hu, J. E. Bowers, and J. L. Merz, “Fabrication of high-aspect-ratio InP-based vertical-cavity laser mirrors using CH4/H2/O2/Ar reactive ion etching,” J. Vac. Sci. Tech. B 15, 2031–2036 (1997).
[Crossref]

C. S. Whelan, T. E. Kazior, and K. Y. Hur, “High rate CH4:H2 plasma etch processes for InP,” J. Vac. Sci. Tech. B 15, 1728–1732 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

J. W. Lee, J. Hong, C. R. Abernathy, E. S. Lambers, S. J. Pearton, W. S. Hobson, and F. Ren, “Cl2/Ar plasma etching of binary, ternary, and quaternary In- based compound semiconductors,” J. Vac. Sci. Tech. B 14, 2567–2573C (1996).
[Crossref]

1991 (2)

S. Allen and P. Silverberg, “Methane-hydrogen III-V metal-organic reactive ion etching,” Semiconductor Sci. Tech. 6, 287–289 (1991).
[Crossref]

C. S. Sundararaman, H. Lafontaine, S. Poulin, A. Mouton, and J. F. Currie, “Reactive sputtering of InP in N2and N2/O2 plasmas,” J. Vac. Sci. Tech. B 9, 1433–1439 (1991).
[Crossref]

1988 (1)

D. E. Ibbotson and D. L. Flamm, “Plasma etching for III-V compound devices.2,” Solid State Tech. 31, 105 (1988).

1986 (1)

W. Katzschner, U. Niggebrugge, R. Lofflerr, and H. Schroter-Janssen, “Reactive ion beam etching of InP with N2 and N2/O2 mixtures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 230–232 (1986).
[Crossref]

1984 (1)

W. Katzschner, A. Steckenborn, R. Loffler, and N. Grote, “Ion beam milling of InP with an Ar/O2 -gasmixture,” Appl. Phys. Lett 44, 352–354 (1984).
[Crossref]

1983 (1)

Y. Yuba, K. Gamo, H. Toba, X. G. He, and S. Namba, “Ion beam etching of InP. I. Ar ion beam etching and fabrication of grating for integrated circuits,” Jap. J. of Appl. Phys. 22, 1206–1210 (1983).
[Crossref]

Abernathy, C. R.

J. W. Lee, J. Hong, C. R. Abernathy, E. S. Lambers, S. J. Pearton, W. S. Hobson, and F. Ren, “Cl2/Ar plasma etching of binary, ternary, and quaternary In- based compound semiconductors,” J. Vac. Sci. Tech. B 14, 2567–2573C (1996).
[Crossref]

Allen, S.

S. Allen and P. Silverberg, “Methane-hydrogen III-V metal-organic reactive ion etching,” Semiconductor Sci. Tech. 6, 287–289 (1991).
[Crossref]

Anand, S.

C. F. Calstrom, G. Landgren, and S. Anand, “Low energy ion beam etching of InP using methane chemistry,” J. Vac. Sci. Tech. B 16, 1018–1023 (1998).
[Crossref]

Arai, S.

N. Nunoya, M. Makamura, M. Morshed, S. Tamura, and S. Arai, “High-performance 1.55μm wavelength GaInAsP-InP distributed-feedback lasers with wirelike active regions,” IEEE J. Selected Topics in Q. Elec 7, 249–258 (2001).
[Crossref]

Babic, D. I.

J. E. Schramm, D. I. Babic, E. L. Hu, J. E. Bowers, and J. L. Merz, “Fabrication of high-aspect-ratio InP-based vertical-cavity laser mirrors using CH4/H2/O2/Ar reactive ion etching,” J. Vac. Sci. Tech. B 15, 2031–2036 (1997).
[Crossref]

Bigl, F.

F. Frost, A. Schindler, and F. Bigl, “Reactive ion beam etching of InSb and InAs with ultrasmooth surfaces”, Semiconductor Science and Tech. 13, 523–527 (1998).
[Crossref]

Bowers, J. E.

J. E. Schramm, D. I. Babic, E. L. Hu, J. E. Bowers, and J. L. Merz, “Fabrication of high-aspect-ratio InP-based vertical-cavity laser mirrors using CH4/H2/O2/Ar reactive ion etching,” J. Vac. Sci. Tech. B 15, 2031–2036 (1997).
[Crossref]

Braunstein, J.

J. Daleiden, K. Czotscher, C. Hoffmann, R. Kiefer, S. Klussmann, S. Muller, A. Nutsch, W. Pletschen, S. Weisser, G. Trankle, J. Braunstein, and G. Weimann, “Sidewall slope control of chemically assisted ion-beam etched structures in InP-based materials,” J. Vac. Sci. Tech. B 16, 1864–1866 (1998)
[Crossref]

Cakmak, B.

B. Cakmak and I. H. White, “Ion beam and chemically assisted ion beam etching of InP with anisotropic and smooth structures,” Semicond. Sci. Technol 16, 139–146 (2001).
[Crossref]

S. Yu, P. Heard, B. Cakmak, R. V. Penty, and I.H. White, “Surface diagnostics of dry etched III-V semiconductor samples using focused ion beam and secondary ion mass spectrometry (FIB-SIMS),” J. Vac. Sci. Tech. B 17, 3080–3084 (1999).
[Crossref]

Calstrom, C. F.

C. F. Calstrom, G. Landgren, and S. Anand, “Low energy ion beam etching of InP using methane chemistry,” J. Vac. Sci. Tech. B 16, 1018–1023 (1998).
[Crossref]

Currie, J. F.

C. S. Sundararaman, H. Lafontaine, S. Poulin, A. Mouton, and J. F. Currie, “Reactive sputtering of InP in N2and N2/O2 plasmas,” J. Vac. Sci. Tech. B 9, 1433–1439 (1991).
[Crossref]

Czotscher, K.

J. Daleiden, K. Czotscher, C. Hoffmann, R. Kiefer, S. Klussmann, S. Muller, A. Nutsch, W. Pletschen, S. Weisser, G. Trankle, J. Braunstein, and G. Weimann, “Sidewall slope control of chemically assisted ion-beam etched structures in InP-based materials,” J. Vac. Sci. Tech. B 16, 1864–1866 (1998)
[Crossref]

Daleiden, J.

J. Daleiden, K. Czotscher, C. Hoffmann, R. Kiefer, S. Klussmann, S. Muller, A. Nutsch, W. Pletschen, S. Weisser, G. Trankle, J. Braunstein, and G. Weimann, “Sidewall slope control of chemically assisted ion-beam etched structures in InP-based materials,” J. Vac. Sci. Tech. B 16, 1864–1866 (1998)
[Crossref]

Fiedler, F.

G. Vollrath, A. Schlachetzki, and F. Fiedler, “Ion-beam milling of InGaAsP alloys with N2/O2-mixtures,” Jap. J. of Appl. Phys. Part 1-Regular Papers Short Notes & Review Papers,  37, 1715–1720 (1998)

Flamm, D. L.

D. E. Ibbotson and D. L. Flamm, “Plasma etching for III-V compound devices.2,” Solid State Tech. 31, 105 (1988).

Frost, F.

F. Frost, A. Schindler, and F. Bigl, “Reactive ion beam etching of InSb and InAs with ultrasmooth surfaces”, Semiconductor Science and Tech. 13, 523–527 (1998).
[Crossref]

Gamo, K.

Y. Yuba, K. Gamo, H. Toba, X. G. He, and S. Namba, “Ion beam etching of InP. I. Ar ion beam etching and fabrication of grating for integrated circuits,” Jap. J. of Appl. Phys. 22, 1206–1210 (1983).
[Crossref]

Gowar, J.

J. Gowar, Optical communication systems (Prentice Hall International Ltd., Hertfordshire U.K,1993), Chap. 19.

Grote, N.

W. Katzschner, A. Steckenborn, R. Loffler, and N. Grote, “Ion beam milling of InP with an Ar/O2 -gasmixture,” Appl. Phys. Lett 44, 352–354 (1984).
[Crossref]

He, X. G.

Y. Yuba, K. Gamo, H. Toba, X. G. He, and S. Namba, “Ion beam etching of InP. I. Ar ion beam etching and fabrication of grating for integrated circuits,” Jap. J. of Appl. Phys. 22, 1206–1210 (1983).
[Crossref]

Heard, P.

S. Yu, P. Heard, B. Cakmak, R. V. Penty, and I.H. White, “Surface diagnostics of dry etched III-V semiconductor samples using focused ion beam and secondary ion mass spectrometry (FIB-SIMS),” J. Vac. Sci. Tech. B 17, 3080–3084 (1999).
[Crossref]

Hobson, W. S.

J. W. Lee, J. Hong, C. R. Abernathy, E. S. Lambers, S. J. Pearton, W. S. Hobson, and F. Ren, “Cl2/Ar plasma etching of binary, ternary, and quaternary In- based compound semiconductors,” J. Vac. Sci. Tech. B 14, 2567–2573C (1996).
[Crossref]

Hoffmann, C.

J. Daleiden, K. Czotscher, C. Hoffmann, R. Kiefer, S. Klussmann, S. Muller, A. Nutsch, W. Pletschen, S. Weisser, G. Trankle, J. Braunstein, and G. Weimann, “Sidewall slope control of chemically assisted ion-beam etched structures in InP-based materials,” J. Vac. Sci. Tech. B 16, 1864–1866 (1998)
[Crossref]

Hong, J.

J. W. Lee, J. Hong, C. R. Abernathy, E. S. Lambers, S. J. Pearton, W. S. Hobson, and F. Ren, “Cl2/Ar plasma etching of binary, ternary, and quaternary In- based compound semiconductors,” J. Vac. Sci. Tech. B 14, 2567–2573C (1996).
[Crossref]

Hu, E. L.

J. E. Schramm, D. I. Babic, E. L. Hu, J. E. Bowers, and J. L. Merz, “Fabrication of high-aspect-ratio InP-based vertical-cavity laser mirrors using CH4/H2/O2/Ar reactive ion etching,” J. Vac. Sci. Tech. B 15, 2031–2036 (1997).
[Crossref]

Hur, K. Y.

C. S. Whelan, T. E. Kazior, and K. Y. Hur, “High rate CH4:H2 plasma etch processes for InP,” J. Vac. Sci. Tech. B 15, 1728–1732 (1997).
[Crossref]

Ibbotson, D. E.

D. E. Ibbotson and D. L. Flamm, “Plasma etching for III-V compound devices.2,” Solid State Tech. 31, 105 (1988).

Katzschner, W.

W. Katzschner, U. Niggebrugge, R. Lofflerr, and H. Schroter-Janssen, “Reactive ion beam etching of InP with N2 and N2/O2 mixtures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 230–232 (1986).
[Crossref]

W. Katzschner, A. Steckenborn, R. Loffler, and N. Grote, “Ion beam milling of InP with an Ar/O2 -gasmixture,” Appl. Phys. Lett 44, 352–354 (1984).
[Crossref]

Kazior, T. E.

C. S. Whelan, T. E. Kazior, and K. Y. Hur, “High rate CH4:H2 plasma etch processes for InP,” J. Vac. Sci. Tech. B 15, 1728–1732 (1997).
[Crossref]

Kiefer, R.

J. Daleiden, K. Czotscher, C. Hoffmann, R. Kiefer, S. Klussmann, S. Muller, A. Nutsch, W. Pletschen, S. Weisser, G. Trankle, J. Braunstein, and G. Weimann, “Sidewall slope control of chemically assisted ion-beam etched structures in InP-based materials,” J. Vac. Sci. Tech. B 16, 1864–1866 (1998)
[Crossref]

Klussmann, S.

J. Daleiden, K. Czotscher, C. Hoffmann, R. Kiefer, S. Klussmann, S. Muller, A. Nutsch, W. Pletschen, S. Weisser, G. Trankle, J. Braunstein, and G. Weimann, “Sidewall slope control of chemically assisted ion-beam etched structures in InP-based materials,” J. Vac. Sci. Tech. B 16, 1864–1866 (1998)
[Crossref]

Lafontaine, H.

C. S. Sundararaman, H. Lafontaine, S. Poulin, A. Mouton, and J. F. Currie, “Reactive sputtering of InP in N2and N2/O2 plasmas,” J. Vac. Sci. Tech. B 9, 1433–1439 (1991).
[Crossref]

Lambers, E. S.

J. W. Lee, J. Hong, C. R. Abernathy, E. S. Lambers, S. J. Pearton, W. S. Hobson, and F. Ren, “Cl2/Ar plasma etching of binary, ternary, and quaternary In- based compound semiconductors,” J. Vac. Sci. Tech. B 14, 2567–2573C (1996).
[Crossref]

Landgren, G.

C. F. Calstrom, G. Landgren, and S. Anand, “Low energy ion beam etching of InP using methane chemistry,” J. Vac. Sci. Tech. B 16, 1018–1023 (1998).
[Crossref]

Lee, J. W.

J. W. Lee, J. Hong, C. R. Abernathy, E. S. Lambers, S. J. Pearton, W. S. Hobson, and F. Ren, “Cl2/Ar plasma etching of binary, ternary, and quaternary In- based compound semiconductors,” J. Vac. Sci. Tech. B 14, 2567–2573C (1996).
[Crossref]

Loffler, R.

W. Katzschner, A. Steckenborn, R. Loffler, and N. Grote, “Ion beam milling of InP with an Ar/O2 -gasmixture,” Appl. Phys. Lett 44, 352–354 (1984).
[Crossref]

Lofflerr, R.

W. Katzschner, U. Niggebrugge, R. Lofflerr, and H. Schroter-Janssen, “Reactive ion beam etching of InP with N2 and N2/O2 mixtures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 230–232 (1986).
[Crossref]

Makamura, M.

N. Nunoya, M. Makamura, M. Morshed, S. Tamura, and S. Arai, “High-performance 1.55μm wavelength GaInAsP-InP distributed-feedback lasers with wirelike active regions,” IEEE J. Selected Topics in Q. Elec 7, 249–258 (2001).
[Crossref]

Martynov, M. I.

R. A. Mikhnev, S. K. Shtandel, M. I. Martynov, and E. D. Olshanskii, “How ion-beam etching affects the surface quality of optical articles,” J. of Optical Technology 66, 1032–1034 (1999).
[Crossref]

Merz, J. L.

J. E. Schramm, D. I. Babic, E. L. Hu, J. E. Bowers, and J. L. Merz, “Fabrication of high-aspect-ratio InP-based vertical-cavity laser mirrors using CH4/H2/O2/Ar reactive ion etching,” J. Vac. Sci. Tech. B 15, 2031–2036 (1997).
[Crossref]

Mikhnev, R. A.

R. A. Mikhnev, S. K. Shtandel, M. I. Martynov, and E. D. Olshanskii, “How ion-beam etching affects the surface quality of optical articles,” J. of Optical Technology 66, 1032–1034 (1999).
[Crossref]

Morshed, M.

N. Nunoya, M. Makamura, M. Morshed, S. Tamura, and S. Arai, “High-performance 1.55μm wavelength GaInAsP-InP distributed-feedback lasers with wirelike active regions,” IEEE J. Selected Topics in Q. Elec 7, 249–258 (2001).
[Crossref]

Mouton, A.

C. S. Sundararaman, H. Lafontaine, S. Poulin, A. Mouton, and J. F. Currie, “Reactive sputtering of InP in N2and N2/O2 plasmas,” J. Vac. Sci. Tech. B 9, 1433–1439 (1991).
[Crossref]

Muller, S.

J. Daleiden, K. Czotscher, C. Hoffmann, R. Kiefer, S. Klussmann, S. Muller, A. Nutsch, W. Pletschen, S. Weisser, G. Trankle, J. Braunstein, and G. Weimann, “Sidewall slope control of chemically assisted ion-beam etched structures in InP-based materials,” J. Vac. Sci. Tech. B 16, 1864–1866 (1998)
[Crossref]

Namba, S.

Y. Yuba, K. Gamo, H. Toba, X. G. He, and S. Namba, “Ion beam etching of InP. I. Ar ion beam etching and fabrication of grating for integrated circuits,” Jap. J. of Appl. Phys. 22, 1206–1210 (1983).
[Crossref]

Niggebrugge, U.

W. Katzschner, U. Niggebrugge, R. Lofflerr, and H. Schroter-Janssen, “Reactive ion beam etching of InP with N2 and N2/O2 mixtures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 230–232 (1986).
[Crossref]

Nunoya, N.

N. Nunoya, M. Makamura, M. Morshed, S. Tamura, and S. Arai, “High-performance 1.55μm wavelength GaInAsP-InP distributed-feedback lasers with wirelike active regions,” IEEE J. Selected Topics in Q. Elec 7, 249–258 (2001).
[Crossref]

Nutsch, A.

J. Daleiden, K. Czotscher, C. Hoffmann, R. Kiefer, S. Klussmann, S. Muller, A. Nutsch, W. Pletschen, S. Weisser, G. Trankle, J. Braunstein, and G. Weimann, “Sidewall slope control of chemically assisted ion-beam etched structures in InP-based materials,” J. Vac. Sci. Tech. B 16, 1864–1866 (1998)
[Crossref]

Olshanskii, E. D.

R. A. Mikhnev, S. K. Shtandel, M. I. Martynov, and E. D. Olshanskii, “How ion-beam etching affects the surface quality of optical articles,” J. of Optical Technology 66, 1032–1034 (1999).
[Crossref]

Pearton, S. J.

J. W. Lee, J. Hong, C. R. Abernathy, E. S. Lambers, S. J. Pearton, W. S. Hobson, and F. Ren, “Cl2/Ar plasma etching of binary, ternary, and quaternary In- based compound semiconductors,” J. Vac. Sci. Tech. B 14, 2567–2573C (1996).
[Crossref]

Penty, R. V.

S. Yu, P. Heard, B. Cakmak, R. V. Penty, and I.H. White, “Surface diagnostics of dry etched III-V semiconductor samples using focused ion beam and secondary ion mass spectrometry (FIB-SIMS),” J. Vac. Sci. Tech. B 17, 3080–3084 (1999).
[Crossref]

Pletschen, W.

J. Daleiden, K. Czotscher, C. Hoffmann, R. Kiefer, S. Klussmann, S. Muller, A. Nutsch, W. Pletschen, S. Weisser, G. Trankle, J. Braunstein, and G. Weimann, “Sidewall slope control of chemically assisted ion-beam etched structures in InP-based materials,” J. Vac. Sci. Tech. B 16, 1864–1866 (1998)
[Crossref]

Poulin, S.

C. S. Sundararaman, H. Lafontaine, S. Poulin, A. Mouton, and J. F. Currie, “Reactive sputtering of InP in N2and N2/O2 plasmas,” J. Vac. Sci. Tech. B 9, 1433–1439 (1991).
[Crossref]

Ren, F.

J. W. Lee, J. Hong, C. R. Abernathy, E. S. Lambers, S. J. Pearton, W. S. Hobson, and F. Ren, “Cl2/Ar plasma etching of binary, ternary, and quaternary In- based compound semiconductors,” J. Vac. Sci. Tech. B 14, 2567–2573C (1996).
[Crossref]

Schindler, A.

F. Frost, A. Schindler, and F. Bigl, “Reactive ion beam etching of InSb and InAs with ultrasmooth surfaces”, Semiconductor Science and Tech. 13, 523–527 (1998).
[Crossref]

Schlachetzki, A.

G. Vollrath, A. Schlachetzki, and F. Fiedler, “Ion-beam milling of InGaAsP alloys with N2/O2-mixtures,” Jap. J. of Appl. Phys. Part 1-Regular Papers Short Notes & Review Papers,  37, 1715–1720 (1998)

Schramm, J. E.

J. E. Schramm, D. I. Babic, E. L. Hu, J. E. Bowers, and J. L. Merz, “Fabrication of high-aspect-ratio InP-based vertical-cavity laser mirrors using CH4/H2/O2/Ar reactive ion etching,” J. Vac. Sci. Tech. B 15, 2031–2036 (1997).
[Crossref]

Schroter-Janssen, H.

W. Katzschner, U. Niggebrugge, R. Lofflerr, and H. Schroter-Janssen, “Reactive ion beam etching of InP with N2 and N2/O2 mixtures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 230–232 (1986).
[Crossref]

Shtandel, S. K.

R. A. Mikhnev, S. K. Shtandel, M. I. Martynov, and E. D. Olshanskii, “How ion-beam etching affects the surface quality of optical articles,” J. of Optical Technology 66, 1032–1034 (1999).
[Crossref]

Silverberg, P.

S. Allen and P. Silverberg, “Methane-hydrogen III-V metal-organic reactive ion etching,” Semiconductor Sci. Tech. 6, 287–289 (1991).
[Crossref]

Steckenborn, A.

W. Katzschner, A. Steckenborn, R. Loffler, and N. Grote, “Ion beam milling of InP with an Ar/O2 -gasmixture,” Appl. Phys. Lett 44, 352–354 (1984).
[Crossref]

Sundararaman, C. S.

C. S. Sundararaman, H. Lafontaine, S. Poulin, A. Mouton, and J. F. Currie, “Reactive sputtering of InP in N2and N2/O2 plasmas,” J. Vac. Sci. Tech. B 9, 1433–1439 (1991).
[Crossref]

Tamura, S.

N. Nunoya, M. Makamura, M. Morshed, S. Tamura, and S. Arai, “High-performance 1.55μm wavelength GaInAsP-InP distributed-feedback lasers with wirelike active regions,” IEEE J. Selected Topics in Q. Elec 7, 249–258 (2001).
[Crossref]

Toba, H.

Y. Yuba, K. Gamo, H. Toba, X. G. He, and S. Namba, “Ion beam etching of InP. I. Ar ion beam etching and fabrication of grating for integrated circuits,” Jap. J. of Appl. Phys. 22, 1206–1210 (1983).
[Crossref]

Trankle, G.

J. Daleiden, K. Czotscher, C. Hoffmann, R. Kiefer, S. Klussmann, S. Muller, A. Nutsch, W. Pletschen, S. Weisser, G. Trankle, J. Braunstein, and G. Weimann, “Sidewall slope control of chemically assisted ion-beam etched structures in InP-based materials,” J. Vac. Sci. Tech. B 16, 1864–1866 (1998)
[Crossref]

Vollrath, G.

G. Vollrath, A. Schlachetzki, and F. Fiedler, “Ion-beam milling of InGaAsP alloys with N2/O2-mixtures,” Jap. J. of Appl. Phys. Part 1-Regular Papers Short Notes & Review Papers,  37, 1715–1720 (1998)

Weimann, G.

J. Daleiden, K. Czotscher, C. Hoffmann, R. Kiefer, S. Klussmann, S. Muller, A. Nutsch, W. Pletschen, S. Weisser, G. Trankle, J. Braunstein, and G. Weimann, “Sidewall slope control of chemically assisted ion-beam etched structures in InP-based materials,” J. Vac. Sci. Tech. B 16, 1864–1866 (1998)
[Crossref]

Weisser, S.

J. Daleiden, K. Czotscher, C. Hoffmann, R. Kiefer, S. Klussmann, S. Muller, A. Nutsch, W. Pletschen, S. Weisser, G. Trankle, J. Braunstein, and G. Weimann, “Sidewall slope control of chemically assisted ion-beam etched structures in InP-based materials,” J. Vac. Sci. Tech. B 16, 1864–1866 (1998)
[Crossref]

Whelan, C. S.

C. S. Whelan, T. E. Kazior, and K. Y. Hur, “High rate CH4:H2 plasma etch processes for InP,” J. Vac. Sci. Tech. B 15, 1728–1732 (1997).
[Crossref]

White, I. H.

B. Cakmak and I. H. White, “Ion beam and chemically assisted ion beam etching of InP with anisotropic and smooth structures,” Semicond. Sci. Technol 16, 139–146 (2001).
[Crossref]

White, I.H.

S. Yu, P. Heard, B. Cakmak, R. V. Penty, and I.H. White, “Surface diagnostics of dry etched III-V semiconductor samples using focused ion beam and secondary ion mass spectrometry (FIB-SIMS),” J. Vac. Sci. Tech. B 17, 3080–3084 (1999).
[Crossref]

Yu, S.

S. Yu, P. Heard, B. Cakmak, R. V. Penty, and I.H. White, “Surface diagnostics of dry etched III-V semiconductor samples using focused ion beam and secondary ion mass spectrometry (FIB-SIMS),” J. Vac. Sci. Tech. B 17, 3080–3084 (1999).
[Crossref]

Yuba, Y.

Y. Yuba, K. Gamo, H. Toba, X. G. He, and S. Namba, “Ion beam etching of InP. I. Ar ion beam etching and fabrication of grating for integrated circuits,” Jap. J. of Appl. Phys. 22, 1206–1210 (1983).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett (1)

W. Katzschner, A. Steckenborn, R. Loffler, and N. Grote, “Ion beam milling of InP with an Ar/O2 -gasmixture,” Appl. Phys. Lett 44, 352–354 (1984).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

W. Katzschner, U. Niggebrugge, R. Lofflerr, and H. Schroter-Janssen, “Reactive ion beam etching of InP with N2 and N2/O2 mixtures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 230–232 (1986).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Selected Topics in Q. Elec (1)

N. Nunoya, M. Makamura, M. Morshed, S. Tamura, and S. Arai, “High-performance 1.55μm wavelength GaInAsP-InP distributed-feedback lasers with wirelike active regions,” IEEE J. Selected Topics in Q. Elec 7, 249–258 (2001).
[Crossref]

J. of Optical Technology (1)

R. A. Mikhnev, S. K. Shtandel, M. I. Martynov, and E. D. Olshanskii, “How ion-beam etching affects the surface quality of optical articles,” J. of Optical Technology 66, 1032–1034 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. Vac. Sci. Tech. B (7)

J. W. Lee, J. Hong, C. R. Abernathy, E. S. Lambers, S. J. Pearton, W. S. Hobson, and F. Ren, “Cl2/Ar plasma etching of binary, ternary, and quaternary In- based compound semiconductors,” J. Vac. Sci. Tech. B 14, 2567–2573C (1996).
[Crossref]

C. S. Whelan, T. E. Kazior, and K. Y. Hur, “High rate CH4:H2 plasma etch processes for InP,” J. Vac. Sci. Tech. B 15, 1728–1732 (1997).
[Crossref]

C. S. Sundararaman, H. Lafontaine, S. Poulin, A. Mouton, and J. F. Currie, “Reactive sputtering of InP in N2and N2/O2 plasmas,” J. Vac. Sci. Tech. B 9, 1433–1439 (1991).
[Crossref]

C. F. Calstrom, G. Landgren, and S. Anand, “Low energy ion beam etching of InP using methane chemistry,” J. Vac. Sci. Tech. B 16, 1018–1023 (1998).
[Crossref]

J. Daleiden, K. Czotscher, C. Hoffmann, R. Kiefer, S. Klussmann, S. Muller, A. Nutsch, W. Pletschen, S. Weisser, G. Trankle, J. Braunstein, and G. Weimann, “Sidewall slope control of chemically assisted ion-beam etched structures in InP-based materials,” J. Vac. Sci. Tech. B 16, 1864–1866 (1998)
[Crossref]

J. E. Schramm, D. I. Babic, E. L. Hu, J. E. Bowers, and J. L. Merz, “Fabrication of high-aspect-ratio InP-based vertical-cavity laser mirrors using CH4/H2/O2/Ar reactive ion etching,” J. Vac. Sci. Tech. B 15, 2031–2036 (1997).
[Crossref]

S. Yu, P. Heard, B. Cakmak, R. V. Penty, and I.H. White, “Surface diagnostics of dry etched III-V semiconductor samples using focused ion beam and secondary ion mass spectrometry (FIB-SIMS),” J. Vac. Sci. Tech. B 17, 3080–3084 (1999).
[Crossref]

Jap. J. of Appl. Phys. (1)

Y. Yuba, K. Gamo, H. Toba, X. G. He, and S. Namba, “Ion beam etching of InP. I. Ar ion beam etching and fabrication of grating for integrated circuits,” Jap. J. of Appl. Phys. 22, 1206–1210 (1983).
[Crossref]

Jap. J. of Appl. Phys. Part 1-Regular Papers Short Notes & Review Papers (1)

G. Vollrath, A. Schlachetzki, and F. Fiedler, “Ion-beam milling of InGaAsP alloys with N2/O2-mixtures,” Jap. J. of Appl. Phys. Part 1-Regular Papers Short Notes & Review Papers,  37, 1715–1720 (1998)

Semicond. Sci. Technol (1)

B. Cakmak and I. H. White, “Ion beam and chemically assisted ion beam etching of InP with anisotropic and smooth structures,” Semicond. Sci. Technol 16, 139–146 (2001).
[Crossref]

Semiconductor Sci. Tech. (1)

S. Allen and P. Silverberg, “Methane-hydrogen III-V metal-organic reactive ion etching,” Semiconductor Sci. Tech. 6, 287–289 (1991).
[Crossref]

Semiconductor Science and Tech. (1)

F. Frost, A. Schindler, and F. Bigl, “Reactive ion beam etching of InSb and InAs with ultrasmooth surfaces”, Semiconductor Science and Tech. 13, 523–527 (1998).
[Crossref]

Solid State Tech. (1)

D. E. Ibbotson and D. L. Flamm, “Plasma etching for III-V compound devices.2,” Solid State Tech. 31, 105 (1988).

Other (1)

J. Gowar, Optical communication systems (Prentice Hall International Ltd., Hertfordshire U.K,1993), Chap. 19.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Surface/sidewall structure, (b) AFM measurement, and (c) etch profile of the RIE etched lasers

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Surface/sidewall structure, (b) AFM measurement, and (c) etch profile of the CAIBE etched lasers

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

L-I-V characteristics of 2μm wide and 400μm long (a) RIE and (b) CAIBE etched lasers, and (c) spectral characteristic for both

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Optimized parameters during RIE and CAIBE etching of InGaAs/InGaAsP/InP

Tables Icon

Table 2. Material parameters of wet and RIE etched InGaAs/InGaAsP/InP lasers with 20μm width and 400μm length

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