Abstract

A negative tone hybrid sol-gel material was applied to the fabrication of continuous surface relief micro-optical elements by laser direct writing lithography. The hybrid sol-gel glass was synthesized as UV photosensitive material and used for the fabrication of micro-optical elements with continuous surface relief profile. The surface profile was directly controlled by the UV exposure dosage and the exposed areas were crosslinked and converted into sol-gel glass with relief structures. The UV exposure dosage was realized by an acousto-optic modulator (AOM) in the laser direct writing system. Characterization results indicated that the thickness of the sol-gel glass has a linear response to the AOM values ranging from 3.25 to 5.5. The sol-gel thin film was measured to have a refractive index of 1.52 and the maximum thickness of 2 μm. For various designs of diffractive optical elements within the visible wavelength, the sol-gel film enables us to achieve an arbitrary phase change between 0 and 2π with the linear AOM exposure range. As an example, a blazed grating with a period of 45 μm and height of 1.17 μm was fabricated in the sol-gel glass using direct laser writing method.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. P. Äyräs, J.T. Rantala, S. Honkanen, S.B. Memdes, and N. Peyghambarian, “Diffraction gratings in sol-gel films by direct contact printing using a UV-mercury lamp,” Opt. Commun. 162, 215–218 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  2. S. Pelissier, D. Blanc, M.P. Andrews, S.I. Najafi, A.V. Tishchenko, and O. Parriaux, “Single-step UV recording of sinusoidal surface gratings in hybrid solgel glasses,” Appl. Opt. 38, 6744–6748 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  3. H J Jiang, X-C Yuan, Y L Lam, Y C Chan, and G I Ng, “Single-step Fabrication of Surface Relief Diffractive Optical Elements on Hybrid Sol-Gel Glass,” Opt. Eng. 40, 2017–2021 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  4. H. Jiang, X-C Yuan, Z. Yun, Y C Chan, and Y L Lam, “Fabrication of microlens in photosensitive hybrid sol-gel films using a gray scale mask,” Materials Science and Engineering C. 16, 99–102 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  5. J.T. Rantala, N. Nordman, O. Nordman, J. Vähäkangas, S. Honkanen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Sol-gel hybrid glass diffractive elements by direct electron-beam exposure,” Electron. Lett. 34, 455–456 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  6. Daniõle Blanc, Serge Pelissier, Kalaichelvi Saravanamuttu, S.Iraj Najafi, and Mark P. Andrews, “Self-processing of surface-relief gratings in photosensitive sol-gel glasses,” Adv. Mater. 11, 1508–1511 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  7. Jens Neumann, Kay S. Wieking, and Detlef Kip, “Direct Laser Writing of Surface Reliefs in Dry, Self-Developing Photopolymer Films,” Appl. Opt. 38, 5418–5421 (1999).
    [Crossref]

2001 (2)

H J Jiang, X-C Yuan, Y L Lam, Y C Chan, and G I Ng, “Single-step Fabrication of Surface Relief Diffractive Optical Elements on Hybrid Sol-Gel Glass,” Opt. Eng. 40, 2017–2021 (2001).
[Crossref]

H. Jiang, X-C Yuan, Z. Yun, Y C Chan, and Y L Lam, “Fabrication of microlens in photosensitive hybrid sol-gel films using a gray scale mask,” Materials Science and Engineering C. 16, 99–102 (2001).
[Crossref]

1999 (4)

Daniõle Blanc, Serge Pelissier, Kalaichelvi Saravanamuttu, S.Iraj Najafi, and Mark P. Andrews, “Self-processing of surface-relief gratings in photosensitive sol-gel glasses,” Adv. Mater. 11, 1508–1511 (1999).
[Crossref]

P. Äyräs, J.T. Rantala, S. Honkanen, S.B. Memdes, and N. Peyghambarian, “Diffraction gratings in sol-gel films by direct contact printing using a UV-mercury lamp,” Opt. Commun. 162, 215–218 (1999).
[Crossref]

Jens Neumann, Kay S. Wieking, and Detlef Kip, “Direct Laser Writing of Surface Reliefs in Dry, Self-Developing Photopolymer Films,” Appl. Opt. 38, 5418–5421 (1999).
[Crossref]

S. Pelissier, D. Blanc, M.P. Andrews, S.I. Najafi, A.V. Tishchenko, and O. Parriaux, “Single-step UV recording of sinusoidal surface gratings in hybrid solgel glasses,” Appl. Opt. 38, 6744–6748 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

J.T. Rantala, N. Nordman, O. Nordman, J. Vähäkangas, S. Honkanen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Sol-gel hybrid glass diffractive elements by direct electron-beam exposure,” Electron. Lett. 34, 455–456 (1998).
[Crossref]

Andrews, M.P.

Andrews, Mark P.

Daniõle Blanc, Serge Pelissier, Kalaichelvi Saravanamuttu, S.Iraj Najafi, and Mark P. Andrews, “Self-processing of surface-relief gratings in photosensitive sol-gel glasses,” Adv. Mater. 11, 1508–1511 (1999).
[Crossref]

Äyräs, P.

P. Äyräs, J.T. Rantala, S. Honkanen, S.B. Memdes, and N. Peyghambarian, “Diffraction gratings in sol-gel films by direct contact printing using a UV-mercury lamp,” Opt. Commun. 162, 215–218 (1999).
[Crossref]

Blanc, D.

Blanc, Daniõle

Daniõle Blanc, Serge Pelissier, Kalaichelvi Saravanamuttu, S.Iraj Najafi, and Mark P. Andrews, “Self-processing of surface-relief gratings in photosensitive sol-gel glasses,” Adv. Mater. 11, 1508–1511 (1999).
[Crossref]

Chan, Y C

H J Jiang, X-C Yuan, Y L Lam, Y C Chan, and G I Ng, “Single-step Fabrication of Surface Relief Diffractive Optical Elements on Hybrid Sol-Gel Glass,” Opt. Eng. 40, 2017–2021 (2001).
[Crossref]

H. Jiang, X-C Yuan, Z. Yun, Y C Chan, and Y L Lam, “Fabrication of microlens in photosensitive hybrid sol-gel films using a gray scale mask,” Materials Science and Engineering C. 16, 99–102 (2001).
[Crossref]

Honkanen, S.

P. Äyräs, J.T. Rantala, S. Honkanen, S.B. Memdes, and N. Peyghambarian, “Diffraction gratings in sol-gel films by direct contact printing using a UV-mercury lamp,” Opt. Commun. 162, 215–218 (1999).
[Crossref]

J.T. Rantala, N. Nordman, O. Nordman, J. Vähäkangas, S. Honkanen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Sol-gel hybrid glass diffractive elements by direct electron-beam exposure,” Electron. Lett. 34, 455–456 (1998).
[Crossref]

Jiang, H J

H J Jiang, X-C Yuan, Y L Lam, Y C Chan, and G I Ng, “Single-step Fabrication of Surface Relief Diffractive Optical Elements on Hybrid Sol-Gel Glass,” Opt. Eng. 40, 2017–2021 (2001).
[Crossref]

Jiang, H.

H. Jiang, X-C Yuan, Z. Yun, Y C Chan, and Y L Lam, “Fabrication of microlens in photosensitive hybrid sol-gel films using a gray scale mask,” Materials Science and Engineering C. 16, 99–102 (2001).
[Crossref]

Kip, Detlef

Lam, Y L

H. Jiang, X-C Yuan, Z. Yun, Y C Chan, and Y L Lam, “Fabrication of microlens in photosensitive hybrid sol-gel films using a gray scale mask,” Materials Science and Engineering C. 16, 99–102 (2001).
[Crossref]

H J Jiang, X-C Yuan, Y L Lam, Y C Chan, and G I Ng, “Single-step Fabrication of Surface Relief Diffractive Optical Elements on Hybrid Sol-Gel Glass,” Opt. Eng. 40, 2017–2021 (2001).
[Crossref]

Memdes, S.B.

P. Äyräs, J.T. Rantala, S. Honkanen, S.B. Memdes, and N. Peyghambarian, “Diffraction gratings in sol-gel films by direct contact printing using a UV-mercury lamp,” Opt. Commun. 162, 215–218 (1999).
[Crossref]

Najafi, S.I.

Najafi, S.Iraj

Daniõle Blanc, Serge Pelissier, Kalaichelvi Saravanamuttu, S.Iraj Najafi, and Mark P. Andrews, “Self-processing of surface-relief gratings in photosensitive sol-gel glasses,” Adv. Mater. 11, 1508–1511 (1999).
[Crossref]

Neumann, Jens

Ng, G I

H J Jiang, X-C Yuan, Y L Lam, Y C Chan, and G I Ng, “Single-step Fabrication of Surface Relief Diffractive Optical Elements on Hybrid Sol-Gel Glass,” Opt. Eng. 40, 2017–2021 (2001).
[Crossref]

Nordman, N.

J.T. Rantala, N. Nordman, O. Nordman, J. Vähäkangas, S. Honkanen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Sol-gel hybrid glass diffractive elements by direct electron-beam exposure,” Electron. Lett. 34, 455–456 (1998).
[Crossref]

Nordman, O.

J.T. Rantala, N. Nordman, O. Nordman, J. Vähäkangas, S. Honkanen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Sol-gel hybrid glass diffractive elements by direct electron-beam exposure,” Electron. Lett. 34, 455–456 (1998).
[Crossref]

Parriaux, O.

Pelissier, S.

Pelissier, Serge

Daniõle Blanc, Serge Pelissier, Kalaichelvi Saravanamuttu, S.Iraj Najafi, and Mark P. Andrews, “Self-processing of surface-relief gratings in photosensitive sol-gel glasses,” Adv. Mater. 11, 1508–1511 (1999).
[Crossref]

Peyghambarian, N.

P. Äyräs, J.T. Rantala, S. Honkanen, S.B. Memdes, and N. Peyghambarian, “Diffraction gratings in sol-gel films by direct contact printing using a UV-mercury lamp,” Opt. Commun. 162, 215–218 (1999).
[Crossref]

J.T. Rantala, N. Nordman, O. Nordman, J. Vähäkangas, S. Honkanen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Sol-gel hybrid glass diffractive elements by direct electron-beam exposure,” Electron. Lett. 34, 455–456 (1998).
[Crossref]

Rantala, J.T.

P. Äyräs, J.T. Rantala, S. Honkanen, S.B. Memdes, and N. Peyghambarian, “Diffraction gratings in sol-gel films by direct contact printing using a UV-mercury lamp,” Opt. Commun. 162, 215–218 (1999).
[Crossref]

J.T. Rantala, N. Nordman, O. Nordman, J. Vähäkangas, S. Honkanen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Sol-gel hybrid glass diffractive elements by direct electron-beam exposure,” Electron. Lett. 34, 455–456 (1998).
[Crossref]

Saravanamuttu, Kalaichelvi

Daniõle Blanc, Serge Pelissier, Kalaichelvi Saravanamuttu, S.Iraj Najafi, and Mark P. Andrews, “Self-processing of surface-relief gratings in photosensitive sol-gel glasses,” Adv. Mater. 11, 1508–1511 (1999).
[Crossref]

Tishchenko, A.V.

Vähäkangas, J.

J.T. Rantala, N. Nordman, O. Nordman, J. Vähäkangas, S. Honkanen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Sol-gel hybrid glass diffractive elements by direct electron-beam exposure,” Electron. Lett. 34, 455–456 (1998).
[Crossref]

Wieking, Kay S.

Yuan, X-C

H. Jiang, X-C Yuan, Z. Yun, Y C Chan, and Y L Lam, “Fabrication of microlens in photosensitive hybrid sol-gel films using a gray scale mask,” Materials Science and Engineering C. 16, 99–102 (2001).
[Crossref]

H J Jiang, X-C Yuan, Y L Lam, Y C Chan, and G I Ng, “Single-step Fabrication of Surface Relief Diffractive Optical Elements on Hybrid Sol-Gel Glass,” Opt. Eng. 40, 2017–2021 (2001).
[Crossref]

Yun, Z.

H. Jiang, X-C Yuan, Z. Yun, Y C Chan, and Y L Lam, “Fabrication of microlens in photosensitive hybrid sol-gel films using a gray scale mask,” Materials Science and Engineering C. 16, 99–102 (2001).
[Crossref]

Adv. Mater. (1)

Daniõle Blanc, Serge Pelissier, Kalaichelvi Saravanamuttu, S.Iraj Najafi, and Mark P. Andrews, “Self-processing of surface-relief gratings in photosensitive sol-gel glasses,” Adv. Mater. 11, 1508–1511 (1999).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Electron. Lett. (1)

J.T. Rantala, N. Nordman, O. Nordman, J. Vähäkangas, S. Honkanen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Sol-gel hybrid glass diffractive elements by direct electron-beam exposure,” Electron. Lett. 34, 455–456 (1998).
[Crossref]

Materials Science and Engineering C. (1)

H. Jiang, X-C Yuan, Z. Yun, Y C Chan, and Y L Lam, “Fabrication of microlens in photosensitive hybrid sol-gel films using a gray scale mask,” Materials Science and Engineering C. 16, 99–102 (2001).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (1)

P. Äyräs, J.T. Rantala, S. Honkanen, S.B. Memdes, and N. Peyghambarian, “Diffraction gratings in sol-gel films by direct contact printing using a UV-mercury lamp,” Opt. Commun. 162, 215–218 (1999).
[Crossref]

Opt. Eng. (1)

H J Jiang, X-C Yuan, Y L Lam, Y C Chan, and G I Ng, “Single-step Fabrication of Surface Relief Diffractive Optical Elements on Hybrid Sol-Gel Glass,” Opt. Eng. 40, 2017–2021 (2001).
[Crossref]

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Figures (4)

Figure 1.
Figure 1.

Schematic of the laser direct writing system.

Figure 2.
Figure 2.

‘.’ Sol-gel film thickness as a function of AOM values. ‘-’ phase difference caused by the sol-gel film thickness as a function of AOM value for a refractive index of n = 1.52, and laser wavelength of λ = 0.6328 μm.

Figure 3.
Figure 3.

Photograph of the blazed grating.

Figure 4.
Figure 4.

Surface profile of the blazed grating.

Equations (2)

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AOM = 0.08146 · ln ( 1.262510 16 I ) + 2.00119 · ( I 0.5 ) 0.3189
ΔΦ = 2 π ( n 1 ) h λ

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