Abstract

A negative tone hybrid sol-gel material was applied to the fabrication of continuous surface relief micro-optical elements by laser direct writing lithography. The hybrid sol-gel glass was synthesized as UV photosensitive material and used for the fabrication of micro-optical elements with continuous surface relief profile. The surface profile was directly controlled by the UV exposure dosage and the exposed areas were crosslinked and converted into sol-gel glass with relief structures. The UV exposure dosage was realized by an acousto-optic modulator (AOM) in the laser direct writing system. Characterization results indicated that the thickness of the sol-gel glass has a linear response to the AOM values ranging from 3.25 to 5.5. The sol-gel thin film was measured to have a refractive index of 1.52 and the maximum thickness of 2 μm. For various designs of diffractive optical elements within the visible wavelength, the sol-gel film enables us to achieve an arbitrary phase change between 0 and 2π with the linear AOM exposure range. As an example, a blazed grating with a period of 45 μm and height of 1.17 μm was fabricated in the sol-gel glass using direct laser writing method.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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References

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Adv. Mater. (1)

Daniõle Blanc, Serge Pelissier, Kalaichelvi Saravanamuttu, S. Iraj Najafi and Mark P. Andrews, �??Selfprocessing of surface-relief gratings in photosensitive sol-gel glasses,�?? Adv. Mater. 11, 1508-1511 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Electron. Lett. (1)

J.T.Rantala, N.Nordman, O.Nordman, J.Vähäkangas, S.Honkanen and N.Peyghambarian, �??Sol-gel hybrid glass diffractive elements by direct electron-beam exposure,�?? Electron. Lett. 34, 455-456 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Materials Sci. Eng. C (1)

H. Jiang, X.-C. Yuan, Z. Yun, Y. C. Chan, Y. L. Lam, �??Fabrication of microlens in photosensitive hybrid solgel films using a gray scale mask,�?? Materials Sci. Eng. C 16, 99�??102 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

P. �?yräs, J.T. Rantala, S. Honkanen, S.B. Memdes, N. Peyghambarian, �??Diffraction gratings in sol-gel films by direct contact printing using a UV-mercury lamp,�?? Opt. Commun. 162, 215-218 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

H J Jiang, X-C Yuan, Y. L. Lam, Y. C. Chan and G. I. Ng, �??Single-step Fabrication of Surface Relief Diffractive Optical Elements on Hybrid Sol-Gel Glass,�?? Opt. Eng. 40, 2017-2021 (2001).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Figure 1.
Figure 1.

Schematic of the laser direct writing system.

Figure 2.
Figure 2.

‘.’ Sol-gel film thickness as a function of AOM values. ‘-’ phase difference caused by the sol-gel film thickness as a function of AOM value for a refractive index of n = 1.52, and laser wavelength of λ = 0.6328 μm.

Figure 3.
Figure 3.

Photograph of the blazed grating.

Figure 4.
Figure 4.

Surface profile of the blazed grating.

Equations (2)

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AOM = 0.08146 · ln ( 1.262510 16 I ) + 2.00119 · ( I 0.5 ) 0.3189
ΔΦ = 2 π ( n 1 ) h λ

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