Abstract

High-resolution imaging can be dramatically improved by combining a fast image stabilization system and variable aperture masking. We describe an imaging system that provides high-resolution images through an annular aperture using the unwanted low spatial frequency light for image stabilization. The annulus thickness and diameter can be selected to enhance the contribution of different spatial frequencies in the image at the expense of image exposure time.

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References

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  1. See for example, R.R. Shannon, The art and science of optical design (Cambridge University Press, New York, 1997).
  2. J.T. Baker, R. Dymale, R.A. Carreras, S. Restaino, "Design and implementation of a low-cost starlight optical tracker system with 500 Hz active tip tilt control," Computers and Electrical Engineering 24, 123-133, (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  3. S.R. Restaino, R.R. Radick, G.C. Loos, R.W. Conley, "A Validation of Interferometric Imaging from a Pupil Masking Experiment on a Solar Telescope," Appl. Opt. 33, 4143 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S.R. Restaino, D.M. Payne, "Adaptive optics on a shoe string," Proc. SPIE 3494, 152-160, (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R.F. Dantowitz, S.W. Teare, M. Kozubal, "Ground-based high-resolution imaging of Mercury," Astron. J. 119, 2455-7, (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  6. P. Nisenson, C. Papaliolios, "Detection of Earth-like Planets Using Apodized Telescopes," Astrophys. J. 548, L201-5, (2001).
    [CrossRef]

Other (6)

See for example, R.R. Shannon, The art and science of optical design (Cambridge University Press, New York, 1997).

J.T. Baker, R. Dymale, R.A. Carreras, S. Restaino, "Design and implementation of a low-cost starlight optical tracker system with 500 Hz active tip tilt control," Computers and Electrical Engineering 24, 123-133, (1998).
[CrossRef]

S.R. Restaino, R.R. Radick, G.C. Loos, R.W. Conley, "A Validation of Interferometric Imaging from a Pupil Masking Experiment on a Solar Telescope," Appl. Opt. 33, 4143 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S.R. Restaino, D.M. Payne, "Adaptive optics on a shoe string," Proc. SPIE 3494, 152-160, (1998).
[CrossRef]

R.F. Dantowitz, S.W. Teare, M. Kozubal, "Ground-based high-resolution imaging of Mercury," Astron. J. 119, 2455-7, (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. Nisenson, C. Papaliolios, "Detection of Earth-like Planets Using Apodized Telescopes," Astrophys. J. 548, L201-5, (2001).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Plots of the normalized optical transfer function for a regular telescope (15%) and one with a large (87.5%) central obscuration. Notice in the large obscuration case (right) that the contributions of the lower spatial frequencies are suppressed compared to the regular telescope (left).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Image of the moon from left to right showing a truth image, the truth image convolved with a 15% obscured telescope OTF with blurring similar to that caused by imaging through the atmosphere and the truth image convolved with an 87.5% obscured telescope OTF with image stabilization.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

The factor that the exposure time must be increased as a function of obscuration, normalized to a 15% obscured OTF. For an 87.5% obscuration about 25% of the light gets through requiring an exposure of about 4 times as long to obtain the same signal-to- noise ratio. This represents the worst-case scenario as the desired signal to noise ratio of the spatial frequencies of interest could be met in less time.

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