Abstract

We study the double excitation of surface modes at a metallic film that separates a uniaxial medium from an isotropic dielectric. We find that, for certain constitutive parameters of the structure, two normal modes can be associated to the film. It is found that the distance in the complex plane between the propagation constants of these modes can be considerably reduced by tuning conveniently film parameters, although the propagation constants are “reluctant” to coincide. We also show that a plane wave incident on the film from the crystal side can excite both modes simultaneously, without corrugating the surface or adding another layer. We obtain values of the film width for which the resonances appear at similar angles of incidence and show that these excitations are accompanied by an important increase of the power absorbed by the film and an enhancement of the fields at the two interfaces.

© 1997 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. H. Raether, Surface plasmons on smooth and rough surfaces and on gratings (Heidelberg: Springer, 1988), Chap. 2, 4–39.
  2. R. Petit, editor, Electromagnetic theory of gratings, (Springer, Heidelberg, 1980).
    [Crossref]
  3. A. D. Boardman, ed., Electromagnetic surface modes (John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1982).
  4. G. J. Kovacs, “Surface polariton in the ATR angular spectra of a thin iron film bounded by dielectric layers”, J. Opt. Soc. Am 68, 1325–1331 (1978).
    [Crossref]
  5. G. J. Kovacs and G. D. Scott, “Attenuated total reflection angular spectra and associated resonant electromagnetic oscillations of a dielectric slab bounded by Ag films”, App. Opt. 17, 3314–3322 (1978).
    [Crossref]
  6. G. J. Kovacs and G. D. Scott, “Attenuated total reflection angular spectra of a system of alternating plasma-dielectric layers”, App. Opt. 17, 3627–3635 (1978).
    [Crossref]
  7. E. Burstein and F. de Martini, ed., Polaritons (Pergamon Press, London, 1974).
  8. G. Borstel and H. J. Falge, in Electromagnetic surface modes, A. D. Boardman, ed., (John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1982), Chap. 6, 219–248.
  9. R. F. Wallis, in Electromagnetic surface modes, A. D. Boardman, ed., (John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1982), Chap. 15, 575–631.
  10. M. E. Inchaussandague and R. A. Depine, “Polarization conversion from diffraction gratings made of uniaxial crystals”, Phys. Rev. E 54, 2899–2911 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  11. R. A. Depine and M. L. Gigli, “Conversion between polarization states at the sinusoidal boundary of a uniaxial crystal”, Phys. Rev. B 49, 8437–8445 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  12. R. A. Depine and M. L. Gigli, “Excitation of surface plasmons and total absorption of light at the flat boundary between a metal and a uniaxial crystal”, Opt. Lett. 20, 2243–2245 (1995).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. R. A. Depine and M. L. Gigli, “Resonant excitation of surface modes at a single flat uniaxial-metal interface”, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 510–519 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  14. R. J. Crook, F. Yang, and J. Sambles, “An investigation of p- and s- polarized long-range optical modes supported by a strongly absorbing normal uniaxial thin organic film”, J. Mod. Opt. 40, 243–253 (1993).
    [Crossref]
  15. J. C. Quail, J. G. Rako, H. J. Simon, and R. T. Deck, “Optical Second-Harmonic generation with Long-Range surface plasmons”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 50, 1987–1989 (1983).
    [Crossref]
  16. D. Mihalache, D. M. Baboiu, M. Ciumac, L. Torner, and J. Torres, “Hybrid surface plasmon polaritons guided by ultrathin metal films”, Opt. Quantum Electron. 26, 857–863 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  17. D. Mihalache, D. M. Baboiu, M. Ciumac, L. Torner, and J. Torres, “Guided waves in anisotropic antiguide structures”, Opt. Comm. 108, 239–242 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  18. L. Torner, J. Torres, and D. Mihalache, “New type of guided waves in birefringent media”, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 5, 201–203 (1993).
    [Crossref]
  19. J. M. Simon and V. A. Presa, “Surface electromagnetic waves at the interface with anisotropic media”, J. Mod. Opt. 42, 2201–2211 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  20. J. E. Stewart and W. S. Gallaway, “Diffraction anomalies in grating spectrophotometers”, App. Opt. 1, 421–429 (1962).
    [Crossref]
  21. K. Utagawa, “Theory of diffraction efficiency and anomalies of shallow gratings of finite conductivity”, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 69, 333–343 (1979).
    [Crossref]
  22. H. C. Chen, Theory of electromagnetic waves: A coordinate free approach (Mc Graw-Hill, New York, 1983), Chap. 6, 219–262.

1997 (1)

1996 (1)

M. E. Inchaussandague and R. A. Depine, “Polarization conversion from diffraction gratings made of uniaxial crystals”, Phys. Rev. E 54, 2899–2911 (1996).
[Crossref]

1995 (2)

1994 (3)

R. A. Depine and M. L. Gigli, “Conversion between polarization states at the sinusoidal boundary of a uniaxial crystal”, Phys. Rev. B 49, 8437–8445 (1994).
[Crossref]

D. Mihalache, D. M. Baboiu, M. Ciumac, L. Torner, and J. Torres, “Hybrid surface plasmon polaritons guided by ultrathin metal films”, Opt. Quantum Electron. 26, 857–863 (1994).
[Crossref]

D. Mihalache, D. M. Baboiu, M. Ciumac, L. Torner, and J. Torres, “Guided waves in anisotropic antiguide structures”, Opt. Comm. 108, 239–242 (1994).
[Crossref]

1993 (2)

L. Torner, J. Torres, and D. Mihalache, “New type of guided waves in birefringent media”, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 5, 201–203 (1993).
[Crossref]

R. J. Crook, F. Yang, and J. Sambles, “An investigation of p- and s- polarized long-range optical modes supported by a strongly absorbing normal uniaxial thin organic film”, J. Mod. Opt. 40, 243–253 (1993).
[Crossref]

1983 (1)

J. C. Quail, J. G. Rako, H. J. Simon, and R. T. Deck, “Optical Second-Harmonic generation with Long-Range surface plasmons”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 50, 1987–1989 (1983).
[Crossref]

1979 (1)

1978 (3)

G. J. Kovacs, “Surface polariton in the ATR angular spectra of a thin iron film bounded by dielectric layers”, J. Opt. Soc. Am 68, 1325–1331 (1978).
[Crossref]

G. J. Kovacs and G. D. Scott, “Attenuated total reflection angular spectra and associated resonant electromagnetic oscillations of a dielectric slab bounded by Ag films”, App. Opt. 17, 3314–3322 (1978).
[Crossref]

G. J. Kovacs and G. D. Scott, “Attenuated total reflection angular spectra of a system of alternating plasma-dielectric layers”, App. Opt. 17, 3627–3635 (1978).
[Crossref]

1962 (1)

J. E. Stewart and W. S. Gallaway, “Diffraction anomalies in grating spectrophotometers”, App. Opt. 1, 421–429 (1962).
[Crossref]

Baboiu, D. M.

D. Mihalache, D. M. Baboiu, M. Ciumac, L. Torner, and J. Torres, “Hybrid surface plasmon polaritons guided by ultrathin metal films”, Opt. Quantum Electron. 26, 857–863 (1994).
[Crossref]

D. Mihalache, D. M. Baboiu, M. Ciumac, L. Torner, and J. Torres, “Guided waves in anisotropic antiguide structures”, Opt. Comm. 108, 239–242 (1994).
[Crossref]

Borstel, G.

G. Borstel and H. J. Falge, in Electromagnetic surface modes, A. D. Boardman, ed., (John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1982), Chap. 6, 219–248.

Chen, H. C.

H. C. Chen, Theory of electromagnetic waves: A coordinate free approach (Mc Graw-Hill, New York, 1983), Chap. 6, 219–262.

Ciumac, M.

D. Mihalache, D. M. Baboiu, M. Ciumac, L. Torner, and J. Torres, “Guided waves in anisotropic antiguide structures”, Opt. Comm. 108, 239–242 (1994).
[Crossref]

D. Mihalache, D. M. Baboiu, M. Ciumac, L. Torner, and J. Torres, “Hybrid surface plasmon polaritons guided by ultrathin metal films”, Opt. Quantum Electron. 26, 857–863 (1994).
[Crossref]

Crook, R. J.

R. J. Crook, F. Yang, and J. Sambles, “An investigation of p- and s- polarized long-range optical modes supported by a strongly absorbing normal uniaxial thin organic film”, J. Mod. Opt. 40, 243–253 (1993).
[Crossref]

Deck, R. T.

J. C. Quail, J. G. Rako, H. J. Simon, and R. T. Deck, “Optical Second-Harmonic generation with Long-Range surface plasmons”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 50, 1987–1989 (1983).
[Crossref]

Depine, R. A.

R. A. Depine and M. L. Gigli, “Resonant excitation of surface modes at a single flat uniaxial-metal interface”, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 510–519 (1997).
[Crossref]

M. E. Inchaussandague and R. A. Depine, “Polarization conversion from diffraction gratings made of uniaxial crystals”, Phys. Rev. E 54, 2899–2911 (1996).
[Crossref]

R. A. Depine and M. L. Gigli, “Excitation of surface plasmons and total absorption of light at the flat boundary between a metal and a uniaxial crystal”, Opt. Lett. 20, 2243–2245 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. A. Depine and M. L. Gigli, “Conversion between polarization states at the sinusoidal boundary of a uniaxial crystal”, Phys. Rev. B 49, 8437–8445 (1994).
[Crossref]

Falge, H. J.

G. Borstel and H. J. Falge, in Electromagnetic surface modes, A. D. Boardman, ed., (John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1982), Chap. 6, 219–248.

Gallaway, W. S.

J. E. Stewart and W. S. Gallaway, “Diffraction anomalies in grating spectrophotometers”, App. Opt. 1, 421–429 (1962).
[Crossref]

Gigli, M. L.

Inchaussandague, M. E.

M. E. Inchaussandague and R. A. Depine, “Polarization conversion from diffraction gratings made of uniaxial crystals”, Phys. Rev. E 54, 2899–2911 (1996).
[Crossref]

Kovacs, G. J.

G. J. Kovacs, “Surface polariton in the ATR angular spectra of a thin iron film bounded by dielectric layers”, J. Opt. Soc. Am 68, 1325–1331 (1978).
[Crossref]

G. J. Kovacs and G. D. Scott, “Attenuated total reflection angular spectra and associated resonant electromagnetic oscillations of a dielectric slab bounded by Ag films”, App. Opt. 17, 3314–3322 (1978).
[Crossref]

G. J. Kovacs and G. D. Scott, “Attenuated total reflection angular spectra of a system of alternating plasma-dielectric layers”, App. Opt. 17, 3627–3635 (1978).
[Crossref]

Mihalache, D.

D. Mihalache, D. M. Baboiu, M. Ciumac, L. Torner, and J. Torres, “Hybrid surface plasmon polaritons guided by ultrathin metal films”, Opt. Quantum Electron. 26, 857–863 (1994).
[Crossref]

D. Mihalache, D. M. Baboiu, M. Ciumac, L. Torner, and J. Torres, “Guided waves in anisotropic antiguide structures”, Opt. Comm. 108, 239–242 (1994).
[Crossref]

L. Torner, J. Torres, and D. Mihalache, “New type of guided waves in birefringent media”, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 5, 201–203 (1993).
[Crossref]

Presa, V. A.

J. M. Simon and V. A. Presa, “Surface electromagnetic waves at the interface with anisotropic media”, J. Mod. Opt. 42, 2201–2211 (1995).
[Crossref]

Quail, J. C.

J. C. Quail, J. G. Rako, H. J. Simon, and R. T. Deck, “Optical Second-Harmonic generation with Long-Range surface plasmons”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 50, 1987–1989 (1983).
[Crossref]

Raether, H.

H. Raether, Surface plasmons on smooth and rough surfaces and on gratings (Heidelberg: Springer, 1988), Chap. 2, 4–39.

Rako, J. G.

J. C. Quail, J. G. Rako, H. J. Simon, and R. T. Deck, “Optical Second-Harmonic generation with Long-Range surface plasmons”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 50, 1987–1989 (1983).
[Crossref]

Sambles, J.

R. J. Crook, F. Yang, and J. Sambles, “An investigation of p- and s- polarized long-range optical modes supported by a strongly absorbing normal uniaxial thin organic film”, J. Mod. Opt. 40, 243–253 (1993).
[Crossref]

Scott, G. D.

G. J. Kovacs and G. D. Scott, “Attenuated total reflection angular spectra of a system of alternating plasma-dielectric layers”, App. Opt. 17, 3627–3635 (1978).
[Crossref]

G. J. Kovacs and G. D. Scott, “Attenuated total reflection angular spectra and associated resonant electromagnetic oscillations of a dielectric slab bounded by Ag films”, App. Opt. 17, 3314–3322 (1978).
[Crossref]

Simon, H. J.

J. C. Quail, J. G. Rako, H. J. Simon, and R. T. Deck, “Optical Second-Harmonic generation with Long-Range surface plasmons”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 50, 1987–1989 (1983).
[Crossref]

Simon, J. M.

J. M. Simon and V. A. Presa, “Surface electromagnetic waves at the interface with anisotropic media”, J. Mod. Opt. 42, 2201–2211 (1995).
[Crossref]

Stewart, J. E.

J. E. Stewart and W. S. Gallaway, “Diffraction anomalies in grating spectrophotometers”, App. Opt. 1, 421–429 (1962).
[Crossref]

Torner, L.

D. Mihalache, D. M. Baboiu, M. Ciumac, L. Torner, and J. Torres, “Hybrid surface plasmon polaritons guided by ultrathin metal films”, Opt. Quantum Electron. 26, 857–863 (1994).
[Crossref]

D. Mihalache, D. M. Baboiu, M. Ciumac, L. Torner, and J. Torres, “Guided waves in anisotropic antiguide structures”, Opt. Comm. 108, 239–242 (1994).
[Crossref]

L. Torner, J. Torres, and D. Mihalache, “New type of guided waves in birefringent media”, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 5, 201–203 (1993).
[Crossref]

Torres, J.

D. Mihalache, D. M. Baboiu, M. Ciumac, L. Torner, and J. Torres, “Guided waves in anisotropic antiguide structures”, Opt. Comm. 108, 239–242 (1994).
[Crossref]

D. Mihalache, D. M. Baboiu, M. Ciumac, L. Torner, and J. Torres, “Hybrid surface plasmon polaritons guided by ultrathin metal films”, Opt. Quantum Electron. 26, 857–863 (1994).
[Crossref]

L. Torner, J. Torres, and D. Mihalache, “New type of guided waves in birefringent media”, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 5, 201–203 (1993).
[Crossref]

Utagawa, K.

Wallis, R. F.

R. F. Wallis, in Electromagnetic surface modes, A. D. Boardman, ed., (John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1982), Chap. 15, 575–631.

Yang, F.

R. J. Crook, F. Yang, and J. Sambles, “An investigation of p- and s- polarized long-range optical modes supported by a strongly absorbing normal uniaxial thin organic film”, J. Mod. Opt. 40, 243–253 (1993).
[Crossref]

App. Opt. (3)

G. J. Kovacs and G. D. Scott, “Attenuated total reflection angular spectra and associated resonant electromagnetic oscillations of a dielectric slab bounded by Ag films”, App. Opt. 17, 3314–3322 (1978).
[Crossref]

G. J. Kovacs and G. D. Scott, “Attenuated total reflection angular spectra of a system of alternating plasma-dielectric layers”, App. Opt. 17, 3627–3635 (1978).
[Crossref]

J. E. Stewart and W. S. Gallaway, “Diffraction anomalies in grating spectrophotometers”, App. Opt. 1, 421–429 (1962).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

L. Torner, J. Torres, and D. Mihalache, “New type of guided waves in birefringent media”, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 5, 201–203 (1993).
[Crossref]

J. Mod. Opt. (2)

J. M. Simon and V. A. Presa, “Surface electromagnetic waves at the interface with anisotropic media”, J. Mod. Opt. 42, 2201–2211 (1995).
[Crossref]

R. J. Crook, F. Yang, and J. Sambles, “An investigation of p- and s- polarized long-range optical modes supported by a strongly absorbing normal uniaxial thin organic film”, J. Mod. Opt. 40, 243–253 (1993).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am (1)

G. J. Kovacs, “Surface polariton in the ATR angular spectra of a thin iron film bounded by dielectric layers”, J. Opt. Soc. Am 68, 1325–1331 (1978).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Opt. Comm. (1)

D. Mihalache, D. M. Baboiu, M. Ciumac, L. Torner, and J. Torres, “Guided waves in anisotropic antiguide structures”, Opt. Comm. 108, 239–242 (1994).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Opt. Quantum Electron. (1)

D. Mihalache, D. M. Baboiu, M. Ciumac, L. Torner, and J. Torres, “Hybrid surface plasmon polaritons guided by ultrathin metal films”, Opt. Quantum Electron. 26, 857–863 (1994).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

R. A. Depine and M. L. Gigli, “Conversion between polarization states at the sinusoidal boundary of a uniaxial crystal”, Phys. Rev. B 49, 8437–8445 (1994).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. E (1)

M. E. Inchaussandague and R. A. Depine, “Polarization conversion from diffraction gratings made of uniaxial crystals”, Phys. Rev. E 54, 2899–2911 (1996).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

J. C. Quail, J. G. Rako, H. J. Simon, and R. T. Deck, “Optical Second-Harmonic generation with Long-Range surface plasmons”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 50, 1987–1989 (1983).
[Crossref]

Other (7)

H. C. Chen, Theory of electromagnetic waves: A coordinate free approach (Mc Graw-Hill, New York, 1983), Chap. 6, 219–262.

H. Raether, Surface plasmons on smooth and rough surfaces and on gratings (Heidelberg: Springer, 1988), Chap. 2, 4–39.

R. Petit, editor, Electromagnetic theory of gratings, (Springer, Heidelberg, 1980).
[Crossref]

A. D. Boardman, ed., Electromagnetic surface modes (John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1982).

E. Burstein and F. de Martini, ed., Polaritons (Pergamon Press, London, 1974).

G. Borstel and H. J. Falge, in Electromagnetic surface modes, A. D. Boardman, ed., (John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1982), Chap. 6, 219–248.

R. F. Wallis, in Electromagnetic surface modes, A. D. Boardman, ed., (John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1982), Chap. 15, 575–631.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Poles of the reflection matrix and zeroes of Roo in the complex plane α 0. The constitutive parameters of the structure are: = 2.51, = 1.78, μa = 1, φ = 20°, θc = 25°, l = -21.6+1.4i, μl = 1, μi = 1 and 0.03 < l/λ 0 < 0.3. Several values of i have been chosen: a) 1.94, b) 1.952, c) 1.953, d) 1.954 and e) 1.96.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Reflected power as a function of α 0/k 0 in the region of excitation of surface modes, for several values of the ratio l/λ 0, for the incidence of an ordinary wave. The other parameters are the same as in the previous figures.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Field enhancement factor on the crystal (y = 0) as a function of α 0/k 0 in Region II and of l/λ 0, for the incidence of an ordinary wave. The other parameters are the same as in the previous figures.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Field enhancement factor evaluated at y = -l, as a function of α 0/k 0 and of l/λ 0, when incidence of an ordinary wave. The other parameters are the same as in the previous figures.

Equations (12)

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ρ = μ a [ ( 1 c y 2 ) + c y 2 ] ( 1 c z 2 ) + c z 2 ,
E ± ( r ) = C o ± e ̂ o ± exp ( i k o ± · r ) + C e ± e ̂ e ± exp ( i k e ± · r ) ,
k o ± · k o ± = k 0 2 μ 2 , for ordinary waves ,
k e ± · ˜ · k e ± = k 0 2 μ 2 , for extraordinary waves .
E i ( r ) = [ A s z ̂ + A p ( k ̂ i × z ̂ ) ] exp ( i k i · r ) ,
E l = [ B s z ̂ + B p ( k ̂ l × z ̂ ) ] exp ( i k l · r ) + [ B s z ̂ + B p ( k ̂ l × z ̂ ) ] exp ( i k l · r ) ,
C o C e = R oo R oe R eo R ee C o + C e + .
det ( R ˜ 1 ) = 0 .
η ( α 0 ) exp ( 4 i γ l l ) + μ ( α 0 ) exp ( 2 i γ l l ) + ν ( α 0 ) = 0 ,
R oo = 0 if > ,
R ee = 0 if < .
F . E . ( y ) = E ( y ) E + ( y = 0 + ) ,

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