Abstract

We study the redistribution of Cesium atomic Rydberg states by intense, shaped, narrow-band pulses of millimeter radiation. The radiation source is a large-area photoconductive switch illuminated by a temporally shaped optical pulse. We will present our latest efforts to study atomic redistribution in the strong-field limit using these table-top THz sources.

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References

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  1. T.F. Gallagher, "Microwave multiphoton transitions in Rydberg atoms," Comments At. Mol. Phys. 30 221-30 (1995).
  2. M. Gatzke, R.B. Watkins, T.F. Gallagher, "Quantum interference in microwave multiphoton transitions," Phys. Rev. A 51 4835-41 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. M. Gatzke, M.C. Baruch, R.B. Watkins, T.F. Gallagher, "Microwave multiphoton Rabi oscillations," Phys. Rev. A 48 4742-9 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. P.M. Koch, K.A.H. van Leeuwen, "The importance of resonances in microwave "ionization" of excited hydrogen atoms," Phys. Rep. 255 289-403 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. Jones, D. You, and P. Bucksbaum, "Ionization of Rydberg atoms by subpicosecond half-cycle electromagnetic pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 70 1236-1239 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. C.W.S. Conover and J.H. Rentz, J.H., "Quantum interference in half-cycle microwave multiphoton transitions," Phys. Rev. A 55 3787-3796 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  7. N. Tielking and R. Jones, "Coherent population transfer among Rydberg states by sub-picosecond, half-cycle pulses," Phys. Rev. A 52 1371-81 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. C.R. Stroud, Jr. has published many important papers on Rydberg wavepacket formation using short optical pulses. For example: J.A. Yeazell, and C.R. Stroud, Jr., "Observation of spatially localized atomic electron wave packets," Phys. Rev. Lett. 60 1494-7 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A.M. Weiner, D.E. Leaird, J.S. Patel, J.R. Wullert, "Programmable femtosecond pulse shaping by use of a multi-element liquid-crystal phase modulator," Opt. Lett. 15 326-8 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. D.H. Reitze, A.M. Weiner, D.E. Leaird, "Shaping of wide bandwidth 20 femtosecond optical pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 61 1260-2 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  11. C.W. Hillegas, J.X. Tull, D. Goswami, D. Strickland, W.S. Warren, "Femtosecond laser pulse shaping by use of microsecond radio-frequency pulses," Opt. Lett. 19 737-9 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. D.W. Schumacher, J.H. Hoogenraad, D. Pinkos, P.H. Bucksbaum, "Programmable cesium Rydberg wave packets," Phys. Rev. A 52 4719-26 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. M. L. Naudeau, C. I. Sukenik, and P. H. Bucksbaum, "Core-Scattering of Stark Wavepackets", Phys. Rev. A 56 636-9 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  14. C.S. Raman, T.C. Weinacht, and P.H. Bucksbaum, "Stark Wavepackets Viewed with Half-Cycle Pulses," Phys. Rev. A 55 R3995-8 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  15. J.H. Hoogenraad, R.B. Vrijen, L.D. Noordam, "Ionization suppression of Rydberg atoms by short laser pulses," Phys. Rev. A 50 4133-8 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. R.R. Jones, D.W. Schumacher, and P.H. Bucksbaum, "Population Trapping in Kr and Xe in Intense Laser Fields," Phys. Rev. A 47 R49-52 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. R.R. Jones and P.H. Bucksbaum, "Ionization Suppression of Stark States in Intense Laser Fields," Phys. Rev. Lett. 67 3215-8 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. M. Kalinski, J.H. Eberly, J.H. "New states of hydrogen in a circularly polarized electromagnetic field," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77 2420-3 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. Y. Liu, S.-G. Park, and A. Weiner, "Enhancement of narrow-band terahertz radiation from photoconducting antennas by optical pulse shaping," Opt. Lett. 21 1762-4 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. Y. Liu, S.-G. Park, A.M. Weiner, "Terahertz waveform synthesis via optical pulse shaping," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2 709-19 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  21. A. Weling, B. Hu, N. Froberg, and D. Auston, "Generation of tunable narrow-band thz radiation from large aperture photoconducting antennas," Appl. Phys. Lett. 64 137-9 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  22. C. E. Moore, "Atomic Energy Levels", Nat. Stand. Ref. Data Ser., Nat. Bur. Stand. (United States Government Printing Offce, Washington, 1971), No. 35.
  23. D. You, R. Jones, D. Dykaar, and P. Bucksbaum, "Generation of high-power half-cycle 500 femtosecond electromagnetic pulses," Opt. Lett. 18 290-292 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. D. You and P. Bucksbaum, "Propagation of half-cycle r pulses," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14 1651-1655 (1997).
    [CrossRef]

Other (24)

T.F. Gallagher, "Microwave multiphoton transitions in Rydberg atoms," Comments At. Mol. Phys. 30 221-30 (1995).

M. Gatzke, R.B. Watkins, T.F. Gallagher, "Quantum interference in microwave multiphoton transitions," Phys. Rev. A 51 4835-41 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Gatzke, M.C. Baruch, R.B. Watkins, T.F. Gallagher, "Microwave multiphoton Rabi oscillations," Phys. Rev. A 48 4742-9 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P.M. Koch, K.A.H. van Leeuwen, "The importance of resonances in microwave "ionization" of excited hydrogen atoms," Phys. Rep. 255 289-403 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. Jones, D. You, and P. Bucksbaum, "Ionization of Rydberg atoms by subpicosecond half-cycle electromagnetic pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 70 1236-1239 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.W.S. Conover and J.H. Rentz, J.H., "Quantum interference in half-cycle microwave multiphoton transitions," Phys. Rev. A 55 3787-3796 (1997).
[CrossRef]

N. Tielking and R. Jones, "Coherent population transfer among Rydberg states by sub-picosecond, half-cycle pulses," Phys. Rev. A 52 1371-81 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.R. Stroud, Jr. has published many important papers on Rydberg wavepacket formation using short optical pulses. For example: J.A. Yeazell, and C.R. Stroud, Jr., "Observation of spatially localized atomic electron wave packets," Phys. Rev. Lett. 60 1494-7 (1988).
[CrossRef]

A.M. Weiner, D.E. Leaird, J.S. Patel, J.R. Wullert, "Programmable femtosecond pulse shaping by use of a multi-element liquid-crystal phase modulator," Opt. Lett. 15 326-8 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D.H. Reitze, A.M. Weiner, D.E. Leaird, "Shaping of wide bandwidth 20 femtosecond optical pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 61 1260-2 (1992).
[CrossRef]

C.W. Hillegas, J.X. Tull, D. Goswami, D. Strickland, W.S. Warren, "Femtosecond laser pulse shaping by use of microsecond radio-frequency pulses," Opt. Lett. 19 737-9 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D.W. Schumacher, J.H. Hoogenraad, D. Pinkos, P.H. Bucksbaum, "Programmable cesium Rydberg wave packets," Phys. Rev. A 52 4719-26 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. L. Naudeau, C. I. Sukenik, and P. H. Bucksbaum, "Core-Scattering of Stark Wavepackets", Phys. Rev. A 56 636-9 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C.S. Raman, T.C. Weinacht, and P.H. Bucksbaum, "Stark Wavepackets Viewed with Half-Cycle Pulses," Phys. Rev. A 55 R3995-8 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J.H. Hoogenraad, R.B. Vrijen, L.D. Noordam, "Ionization suppression of Rydberg atoms by short laser pulses," Phys. Rev. A 50 4133-8 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R.R. Jones, D.W. Schumacher, and P.H. Bucksbaum, "Population Trapping in Kr and Xe in Intense Laser Fields," Phys. Rev. A 47 R49-52 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R.R. Jones and P.H. Bucksbaum, "Ionization Suppression of Stark States in Intense Laser Fields," Phys. Rev. Lett. 67 3215-8 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Kalinski, J.H. Eberly, J.H. "New states of hydrogen in a circularly polarized electromagnetic field," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77 2420-3 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Liu, S.-G. Park, and A. Weiner, "Enhancement of narrow-band terahertz radiation from photoconducting antennas by optical pulse shaping," Opt. Lett. 21 1762-4 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Liu, S.-G. Park, A.M. Weiner, "Terahertz waveform synthesis via optical pulse shaping," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2 709-19 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Weling, B. Hu, N. Froberg, and D. Auston, "Generation of tunable narrow-band thz radiation from large aperture photoconducting antennas," Appl. Phys. Lett. 64 137-9 (1994).
[CrossRef]

C. E. Moore, "Atomic Energy Levels", Nat. Stand. Ref. Data Ser., Nat. Bur. Stand. (United States Government Printing Offce, Washington, 1971), No. 35.

D. You, R. Jones, D. Dykaar, and P. Bucksbaum, "Generation of high-power half-cycle 500 femtosecond electromagnetic pulses," Opt. Lett. 18 290-292 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. You and P. Bucksbaum, "Propagation of half-cycle r pulses," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14 1651-1655 (1997).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Shaping the Optical Pulse: 150 psec duration, 2.4–3.3 psec period

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Pulse shaped to produce a steep rising edge.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Experimental apparatus.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Grotrian diagram for cesium.

Fig. 5a.
Fig. 5a.

Field-ionization signal vs. time as a dc field is ramped. The dotted line is the signal recorded when only the 24p state is populated. Redistribution by a millimeter-wave pulse results in additional features (solid line) corresponding to population transfer to neighboring states.

5b.
5b.

Relevant Rydberg states.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Redistribution spectra for slowly rising pulse. The top figure show redistribution from 24p up to 25s, and the bottom figure shows redistribution down to 24s.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Redistribution spectra with shaped pulse with a steep rising edge. The top figure shows redistribution to higher states, while the bottom figure shows redistribution to lower states. The three spectra in each figure correspond to a bias field of 125V/cm (top); 100V/cm (middle); and 75V/cm (bottom).

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Theoretical calculation using slow and steeply rising pulses: Periodic modulation of population with frequency.

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