Abstract

We argue that in nonlinear optical systems with atoms randomly distributed in crystals or amorphous hosts one should go beyond the Clausius-Mossoti limit in order to take into account the effect of local field fluctuations induced by configurational disorder in atom position. This effect is analyzed by means of a random local mean field approach with neglect of correlations between dipole moments of different atoms. The formalism is applied to 3-level Λ type systems with quantum coherence possessing an absorptionless index of refraction and lasing without inversion. We show that the effect of configurational fluctuations results in the suppression of the atom susceptibility compared with the predictions based on the Clausius-Mossoti equation.

© 1997 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J.D. Jackson, Classical Electrodynamics (Wiley, New York, 1975).
  2. C. Kittel, Solid State Theory (Dover Publ., New York, 1986).
  3. H.A. Lorentz, The Theory of Electrons (Teubner, Leipzig, 1909)
  4. R. Friedberg, S.R. Hartmann, and J.T. Manassah, “Frequency Shift in Emission and Absorption by Resonant systems of Two-Level Atoms”, Phys. Rep. 7, 101 (1973).
    [Crossref]
  5. C.M. Bowden and J.P. Dowling, “Near Dipole-Dipole Effects in Dense Media: Generalized Maxwell-Bloch Equations”, Phys. Rev. A 47, 1247 (1993).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. J.T. Manassah, “Statistical Quantum Electrodynamics of Resonant Atoms”, Phys. Rep. 101, 359 (1983).
    [Crossref]
  7. Y. Ben-Aryeh, C.M. Bowden, and J.C. Englund, “Intrinsic Optical Bistability in Collection of Spatially Distributed Two-Level Atoms”, Phys.Rev. A 34, 3917 (1986).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. R. Friedberg, S. R. Hartman, and J.T. Manassah, “Effect of Local Field Correction on a Strongly Pumped Resonance”, Phys. Rev. A 40, 2446 (1989).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. J.J. Maki, M.S. Malcuit, J.E. Sipe, and R.W. Boyd, “Linear and Nonlinear Optical Measurements of the Lorentz Local Field”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 972 (1991).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. J.P. Dowling and C.M. Bowden, “Near Dipole-Dipole Effects in Lasing without Inversion: An Enhancement of Gain and Absorptionless Index of Refraction”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1421 (1993).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. A. Manka, J. P. Dowling, and C.M. Bowden, “Piezophotonic Switching Due to Local Field Effects in a Coherently Prepared Medium of Three-Level Atoms”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73 , 1789 (1994).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. R.R. Mosley, B.D. Sinclair, and M.H. Dunn, “Local Field Effect in the Three-level Atom”, Opt. Commun. 108, 247 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  13. C.M. Bowden, S. Singh, and G. Agrawal, “Laser instabilities and chaos in inhomogeneously broadened dense media”, J. Mod. Opt. 42, 101 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  14. O. Kocharovskaya, “Amplification and Lasing without Inversion”, Phys. Rep. 219, 175 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  15. M.O. Scully, “From Lasers and Masers to Phaseonium and Phasers”, Phys. Rep. 219, 191 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  16. M. Fleischhauer, C.H. Keitel, M.O. Scully, C. Su, and S.-Y. Zhu, “Resonantly Enhanced Refractive Index without Absorption via Atomic Coherence”, Phys. Rev. A 46, 1468 (1992).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. K. Binder and A.P. Young, “Spin Glasses”, Rev. Mod. Phys. 58,801 (1986).
    [Crossref]
  18. M.W. Klein, C. Held, and E. Zuroff, “Dipole Interactions Among Polar Defects: a Self-Consistent Theory with Application to OH- Impurities in KCL”, Phys. Rev. B 13, 3576 (1976).
    [Crossref]
  19. H. Margenau, “Pressure Broadenning of Spectral Lines”, Phys. Rev. 43, 129 (1933).
    [Crossref]
  20. B.E. Vugmeister and M.D. Glinchuk, “Dipole Glass and Ferroelectricity in Random Site electric Dipole Systems” Rev. Mod. Phys. 62, 993 (1990).
    [Crossref]
  21. B.E. Vugmeister and H. Rabitz, “Effect of Local Field Fluctuations on Orientational in Random Site Dipole Systems”, J. Stat. Phys. 88, 477 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  22. P.W. Miloni and P.L. Knight, ”Retardation in the Resonant Interaction of Two Identical Atoms”, Phys. Rev. A 10, 1076 (1974).
    [Crossref]
  23. Y. Ben-Aryeh and S. Ruschin, “Cooperative Decay of a Linear Chain of Molecules Including Explicit Spatial Dependence”, Physica A 88, 362 (1977).
    [Crossref]
  24. B.E. Vugmeister and H. Rabitz, “Nonequilibrium Spin Glass State in Nonlinear Optical Systems with Coherence”, Phys. Lett. 232,129 (1997).
    [Crossref]

1997 (2)

B.E. Vugmeister and H. Rabitz, “Effect of Local Field Fluctuations on Orientational in Random Site Dipole Systems”, J. Stat. Phys. 88, 477 (1997).
[Crossref]

B.E. Vugmeister and H. Rabitz, “Nonequilibrium Spin Glass State in Nonlinear Optical Systems with Coherence”, Phys. Lett. 232,129 (1997).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

C.M. Bowden, S. Singh, and G. Agrawal, “Laser instabilities and chaos in inhomogeneously broadened dense media”, J. Mod. Opt. 42, 101 (1995).
[Crossref]

1994 (2)

A. Manka, J. P. Dowling, and C.M. Bowden, “Piezophotonic Switching Due to Local Field Effects in a Coherently Prepared Medium of Three-Level Atoms”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73 , 1789 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R.R. Mosley, B.D. Sinclair, and M.H. Dunn, “Local Field Effect in the Three-level Atom”, Opt. Commun. 108, 247 (1994).
[Crossref]

1993 (2)

C.M. Bowden and J.P. Dowling, “Near Dipole-Dipole Effects in Dense Media: Generalized Maxwell-Bloch Equations”, Phys. Rev. A 47, 1247 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J.P. Dowling and C.M. Bowden, “Near Dipole-Dipole Effects in Lasing without Inversion: An Enhancement of Gain and Absorptionless Index of Refraction”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1421 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1992 (3)

O. Kocharovskaya, “Amplification and Lasing without Inversion”, Phys. Rep. 219, 175 (1992).
[Crossref]

M.O. Scully, “From Lasers and Masers to Phaseonium and Phasers”, Phys. Rep. 219, 191 (1992).
[Crossref]

M. Fleischhauer, C.H. Keitel, M.O. Scully, C. Su, and S.-Y. Zhu, “Resonantly Enhanced Refractive Index without Absorption via Atomic Coherence”, Phys. Rev. A 46, 1468 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

J.J. Maki, M.S. Malcuit, J.E. Sipe, and R.W. Boyd, “Linear and Nonlinear Optical Measurements of the Lorentz Local Field”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 972 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

B.E. Vugmeister and M.D. Glinchuk, “Dipole Glass and Ferroelectricity in Random Site electric Dipole Systems” Rev. Mod. Phys. 62, 993 (1990).
[Crossref]

1989 (1)

R. Friedberg, S. R. Hartman, and J.T. Manassah, “Effect of Local Field Correction on a Strongly Pumped Resonance”, Phys. Rev. A 40, 2446 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1986 (2)

Y. Ben-Aryeh, C.M. Bowden, and J.C. Englund, “Intrinsic Optical Bistability in Collection of Spatially Distributed Two-Level Atoms”, Phys.Rev. A 34, 3917 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Binder and A.P. Young, “Spin Glasses”, Rev. Mod. Phys. 58,801 (1986).
[Crossref]

1983 (1)

J.T. Manassah, “Statistical Quantum Electrodynamics of Resonant Atoms”, Phys. Rep. 101, 359 (1983).
[Crossref]

1977 (1)

Y. Ben-Aryeh and S. Ruschin, “Cooperative Decay of a Linear Chain of Molecules Including Explicit Spatial Dependence”, Physica A 88, 362 (1977).
[Crossref]

1976 (1)

M.W. Klein, C. Held, and E. Zuroff, “Dipole Interactions Among Polar Defects: a Self-Consistent Theory with Application to OH- Impurities in KCL”, Phys. Rev. B 13, 3576 (1976).
[Crossref]

1974 (1)

P.W. Miloni and P.L. Knight, ”Retardation in the Resonant Interaction of Two Identical Atoms”, Phys. Rev. A 10, 1076 (1974).
[Crossref]

1973 (1)

R. Friedberg, S.R. Hartmann, and J.T. Manassah, “Frequency Shift in Emission and Absorption by Resonant systems of Two-Level Atoms”, Phys. Rep. 7, 101 (1973).
[Crossref]

1933 (1)

H. Margenau, “Pressure Broadenning of Spectral Lines”, Phys. Rev. 43, 129 (1933).
[Crossref]

Agrawal, G.

C.M. Bowden, S. Singh, and G. Agrawal, “Laser instabilities and chaos in inhomogeneously broadened dense media”, J. Mod. Opt. 42, 101 (1995).
[Crossref]

Ben-Aryeh, Y.

Y. Ben-Aryeh, C.M. Bowden, and J.C. Englund, “Intrinsic Optical Bistability in Collection of Spatially Distributed Two-Level Atoms”, Phys.Rev. A 34, 3917 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Ben-Aryeh and S. Ruschin, “Cooperative Decay of a Linear Chain of Molecules Including Explicit Spatial Dependence”, Physica A 88, 362 (1977).
[Crossref]

Binder, K.

K. Binder and A.P. Young, “Spin Glasses”, Rev. Mod. Phys. 58,801 (1986).
[Crossref]

Bowden, C.M.

C.M. Bowden, S. Singh, and G. Agrawal, “Laser instabilities and chaos in inhomogeneously broadened dense media”, J. Mod. Opt. 42, 101 (1995).
[Crossref]

A. Manka, J. P. Dowling, and C.M. Bowden, “Piezophotonic Switching Due to Local Field Effects in a Coherently Prepared Medium of Three-Level Atoms”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73 , 1789 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C.M. Bowden and J.P. Dowling, “Near Dipole-Dipole Effects in Dense Media: Generalized Maxwell-Bloch Equations”, Phys. Rev. A 47, 1247 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J.P. Dowling and C.M. Bowden, “Near Dipole-Dipole Effects in Lasing without Inversion: An Enhancement of Gain and Absorptionless Index of Refraction”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1421 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Ben-Aryeh, C.M. Bowden, and J.C. Englund, “Intrinsic Optical Bistability in Collection of Spatially Distributed Two-Level Atoms”, Phys.Rev. A 34, 3917 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boyd, R.W.

J.J. Maki, M.S. Malcuit, J.E. Sipe, and R.W. Boyd, “Linear and Nonlinear Optical Measurements of the Lorentz Local Field”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 972 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dowling, J. P.

A. Manka, J. P. Dowling, and C.M. Bowden, “Piezophotonic Switching Due to Local Field Effects in a Coherently Prepared Medium of Three-Level Atoms”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73 , 1789 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dowling, J.P.

J.P. Dowling and C.M. Bowden, “Near Dipole-Dipole Effects in Lasing without Inversion: An Enhancement of Gain and Absorptionless Index of Refraction”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1421 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C.M. Bowden and J.P. Dowling, “Near Dipole-Dipole Effects in Dense Media: Generalized Maxwell-Bloch Equations”, Phys. Rev. A 47, 1247 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dunn, M.H.

R.R. Mosley, B.D. Sinclair, and M.H. Dunn, “Local Field Effect in the Three-level Atom”, Opt. Commun. 108, 247 (1994).
[Crossref]

Englund, J.C.

Y. Ben-Aryeh, C.M. Bowden, and J.C. Englund, “Intrinsic Optical Bistability in Collection of Spatially Distributed Two-Level Atoms”, Phys.Rev. A 34, 3917 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fleischhauer, M.

M. Fleischhauer, C.H. Keitel, M.O. Scully, C. Su, and S.-Y. Zhu, “Resonantly Enhanced Refractive Index without Absorption via Atomic Coherence”, Phys. Rev. A 46, 1468 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Friedberg, R.

R. Friedberg, S. R. Hartman, and J.T. Manassah, “Effect of Local Field Correction on a Strongly Pumped Resonance”, Phys. Rev. A 40, 2446 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Friedberg, S.R. Hartmann, and J.T. Manassah, “Frequency Shift in Emission and Absorption by Resonant systems of Two-Level Atoms”, Phys. Rep. 7, 101 (1973).
[Crossref]

Glinchuk, M.D.

B.E. Vugmeister and M.D. Glinchuk, “Dipole Glass and Ferroelectricity in Random Site electric Dipole Systems” Rev. Mod. Phys. 62, 993 (1990).
[Crossref]

Hartman, S. R.

R. Friedberg, S. R. Hartman, and J.T. Manassah, “Effect of Local Field Correction on a Strongly Pumped Resonance”, Phys. Rev. A 40, 2446 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hartmann, S.R.

R. Friedberg, S.R. Hartmann, and J.T. Manassah, “Frequency Shift in Emission and Absorption by Resonant systems of Two-Level Atoms”, Phys. Rep. 7, 101 (1973).
[Crossref]

Held, C.

M.W. Klein, C. Held, and E. Zuroff, “Dipole Interactions Among Polar Defects: a Self-Consistent Theory with Application to OH- Impurities in KCL”, Phys. Rev. B 13, 3576 (1976).
[Crossref]

Jackson, J.D.

J.D. Jackson, Classical Electrodynamics (Wiley, New York, 1975).

Keitel, C.H.

M. Fleischhauer, C.H. Keitel, M.O. Scully, C. Su, and S.-Y. Zhu, “Resonantly Enhanced Refractive Index without Absorption via Atomic Coherence”, Phys. Rev. A 46, 1468 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kittel, C.

C. Kittel, Solid State Theory (Dover Publ., New York, 1986).

Klein, M.W.

M.W. Klein, C. Held, and E. Zuroff, “Dipole Interactions Among Polar Defects: a Self-Consistent Theory with Application to OH- Impurities in KCL”, Phys. Rev. B 13, 3576 (1976).
[Crossref]

Knight, P.L.

P.W. Miloni and P.L. Knight, ”Retardation in the Resonant Interaction of Two Identical Atoms”, Phys. Rev. A 10, 1076 (1974).
[Crossref]

Kocharovskaya, O.

O. Kocharovskaya, “Amplification and Lasing without Inversion”, Phys. Rep. 219, 175 (1992).
[Crossref]

Lorentz, H.A.

H.A. Lorentz, The Theory of Electrons (Teubner, Leipzig, 1909)

Maki, J.J.

J.J. Maki, M.S. Malcuit, J.E. Sipe, and R.W. Boyd, “Linear and Nonlinear Optical Measurements of the Lorentz Local Field”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 972 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Malcuit, M.S.

J.J. Maki, M.S. Malcuit, J.E. Sipe, and R.W. Boyd, “Linear and Nonlinear Optical Measurements of the Lorentz Local Field”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 972 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Manassah, J.T.

R. Friedberg, S. R. Hartman, and J.T. Manassah, “Effect of Local Field Correction on a Strongly Pumped Resonance”, Phys. Rev. A 40, 2446 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J.T. Manassah, “Statistical Quantum Electrodynamics of Resonant Atoms”, Phys. Rep. 101, 359 (1983).
[Crossref]

R. Friedberg, S.R. Hartmann, and J.T. Manassah, “Frequency Shift in Emission and Absorption by Resonant systems of Two-Level Atoms”, Phys. Rep. 7, 101 (1973).
[Crossref]

Manka, A.

A. Manka, J. P. Dowling, and C.M. Bowden, “Piezophotonic Switching Due to Local Field Effects in a Coherently Prepared Medium of Three-Level Atoms”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73 , 1789 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Margenau, H.

H. Margenau, “Pressure Broadenning of Spectral Lines”, Phys. Rev. 43, 129 (1933).
[Crossref]

Miloni, P.W.

P.W. Miloni and P.L. Knight, ”Retardation in the Resonant Interaction of Two Identical Atoms”, Phys. Rev. A 10, 1076 (1974).
[Crossref]

Mosley, R.R.

R.R. Mosley, B.D. Sinclair, and M.H. Dunn, “Local Field Effect in the Three-level Atom”, Opt. Commun. 108, 247 (1994).
[Crossref]

Rabitz, H.

B.E. Vugmeister and H. Rabitz, “Effect of Local Field Fluctuations on Orientational in Random Site Dipole Systems”, J. Stat. Phys. 88, 477 (1997).
[Crossref]

B.E. Vugmeister and H. Rabitz, “Nonequilibrium Spin Glass State in Nonlinear Optical Systems with Coherence”, Phys. Lett. 232,129 (1997).
[Crossref]

Ruschin, S.

Y. Ben-Aryeh and S. Ruschin, “Cooperative Decay of a Linear Chain of Molecules Including Explicit Spatial Dependence”, Physica A 88, 362 (1977).
[Crossref]

Scully, M.O.

M.O. Scully, “From Lasers and Masers to Phaseonium and Phasers”, Phys. Rep. 219, 191 (1992).
[Crossref]

M. Fleischhauer, C.H. Keitel, M.O. Scully, C. Su, and S.-Y. Zhu, “Resonantly Enhanced Refractive Index without Absorption via Atomic Coherence”, Phys. Rev. A 46, 1468 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sinclair, B.D.

R.R. Mosley, B.D. Sinclair, and M.H. Dunn, “Local Field Effect in the Three-level Atom”, Opt. Commun. 108, 247 (1994).
[Crossref]

Singh, S.

C.M. Bowden, S. Singh, and G. Agrawal, “Laser instabilities and chaos in inhomogeneously broadened dense media”, J. Mod. Opt. 42, 101 (1995).
[Crossref]

Sipe, J.E.

J.J. Maki, M.S. Malcuit, J.E. Sipe, and R.W. Boyd, “Linear and Nonlinear Optical Measurements of the Lorentz Local Field”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 972 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Su, C.

M. Fleischhauer, C.H. Keitel, M.O. Scully, C. Su, and S.-Y. Zhu, “Resonantly Enhanced Refractive Index without Absorption via Atomic Coherence”, Phys. Rev. A 46, 1468 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vugmeister, B.E.

B.E. Vugmeister and H. Rabitz, “Nonequilibrium Spin Glass State in Nonlinear Optical Systems with Coherence”, Phys. Lett. 232,129 (1997).
[Crossref]

B.E. Vugmeister and H. Rabitz, “Effect of Local Field Fluctuations on Orientational in Random Site Dipole Systems”, J. Stat. Phys. 88, 477 (1997).
[Crossref]

B.E. Vugmeister and M.D. Glinchuk, “Dipole Glass and Ferroelectricity in Random Site electric Dipole Systems” Rev. Mod. Phys. 62, 993 (1990).
[Crossref]

Young, A.P.

K. Binder and A.P. Young, “Spin Glasses”, Rev. Mod. Phys. 58,801 (1986).
[Crossref]

Zhu, S.-Y.

M. Fleischhauer, C.H. Keitel, M.O. Scully, C. Su, and S.-Y. Zhu, “Resonantly Enhanced Refractive Index without Absorption via Atomic Coherence”, Phys. Rev. A 46, 1468 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zuroff, E.

M.W. Klein, C. Held, and E. Zuroff, “Dipole Interactions Among Polar Defects: a Self-Consistent Theory with Application to OH- Impurities in KCL”, Phys. Rev. B 13, 3576 (1976).
[Crossref]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

C.M. Bowden, S. Singh, and G. Agrawal, “Laser instabilities and chaos in inhomogeneously broadened dense media”, J. Mod. Opt. 42, 101 (1995).
[Crossref]

J. Stat. Phys. (1)

B.E. Vugmeister and H. Rabitz, “Effect of Local Field Fluctuations on Orientational in Random Site Dipole Systems”, J. Stat. Phys. 88, 477 (1997).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (1)

R.R. Mosley, B.D. Sinclair, and M.H. Dunn, “Local Field Effect in the Three-level Atom”, Opt. Commun. 108, 247 (1994).
[Crossref]

Phys. Lett. (1)

B.E. Vugmeister and H. Rabitz, “Nonequilibrium Spin Glass State in Nonlinear Optical Systems with Coherence”, Phys. Lett. 232,129 (1997).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rep. (4)

J.T. Manassah, “Statistical Quantum Electrodynamics of Resonant Atoms”, Phys. Rep. 101, 359 (1983).
[Crossref]

O. Kocharovskaya, “Amplification and Lasing without Inversion”, Phys. Rep. 219, 175 (1992).
[Crossref]

M.O. Scully, “From Lasers and Masers to Phaseonium and Phasers”, Phys. Rep. 219, 191 (1992).
[Crossref]

R. Friedberg, S.R. Hartmann, and J.T. Manassah, “Frequency Shift in Emission and Absorption by Resonant systems of Two-Level Atoms”, Phys. Rep. 7, 101 (1973).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. (1)

H. Margenau, “Pressure Broadenning of Spectral Lines”, Phys. Rev. 43, 129 (1933).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. A (4)

P.W. Miloni and P.L. Knight, ”Retardation in the Resonant Interaction of Two Identical Atoms”, Phys. Rev. A 10, 1076 (1974).
[Crossref]

C.M. Bowden and J.P. Dowling, “Near Dipole-Dipole Effects in Dense Media: Generalized Maxwell-Bloch Equations”, Phys. Rev. A 47, 1247 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Friedberg, S. R. Hartman, and J.T. Manassah, “Effect of Local Field Correction on a Strongly Pumped Resonance”, Phys. Rev. A 40, 2446 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Fleischhauer, C.H. Keitel, M.O. Scully, C. Su, and S.-Y. Zhu, “Resonantly Enhanced Refractive Index without Absorption via Atomic Coherence”, Phys. Rev. A 46, 1468 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

M.W. Klein, C. Held, and E. Zuroff, “Dipole Interactions Among Polar Defects: a Self-Consistent Theory with Application to OH- Impurities in KCL”, Phys. Rev. B 13, 3576 (1976).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

J.J. Maki, M.S. Malcuit, J.E. Sipe, and R.W. Boyd, “Linear and Nonlinear Optical Measurements of the Lorentz Local Field”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 972 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J.P. Dowling and C.M. Bowden, “Near Dipole-Dipole Effects in Lasing without Inversion: An Enhancement of Gain and Absorptionless Index of Refraction”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1421 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Manka, J. P. Dowling, and C.M. Bowden, “Piezophotonic Switching Due to Local Field Effects in a Coherently Prepared Medium of Three-Level Atoms”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73 , 1789 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys.Rev. A (1)

Y. Ben-Aryeh, C.M. Bowden, and J.C. Englund, “Intrinsic Optical Bistability in Collection of Spatially Distributed Two-Level Atoms”, Phys.Rev. A 34, 3917 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Physica A (1)

Y. Ben-Aryeh and S. Ruschin, “Cooperative Decay of a Linear Chain of Molecules Including Explicit Spatial Dependence”, Physica A 88, 362 (1977).
[Crossref]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (2)

B.E. Vugmeister and M.D. Glinchuk, “Dipole Glass and Ferroelectricity in Random Site electric Dipole Systems” Rev. Mod. Phys. 62, 993 (1990).
[Crossref]

K. Binder and A.P. Young, “Spin Glasses”, Rev. Mod. Phys. 58,801 (1986).
[Crossref]

Other (3)

J.D. Jackson, Classical Electrodynamics (Wiley, New York, 1975).

C. Kittel, Solid State Theory (Dover Publ., New York, 1986).

H.A. Lorentz, The Theory of Electrons (Teubner, Leipzig, 1909)

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Figures (3)

Figure 1:
Figure 1:

Real (1) and imaginary (2) part of the susceptibility χ e of non-interacting atoms9

Figure 2:
Figure 2:

Real (1) and imaginary (2) part of the susceptibility χ DD obtained from Eqs.(11)–(14)

Figure 3:
Figure 3:

Real (1) and imaginary (2) part of the susceptibility χ DD given by the Clausius-Mossoti equation5

Equations (14)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

E L ( t ) = E ( t ) + 4 π 3 P ( t )
P ( ω ) = n α ( ω ) E L ( ω ) .
χ DD = 4 πnα 1 4 π 3 χ e 1 1 3 χ e .
P = 1 V 0 i N < μ ̂ i ¯ > n m i ¯
m i = α E iL ,
E iL = j J ij m j + E ex .
J ij J ( r ij ) = 3 ( n ij ) x 2 1 r ij 3 .
E iL MF = E ex + j J ij m j ¯ = E ex + P d r J ( r ) .
E iL = E + 4 π 3 P + e i ,
e i = j J ˜ ij m j ; J ˜ ij = J ij 1 V 0 d r J ( r ) .
χDD = κ e 1 1 3 κ e ,
κ e = de χ e ( e ) f ( e ) .
f ( e ) = 1 π δ δ 2 + e 2 ; δ = 5.1 μnM .
M = 1 μ de χ ' e ( e ) e f ( e , M )

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