Abstract

Gallium lanthanum sulphide based glasses are proposed as high quality hosts for rare-earth doped, mid-infrared fibre lasers, that would offer compact and rugged sources for gas sensing, atmospheric transmission, and medical applications. The infrared emission spectroscopy of erbium doped glasses and fibres shows the potential of this glass host for the above applications. Mid-infrared transitions at 2.0, 2.75, 3.6, and 4.5μm have been detected and characterized.

© 1997 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. D. W. Hewak, R. C. Moore, T. Schweizer, J. Wang, B. Samson, W. S. Brocklesby, D. N. Payne, and E. J. Tarbox, “Gallium lanthanum sulphide optical fibre for active and passive applications,” Electron. Lett. 32, 384–385 (1996)
    [Crossref]
  2. J. S. Sanghera, V. Q. Nguyen, P. C. Pureza, R. E. Miklos, F. H. Kung, and I. D. Aggarwal, “Fabrication of long lengths of low-loss IR transmitting As40S(60-x)Sex glass fibre,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 743–748 (1996)
    [Crossref]
  3. P. Urquhart, “Review of rare earth doped fibre lasers and amplifiers,” IEE Proc.-J: Optoelectron. 135, Pt. J, No. 6, 385–407 (1988)
    [Crossref]
  4. C.C. Ye, D. W. Hewak, M. Hempstead, B. N. Samson, and D. N. Payne, “Spectral properties of Er3+-doped gallium lanthanum sulphide glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 208, 56–63 (1996)
    [Crossref]
  5. B. F. Aull and H. P. Jenssen, “Vibronic interactions in Nd:YAG resulting in nonreciprocity of absorption and stimulated emission cross sections,” IEEE J. Quantum Elect. QE-18, 925–930 (1982)
    [Crossref]
  6. L. B. Shaw, D. Schaafsma, J. Moon, B. Harbison, J. Sanghera, and I. Aggarwal, “Evaluation of the IR transitions in rare-earth-doped chalcogenide glasses,” in Conference on Lasers and Electrooptics, Volume  11 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1997), p. 255.
  7. H. Többen, “Room temperature cw fibre laser at 3.5μm in Er3+-doped ZBLAN glass,” Electron. Lett. 28, 1361–1362 (1992)
    [Crossref]
  8. T. Schweizer, B. N. Samson, R. C. Moore, D. W. Hewak, and D. N. Payne, “Rare-earth doped chalcogenide glass laser,” Electron. Lett. 33, 414–416 (1997)
    [Crossref]

1997 (2)

L. B. Shaw, D. Schaafsma, J. Moon, B. Harbison, J. Sanghera, and I. Aggarwal, “Evaluation of the IR transitions in rare-earth-doped chalcogenide glasses,” in Conference on Lasers and Electrooptics, Volume  11 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1997), p. 255.

T. Schweizer, B. N. Samson, R. C. Moore, D. W. Hewak, and D. N. Payne, “Rare-earth doped chalcogenide glass laser,” Electron. Lett. 33, 414–416 (1997)
[Crossref]

1996 (3)

D. W. Hewak, R. C. Moore, T. Schweizer, J. Wang, B. Samson, W. S. Brocklesby, D. N. Payne, and E. J. Tarbox, “Gallium lanthanum sulphide optical fibre for active and passive applications,” Electron. Lett. 32, 384–385 (1996)
[Crossref]

J. S. Sanghera, V. Q. Nguyen, P. C. Pureza, R. E. Miklos, F. H. Kung, and I. D. Aggarwal, “Fabrication of long lengths of low-loss IR transmitting As40S(60-x)Sex glass fibre,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 743–748 (1996)
[Crossref]

C.C. Ye, D. W. Hewak, M. Hempstead, B. N. Samson, and D. N. Payne, “Spectral properties of Er3+-doped gallium lanthanum sulphide glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 208, 56–63 (1996)
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

H. Többen, “Room temperature cw fibre laser at 3.5μm in Er3+-doped ZBLAN glass,” Electron. Lett. 28, 1361–1362 (1992)
[Crossref]

1988 (1)

P. Urquhart, “Review of rare earth doped fibre lasers and amplifiers,” IEE Proc.-J: Optoelectron. 135, Pt. J, No. 6, 385–407 (1988)
[Crossref]

1982 (1)

B. F. Aull and H. P. Jenssen, “Vibronic interactions in Nd:YAG resulting in nonreciprocity of absorption and stimulated emission cross sections,” IEEE J. Quantum Elect. QE-18, 925–930 (1982)
[Crossref]

Aggarwal, I.

L. B. Shaw, D. Schaafsma, J. Moon, B. Harbison, J. Sanghera, and I. Aggarwal, “Evaluation of the IR transitions in rare-earth-doped chalcogenide glasses,” in Conference on Lasers and Electrooptics, Volume  11 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1997), p. 255.

Aggarwal, I. D.

J. S. Sanghera, V. Q. Nguyen, P. C. Pureza, R. E. Miklos, F. H. Kung, and I. D. Aggarwal, “Fabrication of long lengths of low-loss IR transmitting As40S(60-x)Sex glass fibre,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 743–748 (1996)
[Crossref]

Aull, B. F.

B. F. Aull and H. P. Jenssen, “Vibronic interactions in Nd:YAG resulting in nonreciprocity of absorption and stimulated emission cross sections,” IEEE J. Quantum Elect. QE-18, 925–930 (1982)
[Crossref]

Brocklesby, W. S.

D. W. Hewak, R. C. Moore, T. Schweizer, J. Wang, B. Samson, W. S. Brocklesby, D. N. Payne, and E. J. Tarbox, “Gallium lanthanum sulphide optical fibre for active and passive applications,” Electron. Lett. 32, 384–385 (1996)
[Crossref]

Harbison, B.

L. B. Shaw, D. Schaafsma, J. Moon, B. Harbison, J. Sanghera, and I. Aggarwal, “Evaluation of the IR transitions in rare-earth-doped chalcogenide glasses,” in Conference on Lasers and Electrooptics, Volume  11 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1997), p. 255.

Hempstead, M.

C.C. Ye, D. W. Hewak, M. Hempstead, B. N. Samson, and D. N. Payne, “Spectral properties of Er3+-doped gallium lanthanum sulphide glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 208, 56–63 (1996)
[Crossref]

Hewak, D. W.

T. Schweizer, B. N. Samson, R. C. Moore, D. W. Hewak, and D. N. Payne, “Rare-earth doped chalcogenide glass laser,” Electron. Lett. 33, 414–416 (1997)
[Crossref]

C.C. Ye, D. W. Hewak, M. Hempstead, B. N. Samson, and D. N. Payne, “Spectral properties of Er3+-doped gallium lanthanum sulphide glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 208, 56–63 (1996)
[Crossref]

D. W. Hewak, R. C. Moore, T. Schweizer, J. Wang, B. Samson, W. S. Brocklesby, D. N. Payne, and E. J. Tarbox, “Gallium lanthanum sulphide optical fibre for active and passive applications,” Electron. Lett. 32, 384–385 (1996)
[Crossref]

Jenssen, H. P.

B. F. Aull and H. P. Jenssen, “Vibronic interactions in Nd:YAG resulting in nonreciprocity of absorption and stimulated emission cross sections,” IEEE J. Quantum Elect. QE-18, 925–930 (1982)
[Crossref]

Kung, F. H.

J. S. Sanghera, V. Q. Nguyen, P. C. Pureza, R. E. Miklos, F. H. Kung, and I. D. Aggarwal, “Fabrication of long lengths of low-loss IR transmitting As40S(60-x)Sex glass fibre,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 743–748 (1996)
[Crossref]

Miklos, R. E.

J. S. Sanghera, V. Q. Nguyen, P. C. Pureza, R. E. Miklos, F. H. Kung, and I. D. Aggarwal, “Fabrication of long lengths of low-loss IR transmitting As40S(60-x)Sex glass fibre,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 743–748 (1996)
[Crossref]

Moon, J.

L. B. Shaw, D. Schaafsma, J. Moon, B. Harbison, J. Sanghera, and I. Aggarwal, “Evaluation of the IR transitions in rare-earth-doped chalcogenide glasses,” in Conference on Lasers and Electrooptics, Volume  11 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1997), p. 255.

Moore, R. C.

T. Schweizer, B. N. Samson, R. C. Moore, D. W. Hewak, and D. N. Payne, “Rare-earth doped chalcogenide glass laser,” Electron. Lett. 33, 414–416 (1997)
[Crossref]

D. W. Hewak, R. C. Moore, T. Schweizer, J. Wang, B. Samson, W. S. Brocklesby, D. N. Payne, and E. J. Tarbox, “Gallium lanthanum sulphide optical fibre for active and passive applications,” Electron. Lett. 32, 384–385 (1996)
[Crossref]

Nguyen, V. Q.

J. S. Sanghera, V. Q. Nguyen, P. C. Pureza, R. E. Miklos, F. H. Kung, and I. D. Aggarwal, “Fabrication of long lengths of low-loss IR transmitting As40S(60-x)Sex glass fibre,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 743–748 (1996)
[Crossref]

Payne, D. N.

T. Schweizer, B. N. Samson, R. C. Moore, D. W. Hewak, and D. N. Payne, “Rare-earth doped chalcogenide glass laser,” Electron. Lett. 33, 414–416 (1997)
[Crossref]

C.C. Ye, D. W. Hewak, M. Hempstead, B. N. Samson, and D. N. Payne, “Spectral properties of Er3+-doped gallium lanthanum sulphide glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 208, 56–63 (1996)
[Crossref]

D. W. Hewak, R. C. Moore, T. Schweizer, J. Wang, B. Samson, W. S. Brocklesby, D. N. Payne, and E. J. Tarbox, “Gallium lanthanum sulphide optical fibre for active and passive applications,” Electron. Lett. 32, 384–385 (1996)
[Crossref]

Pureza, P. C.

J. S. Sanghera, V. Q. Nguyen, P. C. Pureza, R. E. Miklos, F. H. Kung, and I. D. Aggarwal, “Fabrication of long lengths of low-loss IR transmitting As40S(60-x)Sex glass fibre,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 743–748 (1996)
[Crossref]

Samson, B.

D. W. Hewak, R. C. Moore, T. Schweizer, J. Wang, B. Samson, W. S. Brocklesby, D. N. Payne, and E. J. Tarbox, “Gallium lanthanum sulphide optical fibre for active and passive applications,” Electron. Lett. 32, 384–385 (1996)
[Crossref]

Samson, B. N.

T. Schweizer, B. N. Samson, R. C. Moore, D. W. Hewak, and D. N. Payne, “Rare-earth doped chalcogenide glass laser,” Electron. Lett. 33, 414–416 (1997)
[Crossref]

C.C. Ye, D. W. Hewak, M. Hempstead, B. N. Samson, and D. N. Payne, “Spectral properties of Er3+-doped gallium lanthanum sulphide glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 208, 56–63 (1996)
[Crossref]

Sanghera, J.

L. B. Shaw, D. Schaafsma, J. Moon, B. Harbison, J. Sanghera, and I. Aggarwal, “Evaluation of the IR transitions in rare-earth-doped chalcogenide glasses,” in Conference on Lasers and Electrooptics, Volume  11 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1997), p. 255.

Sanghera, J. S.

J. S. Sanghera, V. Q. Nguyen, P. C. Pureza, R. E. Miklos, F. H. Kung, and I. D. Aggarwal, “Fabrication of long lengths of low-loss IR transmitting As40S(60-x)Sex glass fibre,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 743–748 (1996)
[Crossref]

Schaafsma, D.

L. B. Shaw, D. Schaafsma, J. Moon, B. Harbison, J. Sanghera, and I. Aggarwal, “Evaluation of the IR transitions in rare-earth-doped chalcogenide glasses,” in Conference on Lasers and Electrooptics, Volume  11 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1997), p. 255.

Schweizer, T.

T. Schweizer, B. N. Samson, R. C. Moore, D. W. Hewak, and D. N. Payne, “Rare-earth doped chalcogenide glass laser,” Electron. Lett. 33, 414–416 (1997)
[Crossref]

D. W. Hewak, R. C. Moore, T. Schweizer, J. Wang, B. Samson, W. S. Brocklesby, D. N. Payne, and E. J. Tarbox, “Gallium lanthanum sulphide optical fibre for active and passive applications,” Electron. Lett. 32, 384–385 (1996)
[Crossref]

Shaw, L. B.

L. B. Shaw, D. Schaafsma, J. Moon, B. Harbison, J. Sanghera, and I. Aggarwal, “Evaluation of the IR transitions in rare-earth-doped chalcogenide glasses,” in Conference on Lasers and Electrooptics, Volume  11 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1997), p. 255.

Tarbox, E. J.

D. W. Hewak, R. C. Moore, T. Schweizer, J. Wang, B. Samson, W. S. Brocklesby, D. N. Payne, and E. J. Tarbox, “Gallium lanthanum sulphide optical fibre for active and passive applications,” Electron. Lett. 32, 384–385 (1996)
[Crossref]

Többen, H.

H. Többen, “Room temperature cw fibre laser at 3.5μm in Er3+-doped ZBLAN glass,” Electron. Lett. 28, 1361–1362 (1992)
[Crossref]

Urquhart, P.

P. Urquhart, “Review of rare earth doped fibre lasers and amplifiers,” IEE Proc.-J: Optoelectron. 135, Pt. J, No. 6, 385–407 (1988)
[Crossref]

Wang, J.

D. W. Hewak, R. C. Moore, T. Schweizer, J. Wang, B. Samson, W. S. Brocklesby, D. N. Payne, and E. J. Tarbox, “Gallium lanthanum sulphide optical fibre for active and passive applications,” Electron. Lett. 32, 384–385 (1996)
[Crossref]

Ye, C.C.

C.C. Ye, D. W. Hewak, M. Hempstead, B. N. Samson, and D. N. Payne, “Spectral properties of Er3+-doped gallium lanthanum sulphide glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 208, 56–63 (1996)
[Crossref]

Electron. Lett. (3)

D. W. Hewak, R. C. Moore, T. Schweizer, J. Wang, B. Samson, W. S. Brocklesby, D. N. Payne, and E. J. Tarbox, “Gallium lanthanum sulphide optical fibre for active and passive applications,” Electron. Lett. 32, 384–385 (1996)
[Crossref]

H. Többen, “Room temperature cw fibre laser at 3.5μm in Er3+-doped ZBLAN glass,” Electron. Lett. 28, 1361–1362 (1992)
[Crossref]

T. Schweizer, B. N. Samson, R. C. Moore, D. W. Hewak, and D. N. Payne, “Rare-earth doped chalcogenide glass laser,” Electron. Lett. 33, 414–416 (1997)
[Crossref]

IEE Proc.-J: Optoelectron. (1)

P. Urquhart, “Review of rare earth doped fibre lasers and amplifiers,” IEE Proc.-J: Optoelectron. 135, Pt. J, No. 6, 385–407 (1988)
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Elect. (1)

B. F. Aull and H. P. Jenssen, “Vibronic interactions in Nd:YAG resulting in nonreciprocity of absorption and stimulated emission cross sections,” IEEE J. Quantum Elect. QE-18, 925–930 (1982)
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. S. Sanghera, V. Q. Nguyen, P. C. Pureza, R. E. Miklos, F. H. Kung, and I. D. Aggarwal, “Fabrication of long lengths of low-loss IR transmitting As40S(60-x)Sex glass fibre,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 743–748 (1996)
[Crossref]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (1)

C.C. Ye, D. W. Hewak, M. Hempstead, B. N. Samson, and D. N. Payne, “Spectral properties of Er3+-doped gallium lanthanum sulphide glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 208, 56–63 (1996)
[Crossref]

Other (1)

L. B. Shaw, D. Schaafsma, J. Moon, B. Harbison, J. Sanghera, and I. Aggarwal, “Evaluation of the IR transitions in rare-earth-doped chalcogenide glasses,” in Conference on Lasers and Electrooptics, Volume  11 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1997), p. 255.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

A photograph of GLS glass; a 220g ingot, some polished rods (110mm × 8mm), and a drawn ‘cane’.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Cross section of a double clad uncoated GLSO fibre.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Absorption spectrum of 9.7mol% Er3+ doped GLS glass and Er3+ energy levels indicating the infrared transitions

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Fluorescence spectra of 1.57mol% Er3+ doped GLS glasses and fibres

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Radiative properties of mid-infrared transitions in Er3+ doped GLS glass (Aed, Amd, Tr, and Tm from Ref. 4)

Equations (1)

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σ em ( λ ) = A λ 5 I ( λ ) 8 π n 2 c λI ( λ )

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