Abstract

We report on the design and fabrication of novel diffractive phase elements that reconstruct distinct intensity patterns in the far-field on illumination with two specific wavelengths. The elements contain deep surface-relief structures that represent phase-delays of greater than 2π radians. The design process incorporates a modified version of the iterative Fourier transform algorithm. A 16 phase-level element for dual wavelength (blue and red) operation, with high diffraction efficiency, is demonstrated experimentally.

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References

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  1. L. L. Doskolovich, N. L. Kazanskiy, S. I. Kharitnonov and G. V. Uspleniev, "Focusators for laser-branding" Opt. and Lasers in Eng. 15 311 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. Jahns, M. M. Downs, M. E. Prise, N. Striebl and S. J. Walker, "Dammann gratings for laser beam shaping," Opt. Eng. 28 1267 (1989).
  3. E. Tervonen, J. Turunen and J. Pekola, "Pulse-frequency-modulated high-frequency-carrier diffractive elements for pattern projection," Opt. Eng. 33 2579 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. Turunen, A. Vasara, H. Ichikawa, E. Noponen, J. Westerholm, M. R. Taghizadeh, J. M. Miller, "Storage of multiple images in a thin synthetic Fourier hologram," Opt. Commun. 84 383 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. Noach, A. Lewis, Y. Arieli and N. Eisenberg, "Integrated diffractive and refractive elements for spectrum shaping" App. Opt. 35 3635 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  6. I. H. Maliston, "Interspecimen comparison of the refractive index of fused silica," J.Opt. Soc. Am. 55 1205 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. M. Miller, M. R. Taghizadeh, J. Turunen and N. Ross, "Multilevel-grating array generators: fabrication error analysis and experiments," App. Opt. 32 2519 (1993)
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. Turunen, J. Fagerholm, A. Vasara, M. R. Taghizadeh, "Detour-phase kinoform interconnects: the concept and fabrication considerations," J. Opt. Soc Am A 7 1202 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  9. F. Wyrowski, "Diffraction efficiency of analogue and quantized digital amplitude holograms: analysis and manipulation," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 7 1058 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  10. F. Wyrowski, O. Bryngdahl, "Iterative Fourier-transform algorithm applied to computer holography," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 5 1058 (1988).
  11. F. Wyrowski, "Diffractive optical elements: iterative calculation of quantised, blazed phase structures," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 7 961 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  12. I. M. Barton, P. Blair, M. R. Taghizadeh, "Diffractive phase elements for pattern formation: phase-encoding geometry considerations," Submitted to Applied Optics, 1997.
    [CrossRef]

Other (12)

L. L. Doskolovich, N. L. Kazanskiy, S. I. Kharitnonov and G. V. Uspleniev, "Focusators for laser-branding" Opt. and Lasers in Eng. 15 311 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Jahns, M. M. Downs, M. E. Prise, N. Striebl and S. J. Walker, "Dammann gratings for laser beam shaping," Opt. Eng. 28 1267 (1989).

E. Tervonen, J. Turunen and J. Pekola, "Pulse-frequency-modulated high-frequency-carrier diffractive elements for pattern projection," Opt. Eng. 33 2579 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Turunen, A. Vasara, H. Ichikawa, E. Noponen, J. Westerholm, M. R. Taghizadeh, J. M. Miller, "Storage of multiple images in a thin synthetic Fourier hologram," Opt. Commun. 84 383 (1991).
[CrossRef]

S. Noach, A. Lewis, Y. Arieli and N. Eisenberg, "Integrated diffractive and refractive elements for spectrum shaping" App. Opt. 35 3635 (1996).
[CrossRef]

I. H. Maliston, "Interspecimen comparison of the refractive index of fused silica," J.Opt. Soc. Am. 55 1205 (1965).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Miller, M. R. Taghizadeh, J. Turunen and N. Ross, "Multilevel-grating array generators: fabrication error analysis and experiments," App. Opt. 32 2519 (1993)
[CrossRef]

J. Turunen, J. Fagerholm, A. Vasara, M. R. Taghizadeh, "Detour-phase kinoform interconnects: the concept and fabrication considerations," J. Opt. Soc Am A 7 1202 (1990).
[CrossRef]

F. Wyrowski, "Diffraction efficiency of analogue and quantized digital amplitude holograms: analysis and manipulation," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 7 1058 (1990).
[CrossRef]

F. Wyrowski, O. Bryngdahl, "Iterative Fourier-transform algorithm applied to computer holography," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 5 1058 (1988).

F. Wyrowski, "Diffractive optical elements: iterative calculation of quantised, blazed phase structures," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 7 961 (1990).
[CrossRef]

I. M. Barton, P. Blair, M. R. Taghizadeh, "Diffractive phase elements for pattern formation: phase-encoding geometry considerations," Submitted to Applied Optics, 1997.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Uneven spacing of new phase levels.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

‘Red’ pattern

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

‘Blue’ pattern

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Experimental output from two-colour PFE.

Equations (3)

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φ = 2 π [ n ( λ ) 1 ] h λ .
SNR = m , n 𝕡 α 2 S mn m , n 𝕡 ( P mn α S mn ) 2 .
α = m , n 𝕡 S mn P mn m , n 𝕡 S mn .

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