Abstract

Color Doppler optical coherence tomography (CDOCT) is a noninvasive technique for simultaneous high spatial resolution (~20 μm) imaging and high velocity resolution (~500 μm/s) imaging flowmetry in living tissues. In this paper, we demonstrate a reconstruction method which overcomes fundamental limitations on Doppler flow mapping associated with both high- and low-speed imaging. This algorithm is successful in retaining the high velocity resolution of CDOCT while eliminating motion artifact caused by slow image acquisition in samples which exhibit repetitive motion. We demonstrate reconstruction of blood flow throughout a beating Xenopus laevis heart and surrounding vasculature using gated CDOCT reconstruction.

© 1997 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. E. A. Swanson, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, D. Huang, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo retinal imaging by optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 18, 1864–1866 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Micrometer-scale resolution imaging of the anterior eye in vivo with optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 112, 1584–1589 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkarni, H.-W. Wang, K. Kobayashi, and M. V. Sivak, “Optical coherence tomography and microscopy in gastrointestinal tissues,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 1017–1028 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. M. Schmitt, M. Yadlowsky, and R. F. Bonner, “Subsurface imaging of living skin with optical coherence microscopy,” Dermatology 191, 93–98 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. A. M. Sergeev, V. M. Gelikonov, G. V. Gelikonov, F. I. Feldchtein, N. D. Gladkova, and V. A. Kamensky, “Biomedical diagnostics using optical coherence tomography,” OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics on Advances in Optical Imaging and Photon Migration, R. R. Alfano and J. G. Fujimoto, eds. (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC1996)  2, 196–199.
  7. G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science 276, 2037–2039 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. S. A. Boppart, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Investigation of developing embryonic morphology using optical coherence tomography,” Dev. Biol. 177, 54–64 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. S. A. Boppart, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, J. F. Southern, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Noninvasive assessment of the developing Xenopus cardiovascular system using optical coherence tomography,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94, 4256–4261 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Imaging developing neural morphology using optical coherence tomography,” J. Neurosci. Methods 70, 65–72 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. P. D. Nieuwkoop and J. Faber, Normal Table of Xenopus Laevis (Daudin) (Garland, New York, 1994).
  12. J. M. W. Slack, “Xenopus and other amphibians” in Embryos: color atlas of development, J. Bard, ed. (Wolfe, Singapore1994).
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    [CrossRef]
  14. Z. Chen, T. E. Milner, S. Srinivas, X. Wang, A. Malekafzali, M. J. C. van Gemert, and J. S. Nelson, “Noninvasive imaging of in vivo blood flow velocity using optical Doppler tomography,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1119–1121 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkarni, K. Kobayashi, M. V. Sivak, J. K. Barton, and A. J. Welch, “Optical coherence tomography for biodiagnostics,” Opt. Photon. News 8, 41–47 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  16. M. D. Kulkarni and J. A. Izatt, “Spectroscopic optical coherence tomography,” Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C.1996)  9, 59–60.
  17. F. W. Kremkau, “Principles and pitfalls of real-time color flow imaging,” in Vascular Diagnosis, 4th ed., E. F. Bernstein, ed. (Mosby-Year Book, Inc., Missouri, 1993).

1997 (5)

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science 276, 2037–2039 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkarni, S. Yazdanfar, J. K. Barton, and A. J. Welch, “In vivo bidirectional color Doppler flow imaging of picoliter blood volumes using optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1439–1441 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Z. Chen, T. E. Milner, S. Srinivas, X. Wang, A. Malekafzali, M. J. C. van Gemert, and J. S. Nelson, “Noninvasive imaging of in vivo blood flow velocity using optical Doppler tomography,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1119–1121 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkarni, K. Kobayashi, M. V. Sivak, J. K. Barton, and A. J. Welch, “Optical coherence tomography for biodiagnostics,” Opt. Photon. News 8, 41–47 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Boppart, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, J. F. Southern, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Noninvasive assessment of the developing Xenopus cardiovascular system using optical coherence tomography,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94, 4256–4261 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (5)

S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Imaging developing neural morphology using optical coherence tomography,” J. Neurosci. Methods 70, 65–72 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D. Kulkarni and J. A. Izatt, “Spectroscopic optical coherence tomography,” Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C.1996)  9, 59–60.

S. A. Boppart, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Investigation of developing embryonic morphology using optical coherence tomography,” Dev. Biol. 177, 54–64 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Sergeev, V. M. Gelikonov, G. V. Gelikonov, F. I. Feldchtein, N. D. Gladkova, and V. A. Kamensky, “Biomedical diagnostics using optical coherence tomography,” OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics on Advances in Optical Imaging and Photon Migration, R. R. Alfano and J. G. Fujimoto, eds. (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC1996)  2, 196–199.

J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkarni, H.-W. Wang, K. Kobayashi, and M. V. Sivak, “Optical coherence tomography and microscopy in gastrointestinal tissues,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 1017–1028 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

J. M. Schmitt, M. Yadlowsky, and R. F. Bonner, “Subsurface imaging of living skin with optical coherence microscopy,” Dermatology 191, 93–98 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Micrometer-scale resolution imaging of the anterior eye in vivo with optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 112, 1584–1589 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

1991 (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barton, J. K.

J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkarni, K. Kobayashi, M. V. Sivak, J. K. Barton, and A. J. Welch, “Optical coherence tomography for biodiagnostics,” Opt. Photon. News 8, 41–47 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkarni, S. Yazdanfar, J. K. Barton, and A. J. Welch, “In vivo bidirectional color Doppler flow imaging of picoliter blood volumes using optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1439–1441 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bonner, R. F.

J. M. Schmitt, M. Yadlowsky, and R. F. Bonner, “Subsurface imaging of living skin with optical coherence microscopy,” Dermatology 191, 93–98 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boppart, S. A.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science 276, 2037–2039 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Boppart, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, J. F. Southern, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Noninvasive assessment of the developing Xenopus cardiovascular system using optical coherence tomography,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94, 4256–4261 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Imaging developing neural morphology using optical coherence tomography,” J. Neurosci. Methods 70, 65–72 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Boppart, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Investigation of developing embryonic morphology using optical coherence tomography,” Dev. Biol. 177, 54–64 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bouma, B. E.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science 276, 2037–2039 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Boppart, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, J. F. Southern, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Noninvasive assessment of the developing Xenopus cardiovascular system using optical coherence tomography,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94, 4256–4261 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Imaging developing neural morphology using optical coherence tomography,” J. Neurosci. Methods 70, 65–72 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Boppart, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Investigation of developing embryonic morphology using optical coherence tomography,” Dev. Biol. 177, 54–64 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brezinski, M. E.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science 276, 2037–2039 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Boppart, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, J. F. Southern, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Noninvasive assessment of the developing Xenopus cardiovascular system using optical coherence tomography,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94, 4256–4261 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Imaging developing neural morphology using optical coherence tomography,” J. Neurosci. Methods 70, 65–72 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Boppart, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Investigation of developing embryonic morphology using optical coherence tomography,” Dev. Biol. 177, 54–64 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Z.

Faber, J.

P. D. Nieuwkoop and J. Faber, Normal Table of Xenopus Laevis (Daudin) (Garland, New York, 1994).

Feldchtein, F. I.

A. M. Sergeev, V. M. Gelikonov, G. V. Gelikonov, F. I. Feldchtein, N. D. Gladkova, and V. A. Kamensky, “Biomedical diagnostics using optical coherence tomography,” OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics on Advances in Optical Imaging and Photon Migration, R. R. Alfano and J. G. Fujimoto, eds. (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC1996)  2, 196–199.

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

S. A. Boppart, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, J. F. Southern, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Noninvasive assessment of the developing Xenopus cardiovascular system using optical coherence tomography,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94, 4256–4261 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science 276, 2037–2039 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Imaging developing neural morphology using optical coherence tomography,” J. Neurosci. Methods 70, 65–72 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Boppart, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Investigation of developing embryonic morphology using optical coherence tomography,” Dev. Biol. 177, 54–64 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Micrometer-scale resolution imaging of the anterior eye in vivo with optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 112, 1584–1589 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. A. Swanson, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, D. Huang, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo retinal imaging by optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 18, 1864–1866 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gelikonov, G. V.

A. M. Sergeev, V. M. Gelikonov, G. V. Gelikonov, F. I. Feldchtein, N. D. Gladkova, and V. A. Kamensky, “Biomedical diagnostics using optical coherence tomography,” OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics on Advances in Optical Imaging and Photon Migration, R. R. Alfano and J. G. Fujimoto, eds. (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC1996)  2, 196–199.

Gelikonov, V. M.

A. M. Sergeev, V. M. Gelikonov, G. V. Gelikonov, F. I. Feldchtein, N. D. Gladkova, and V. A. Kamensky, “Biomedical diagnostics using optical coherence tomography,” OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics on Advances in Optical Imaging and Photon Migration, R. R. Alfano and J. G. Fujimoto, eds. (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC1996)  2, 196–199.

Gladkova, N. D.

A. M. Sergeev, V. M. Gelikonov, G. V. Gelikonov, F. I. Feldchtein, N. D. Gladkova, and V. A. Kamensky, “Biomedical diagnostics using optical coherence tomography,” OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics on Advances in Optical Imaging and Photon Migration, R. R. Alfano and J. G. Fujimoto, eds. (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC1996)  2, 196–199.

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hee, M. R.

J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Micrometer-scale resolution imaging of the anterior eye in vivo with optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 112, 1584–1589 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. A. Swanson, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, D. Huang, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo retinal imaging by optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 18, 1864–1866 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, D.

J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Micrometer-scale resolution imaging of the anterior eye in vivo with optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 112, 1584–1589 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. A. Swanson, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, D. Huang, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo retinal imaging by optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 18, 1864–1866 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Izatt, J. A.

J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkarni, K. Kobayashi, M. V. Sivak, J. K. Barton, and A. J. Welch, “Optical coherence tomography for biodiagnostics,” Opt. Photon. News 8, 41–47 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkarni, S. Yazdanfar, J. K. Barton, and A. J. Welch, “In vivo bidirectional color Doppler flow imaging of picoliter blood volumes using optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1439–1441 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Kulkarni and J. A. Izatt, “Spectroscopic optical coherence tomography,” Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C.1996)  9, 59–60.

J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkarni, H.-W. Wang, K. Kobayashi, and M. V. Sivak, “Optical coherence tomography and microscopy in gastrointestinal tissues,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 1017–1028 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Micrometer-scale resolution imaging of the anterior eye in vivo with optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 112, 1584–1589 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. A. Swanson, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, D. Huang, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo retinal imaging by optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 18, 1864–1866 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kamensky, V. A.

A. M. Sergeev, V. M. Gelikonov, G. V. Gelikonov, F. I. Feldchtein, N. D. Gladkova, and V. A. Kamensky, “Biomedical diagnostics using optical coherence tomography,” OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics on Advances in Optical Imaging and Photon Migration, R. R. Alfano and J. G. Fujimoto, eds. (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC1996)  2, 196–199.

Kobayashi, K.

J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkarni, K. Kobayashi, M. V. Sivak, J. K. Barton, and A. J. Welch, “Optical coherence tomography for biodiagnostics,” Opt. Photon. News 8, 41–47 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkarni, H.-W. Wang, K. Kobayashi, and M. V. Sivak, “Optical coherence tomography and microscopy in gastrointestinal tissues,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 1017–1028 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kremkau, F. W.

F. W. Kremkau, “Principles and pitfalls of real-time color flow imaging,” in Vascular Diagnosis, 4th ed., E. F. Bernstein, ed. (Mosby-Year Book, Inc., Missouri, 1993).

Kulkarni, M. D.

J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkarni, K. Kobayashi, M. V. Sivak, J. K. Barton, and A. J. Welch, “Optical coherence tomography for biodiagnostics,” Opt. Photon. News 8, 41–47 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkarni, S. Yazdanfar, J. K. Barton, and A. J. Welch, “In vivo bidirectional color Doppler flow imaging of picoliter blood volumes using optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1439–1441 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Kulkarni and J. A. Izatt, “Spectroscopic optical coherence tomography,” Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C.1996)  9, 59–60.

J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkarni, H.-W. Wang, K. Kobayashi, and M. V. Sivak, “Optical coherence tomography and microscopy in gastrointestinal tissues,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 1017–1028 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C. P.

J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Micrometer-scale resolution imaging of the anterior eye in vivo with optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 112, 1584–1589 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. A. Swanson, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, D. Huang, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo retinal imaging by optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 18, 1864–1866 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Malekafzali, A.

Milner, T. E.

Nelson, J. S.

Nieuwkoop, P. D.

P. D. Nieuwkoop and J. Faber, Normal Table of Xenopus Laevis (Daudin) (Garland, New York, 1994).

Pitris, C.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science 276, 2037–2039 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Puliafito, C. A.

J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Micrometer-scale resolution imaging of the anterior eye in vivo with optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 112, 1584–1589 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. A. Swanson, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, D. Huang, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo retinal imaging by optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 18, 1864–1866 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmitt, J. M.

J. M. Schmitt, M. Yadlowsky, and R. F. Bonner, “Subsurface imaging of living skin with optical coherence microscopy,” Dermatology 191, 93–98 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schuman, J. S.

J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Micrometer-scale resolution imaging of the anterior eye in vivo with optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 112, 1584–1589 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. A. Swanson, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, D. Huang, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo retinal imaging by optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 18, 1864–1866 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sergeev, A. M.

A. M. Sergeev, V. M. Gelikonov, G. V. Gelikonov, F. I. Feldchtein, N. D. Gladkova, and V. A. Kamensky, “Biomedical diagnostics using optical coherence tomography,” OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics on Advances in Optical Imaging and Photon Migration, R. R. Alfano and J. G. Fujimoto, eds. (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC1996)  2, 196–199.

Sivak, M. V.

J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkarni, K. Kobayashi, M. V. Sivak, J. K. Barton, and A. J. Welch, “Optical coherence tomography for biodiagnostics,” Opt. Photon. News 8, 41–47 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkarni, H.-W. Wang, K. Kobayashi, and M. V. Sivak, “Optical coherence tomography and microscopy in gastrointestinal tissues,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 1017–1028 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Slack, J. M. W.

J. M. W. Slack, “Xenopus and other amphibians” in Embryos: color atlas of development, J. Bard, ed. (Wolfe, Singapore1994).

Southern, J. F.

S. A. Boppart, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, J. F. Southern, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Noninvasive assessment of the developing Xenopus cardiovascular system using optical coherence tomography,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94, 4256–4261 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science 276, 2037–2039 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Srinivas, S.

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swanson, E. A.

J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Micrometer-scale resolution imaging of the anterior eye in vivo with optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 112, 1584–1589 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. A. Swanson, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, D. Huang, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo retinal imaging by optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 18, 1864–1866 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tearney, G. J.

S. A. Boppart, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, J. F. Southern, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Noninvasive assessment of the developing Xenopus cardiovascular system using optical coherence tomography,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94, 4256–4261 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science 276, 2037–2039 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Boppart, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Investigation of developing embryonic morphology using optical coherence tomography,” Dev. Biol. 177, 54–64 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Imaging developing neural morphology using optical coherence tomography,” J. Neurosci. Methods 70, 65–72 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Gemert, M. J. C.

Wang, H.-W.

J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkarni, H.-W. Wang, K. Kobayashi, and M. V. Sivak, “Optical coherence tomography and microscopy in gastrointestinal tissues,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 1017–1028 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X.

Welch, A. J.

J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkarni, S. Yazdanfar, J. K. Barton, and A. J. Welch, “In vivo bidirectional color Doppler flow imaging of picoliter blood volumes using optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1439–1441 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkarni, K. Kobayashi, M. V. Sivak, J. K. Barton, and A. J. Welch, “Optical coherence tomography for biodiagnostics,” Opt. Photon. News 8, 41–47 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yadlowsky, M.

J. M. Schmitt, M. Yadlowsky, and R. F. Bonner, “Subsurface imaging of living skin with optical coherence microscopy,” Dermatology 191, 93–98 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yazdanfar, S.

Arch. Ophthalmol. (1)

J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Micrometer-scale resolution imaging of the anterior eye in vivo with optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 112, 1584–1589 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (1)

M. D. Kulkarni and J. A. Izatt, “Spectroscopic optical coherence tomography,” Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C.1996)  9, 59–60.

Dermatology (1)

J. M. Schmitt, M. Yadlowsky, and R. F. Bonner, “Subsurface imaging of living skin with optical coherence microscopy,” Dermatology 191, 93–98 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dev. Biol. (1)

S. A. Boppart, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Investigation of developing embryonic morphology using optical coherence tomography,” Dev. Biol. 177, 54–64 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkarni, H.-W. Wang, K. Kobayashi, and M. V. Sivak, “Optical coherence tomography and microscopy in gastrointestinal tissues,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 1017–1028 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Neurosci. Methods (1)

S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Imaging developing neural morphology using optical coherence tomography,” J. Neurosci. Methods 70, 65–72 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Opt. Photon. News (1)

J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkarni, K. Kobayashi, M. V. Sivak, J. K. Barton, and A. J. Welch, “Optical coherence tomography for biodiagnostics,” Opt. Photon. News 8, 41–47 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA (1)

S. A. Boppart, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, J. F. Southern, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Noninvasive assessment of the developing Xenopus cardiovascular system using optical coherence tomography,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94, 4256–4261 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (2)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science 276, 2037–2039 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (4)

F. W. Kremkau, “Principles and pitfalls of real-time color flow imaging,” in Vascular Diagnosis, 4th ed., E. F. Bernstein, ed. (Mosby-Year Book, Inc., Missouri, 1993).

P. D. Nieuwkoop and J. Faber, Normal Table of Xenopus Laevis (Daudin) (Garland, New York, 1994).

J. M. W. Slack, “Xenopus and other amphibians” in Embryos: color atlas of development, J. Bard, ed. (Wolfe, Singapore1994).

A. M. Sergeev, V. M. Gelikonov, G. V. Gelikonov, F. I. Feldchtein, N. D. Gladkova, and V. A. Kamensky, “Biomedical diagnostics using optical coherence tomography,” OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics on Advances in Optical Imaging and Photon Migration, R. R. Alfano and J. G. Fujimoto, eds. (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC1996)  2, 196–199.

Supplementary Material (2)

» Media 1: MOV (252 KB)     
» Media 2: MOV (253 KB)     

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of color Doppler OCT imaging system. I, in-phase; Q, quadrature; A/D, analog-to-digital converter. The sample probe beam is incident on the ventral surface of the specimen.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Sagittal optical section of Xenopus heart through ventral surface of body. The abscissa is the equivalent time of acquisition for the image. The spatial dimensions are 2.0 mm across by 1.07 mm deep (assuming a mean index of refraction=1.4). Whereas some structures are visible with high resolution, image clarity is drastically reduced in moving structures (i.e., heart and diaphragm). White bars indicate the region magnified in Fig. 3. st, stomach; l, liver; p, pericardium; bv, branched vessels.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

A-scans extracted from Fig. 2 between the vertical white bars within the ventricle. One period of the cardiac cycle required exactly five (T=5.00±0.01) A-scans.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Reconstruction of a beating Xenopus heart using the frame gating technique, played back at 0.75 times real-time. For optimal viewing of movie, set viewer to automatic loop playback mode. Doppler processing is restricted to region indicated by rectangle. v, ventricle; a, atrium; ta, truncus arteriosus; p, pericardium; bv, branched vessels; d, diaphragm. [Media 1]

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

CDOCT reconstruction of entire Xenopus heart, played back at 0.75 times real-time. For optimal viewing of movie, set viewer to automatic loop playback mode.. Flow in the heart is masked by motion of the ventricle and turbulent flow within the ventricle, similar to clutter in color Doppler ultrasound imaging. [Media 2]

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

i d ˜ ( t ) = A ( t ) cos [ 2 π ( f r f s ) t + ϕ ( t ) ] ,
i d ( t ) = A ( t ) exp [ j { 2 π f s t + ϕ ( t ) } ] .
V s = f s λ 0 2 n t cos θ ,
V s min = λ 0 2 n t cos θ · 1 N t s .
V s min = λ 0 2 n t cos θ · L v r N D .
V s min = λ 0 2 n t cos θ · K L R f N ρ .

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