Abstract

The presence of clouds of ice particles in the uplink and downlink path of an illumination beam can severely impede the performance of an active imaging system. Depending on the optical depth of the cloud, i.e., its density and depth, the beam can be completely scattered and extinguished, or the beam can pass through the cloud with some fraction attenuated, scattered, and depolarized. In particular, subvisual cirrus clouds, i.e., high, thin cirrus clouds that cannot be observed from the ground, can affect the properties and alignment of both uplink and downlink beams. This paper discusses the potential for active imaging in the presence of cirrus clouds. We document field data results from an active imaging experiment conducted several years ago, which the authors believe to show the effects of cirrus clouds on an active imaging system. To verify these conclusions, we include the results of a simulation of the interaction of a coherent illumination scheme with a cirrus cloud.

© Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. D. G. Voelz, S. D. OKeefe, J. D. Gonglewski, D. B. Rider, and K. J. Schulze, "High-resolution imagery of a space object using an unconventional, laser illumination, imaging technique," Optics in Atmospheric Propagation and Random Phenomena, Proc. SPIE 2312, 202-211, (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  2. D. G. Voelz, J. D. Gonglewski, and P. Idell, "SCIP Computer simulation and laboratory verification," Digital Image Recovery and Synthesis II, Proc. SPIE 2029, 169-176, (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  3. R. A. Hutchin, "Sheared Coherent Interferometric Photography: A technique for lenseless imaging," Proc. SPIE 2029, 161-168, (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  4. B. T. Landesman and D. F. Olson, "Sheared Beam Imaging in the presence of space-time distortions," Image Reconstruction and Restoration, Proc. SPIE 2302, 14-25, (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  5. B. T. Landesman and D. F. Olson, "Demodulation of Sheared Beam Imaging data in the presence of laser chirp," presented at Information Processing Symposium, OSA Annual Meeting, Portland, OR, Sept. 10-15, 1995.
  6. C. M. R. Platt, J. C. Scott, and A. C. Dilley, "Remote Sounding of High Clouds. Part VI: Optical Properties of Midlatitude and Tropical Cirrus," J. Atmos. Sci., 44, 729-747, (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  7. T. Caudill, Private communication.

Other (7)

D. G. Voelz, S. D. OKeefe, J. D. Gonglewski, D. B. Rider, and K. J. Schulze, "High-resolution imagery of a space object using an unconventional, laser illumination, imaging technique," Optics in Atmospheric Propagation and Random Phenomena, Proc. SPIE 2312, 202-211, (1994).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Voelz, J. D. Gonglewski, and P. Idell, "SCIP Computer simulation and laboratory verification," Digital Image Recovery and Synthesis II, Proc. SPIE 2029, 169-176, (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Hutchin, "Sheared Coherent Interferometric Photography: A technique for lenseless imaging," Proc. SPIE 2029, 161-168, (1993).
[CrossRef]

B. T. Landesman and D. F. Olson, "Sheared Beam Imaging in the presence of space-time distortions," Image Reconstruction and Restoration, Proc. SPIE 2302, 14-25, (1994).
[CrossRef]

B. T. Landesman and D. F. Olson, "Demodulation of Sheared Beam Imaging data in the presence of laser chirp," presented at Information Processing Symposium, OSA Annual Meeting, Portland, OR, Sept. 10-15, 1995.

C. M. R. Platt, J. C. Scott, and A. C. Dilley, "Remote Sounding of High Clouds. Part VI: Optical Properties of Midlatitude and Tropical Cirrus," J. Atmos. Sci., 44, 729-747, (1987).
[CrossRef]

T. Caudill, Private communication.

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Sheared beam imaging concept. 2

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Demodulation in the presence of chirp.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Fringe pattern and motion across the RAILE detection bar.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

SBI demodulation data from day 91016, clear.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

SBI demodulation data from day 91074, 7/8 cirrus.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Simulated SBI demodulation for 91015.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Simulated SBI demodulation for 91016.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Simulated SBI demodulation for 91074.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

SBI demodulation from cirrus cloud return for no laser instability.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

SBI demodulation from cirrus cloud return with random laser frequency variation.

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