Abstract

A modelocked fiber laser, operating in the soliton regime without any explicit intracavity polarizers, is observed to spontaneously lock its output polarization for certain values of the intracavity birefringence. For other settings of the intracavity birefringence the output polarization undergoes pulse-to-pulse evolution. The dependence of the output polarization evolution on intracavity birefringence outside of the locking regions can be understood with a simple model. The locking behavior exhibits several surprising aspects and is not completely understood.

© 1997 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. I.N. Duling III and M.L. Dennis , Compact Sources of Ultrashort Pulses ( Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge , 1995 ).
  2. see M.C. Nuss , W.H. Knox , and U. Koren , “ Scaleable 32 channel chirped-pulse WDM source ”, Electron. Lett.   32 , 1311 – 1312 ( 1996 ).
    [CrossRef]
  3. G.P. Agrawal , Nonlinear Fiber Optics ( Academic Press, San Diego , 1995 ).
  4. I.N. Duling III , “ Subpicosecond all-fiber erbium laser ”, Electron. Lett.   27 , 544 – 545 ( 1991 ); D.J. Richardson , R.I. Laming , D.N. Payne , M.W. Phillips , and V.J. Matsas , “ 320 fs soliton generation wit h passively mode-locked erbium fiber laser ”, Electron. Lett.   27 , 730 – 732 ( 1991 ).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. Hofer , M.E. Fermann , F. Haberl , M.H. Ober , and A.J. Schmidt , “ Modelocking with cross-phase and self-phase modulation ”, Opt. Lett.   16 , 502 – 504 ( 1991 ); C.J. Chen , P.K.A. Wai , and C.R. Menyuk , “ Soliton fiber ring laser ”, Opt. Lett.   17 , 417 – 419 ( 1992 ); V.J. Matsas , T.P. Newson , D.J. Richardson , and D.J. Payne , “ Selfstarting Passively Mode-Locked Fiber Ring Soliton Laser Exploiting Nonlinear Polarization Rotation ”, Electron. Lett.   28 , 1391 – 1393 ( 1992 ); K. Tamura , H.A. Haus , and E.P. Ippen , “ Self-starting additive pulse mode-locked erbium fiber ring laser ”, Electron. Lett.   28 , 2226 – 2228 ( 1992 ).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. K. Tamura , E.P. Ippen , H.A. Haus , and L.E. Nelson , “ 77-fs pulse generation from a stretched-pulse mode-locked all-fiber ring laser ”, Opt. Lett.   18 , 1080 – 1082 ( 1993 ); K. Tamura , L.E. Nelson , H.A. Haus , and E.P. Ippen , “ Soliton versus nonsoliton operation of fiber ring lasers ”, Appl. Phys. Lett.   64 , 149 – 151 ( 1994 ); H.A. Haus , K. Tamura , L.E. Nelson , and E.P. Ippen , “ Stretched-Pulse Additive Pulse Mode-Locking in Fiber Ring Lasers: Theory and Experiment ”, IEEE J. Quant. Electron.   31 , 591 – 598 ( 1995 ).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. E.A. De Souza , C.E. Soccolich , W. Pleibel , R.H. Stolen , J.R Simpson , and D.J. DiGiovanni , “ Saturable Absorber Modelocked Polarization Maintaining Erbium-Doped Fiber Laser ”, Electron. Lett.   29 , 447 – 449 ( 1993 ); B.C. Barnett , L. Rahman , M.N. Islam , Y.C. Chen , P. Bhattacharya , W. Riha , K.V. Reddy , A.T. Howe , K.A. Stair , H. Iwamura , S.R. Friberg , and T. Mukai , “ High-power erbium-doped fiber laser mode locked by a semiconductor saturable absorber ”, Opt. Lett.   20 , 471 – 473 ( 1995 ).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. Tsuda , W.H. Knox , J.L. Zyskind , J.E. Cunningham , W.Y. Jan , and R. Pathak , “ Broadband compact mode-locked Er/Yb fiber Laser ”, Conf. Laser Electro-Optics ’ 96 , OSA Tech. Digest Series 9, ( OSA, Washington DC , 1996 ) 494 .
  9. B.C. Collings , K. Bergman , S.T. Cundiff , S. Tsuda , J.N. Kutz , J.E. Cunningham , W.Y. Jan , M. Koch , and W.H. Knox , “ Short Cavity Erbium/Ytterbium Fiber Lasers Modelocked with a Saturable Bragg Reflector ”, submitted for publication.
  10. S. Tsuda , W.H. Knox , E.A. de Souza , W.Y. Jan , and J.E. Cunningham , “ Low-loss intracavity AlAs/AlGaAs saturable Bragg reflector for femtosecond modelocking in solid-state lasers ”, Opt. Lett.   20 , 1406 – 1408 ( 1995 ); S. Tsuda , W.H. Knox , S.T. Cundiff , W.Y. Jan , and J.E. Cunningham , “ Mode-Locking Ultrafast Solid-State Lasers with Saturable Bragg Reflectors ”, IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quant. Electron.   2 , 454 – 464 ( 1996 ).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. H.C. Lefevre , “ Single-mode fiber fractional wave devices and polarization controllers ”, Electron. Lett.   16 , 778 – 780 ( 1980 ).
    [CrossRef]
  12. S.T. Cundiff , W.H. Knox , and M.C. Nuss , “ Active feed-forward channel equalization for chirped pulse wavelength division multiplexing ”, Electron. Lett.   33 , 10 – 11 ( 1997 ).
    [CrossRef]
  13. See E. Collett , Polarized Light ( Marcel Dekker, New York , 1993 ).
  14. N. Pandit , D.U. Noske , S.M.J. Kelly , and J.R. Taylor , “ Characteristic instability of fiber loop soliton lasers ”, Electron. Lett.   28 , 455 – 457 ( 1992 ); S.M.J. Kelly , “ Characteristic sideband instability of periodically amplified average soliton ”, Electron. Lett.   28 , 806 – 807 ( 1992 ).
    [CrossRef]
  15. B.C. Collings , K. Bergman , S. Tsuda , and W.H. Knox , “ Femtosecond short cavity 2.5 GHz fiber laser harmonically modelocked by a saturable Bragg reflector with low temporal jitter ”, presented at CLEO ’97, 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series   11 ( Optical Society of America, Washington DC , 1997 ) p. 343 – 344 .
  16. A.K. Srivastava , J.L. Zyskind , J.W. Sulhoff , J.D. Evankow , and M.A. Mills , “ Room temperature spectral hole burning in erbium-doped fiber amplifiers ”, OFC ’96, OSA Technical Digest Series   2 ( Optical Society of America, Washington DC , 1996 ) 33 – 34 .
  17. H.G. Winful , “ Self-induced polarization changes in birefringent optical fiber ”, Appl. Phys. Lett.   47 , 213 – 215 ( 1985 ); H.G. Winful , “ Polarization instabilities in birefringent nonlinear media: application to fiber-optic devices ”, Opt. Lett.   11 , 33 – 35 ( 1986 ).
    [CrossRef]
  18. C.G. Menyuk , “ Nonlinear pulse propagation in birefringent optical fibers ”, IEEE J. Quant. Electron.   23 , 174 – 176 ( 1987 ); C.G. Menyuk , “ Stability of solitons in birefringent optical fibers. I: Equal propagation amplitudes ”, Opt. Lett.   12 , 614 – 616 ( 1987 ).
    [CrossRef]
  19. S.G. Evangelides , L.F. Mollenauer , J.P. Gordon , and N.S. Bergano , “ Polarization multiplexing with solitons ”, J. Lightwave Tech.   10 , 28 – 35 ( 1992 ).
    [CrossRef]
  20. N.N. Akhmediev , A.V. Buryak , J.M. Soto-Crespo , and D.R. Andersen , “ Phase-locked stationary soliton states in birefringent nonlinear optical fibers ”, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B   12 , 434 – 439 ( 1995 ).
    [CrossRef]
  21. Y. Barad and Y. Silberberg , “ Polarization Evolution and Polarization Instability of Solitons in a Birefringent Optical Fiber ”, Phys. Rev. Lett.   78 , 3290 – 3293 ( 1997 ).
    [CrossRef]

1997 (3)

S.T. Cundiff , W.H. Knox , and M.C. Nuss , “ Active feed-forward channel equalization for chirped pulse wavelength division multiplexing ”, Electron. Lett.   33 , 10 – 11 ( 1997 ).
[CrossRef]

B.C. Collings , K. Bergman , S. Tsuda , and W.H. Knox , “ Femtosecond short cavity 2.5 GHz fiber laser harmonically modelocked by a saturable Bragg reflector with low temporal jitter ”, presented at CLEO ’97, 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series   11 ( Optical Society of America, Washington DC , 1997 ) p. 343 – 344 .

Y. Barad and Y. Silberberg , “ Polarization Evolution and Polarization Instability of Solitons in a Birefringent Optical Fiber ”, Phys. Rev. Lett.   78 , 3290 – 3293 ( 1997 ).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

A.K. Srivastava , J.L. Zyskind , J.W. Sulhoff , J.D. Evankow , and M.A. Mills , “ Room temperature spectral hole burning in erbium-doped fiber amplifiers ”, OFC ’96, OSA Technical Digest Series   2 ( Optical Society of America, Washington DC , 1996 ) 33 – 34 .

see M.C. Nuss , W.H. Knox , and U. Koren , “ Scaleable 32 channel chirped-pulse WDM source ”, Electron. Lett.   32 , 1311 – 1312 ( 1996 ).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

1993 (2)

K. Tamura , E.P. Ippen , H.A. Haus , and L.E. Nelson , “ 77-fs pulse generation from a stretched-pulse mode-locked all-fiber ring laser ”, Opt. Lett.   18 , 1080 – 1082 ( 1993 ); K. Tamura , L.E. Nelson , H.A. Haus , and E.P. Ippen , “ Soliton versus nonsoliton operation of fiber ring lasers ”, Appl. Phys. Lett.   64 , 149 – 151 ( 1994 ); H.A. Haus , K. Tamura , L.E. Nelson , and E.P. Ippen , “ Stretched-Pulse Additive Pulse Mode-Locking in Fiber Ring Lasers: Theory and Experiment ”, IEEE J. Quant. Electron.   31 , 591 – 598 ( 1995 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Tamura , E.P. Ippen , H.A. Haus , and L.E. Nelson , “ 77-fs pulse generation from a stretched-pulse mode-locked all-fiber ring laser ”, Opt. Lett.   18 , 1080 – 1082 ( 1993 ); K. Tamura , L.E. Nelson , H.A. Haus , and E.P. Ippen , “ Soliton versus nonsoliton operation of fiber ring lasers ”, Appl. Phys. Lett.   64 , 149 – 151 ( 1994 ); H.A. Haus , K. Tamura , L.E. Nelson , and E.P. Ippen , “ Stretched-Pulse Additive Pulse Mode-Locking in Fiber Ring Lasers: Theory and Experiment ”, IEEE J. Quant. Electron.   31 , 591 – 598 ( 1995 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Tamura , E.P. Ippen , H.A. Haus , and L.E. Nelson , “ 77-fs pulse generation from a stretched-pulse mode-locked all-fiber ring laser ”, Opt. Lett.   18 , 1080 – 1082 ( 1993 ); K. Tamura , L.E. Nelson , H.A. Haus , and E.P. Ippen , “ Soliton versus nonsoliton operation of fiber ring lasers ”, Appl. Phys. Lett.   64 , 149 – 151 ( 1994 ); H.A. Haus , K. Tamura , L.E. Nelson , and E.P. Ippen , “ Stretched-Pulse Additive Pulse Mode-Locking in Fiber Ring Lasers: Theory and Experiment ”, IEEE J. Quant. Electron.   31 , 591 – 598 ( 1995 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E.A. De Souza , C.E. Soccolich , W. Pleibel , R.H. Stolen , J.R Simpson , and D.J. DiGiovanni , “ Saturable Absorber Modelocked Polarization Maintaining Erbium-Doped Fiber Laser ”, Electron. Lett.   29 , 447 – 449 ( 1993 ); B.C. Barnett , L. Rahman , M.N. Islam , Y.C. Chen , P. Bhattacharya , W. Riha , K.V. Reddy , A.T. Howe , K.A. Stair , H. Iwamura , S.R. Friberg , and T. Mukai , “ High-power erbium-doped fiber laser mode locked by a semiconductor saturable absorber ”, Opt. Lett.   20 , 471 – 473 ( 1995 ).
[CrossRef]

E.A. De Souza , C.E. Soccolich , W. Pleibel , R.H. Stolen , J.R Simpson , and D.J. DiGiovanni , “ Saturable Absorber Modelocked Polarization Maintaining Erbium-Doped Fiber Laser ”, Electron. Lett.   29 , 447 – 449 ( 1993 ); B.C. Barnett , L. Rahman , M.N. Islam , Y.C. Chen , P. Bhattacharya , W. Riha , K.V. Reddy , A.T. Howe , K.A. Stair , H. Iwamura , S.R. Friberg , and T. Mukai , “ High-power erbium-doped fiber laser mode locked by a semiconductor saturable absorber ”, Opt. Lett.   20 , 471 – 473 ( 1995 ).
[CrossRef]

1992 (2)

S.G. Evangelides , L.F. Mollenauer , J.P. Gordon , and N.S. Bergano , “ Polarization multiplexing with solitons ”, J. Lightwave Tech.   10 , 28 – 35 ( 1992 ).
[CrossRef]

N. Pandit , D.U. Noske , S.M.J. Kelly , and J.R. Taylor , “ Characteristic instability of fiber loop soliton lasers ”, Electron. Lett.   28 , 455 – 457 ( 1992 ); S.M.J. Kelly , “ Characteristic sideband instability of periodically amplified average soliton ”, Electron. Lett.   28 , 806 – 807 ( 1992 ).
[CrossRef]

N. Pandit , D.U. Noske , S.M.J. Kelly , and J.R. Taylor , “ Characteristic instability of fiber loop soliton lasers ”, Electron. Lett.   28 , 455 – 457 ( 1992 ); S.M.J. Kelly , “ Characteristic sideband instability of periodically amplified average soliton ”, Electron. Lett.   28 , 806 – 807 ( 1992 ).
[CrossRef]

1991 (2)

I.N. Duling III , “ Subpicosecond all-fiber erbium laser ”, Electron. Lett.   27 , 544 – 545 ( 1991 ); D.J. Richardson , R.I. Laming , D.N. Payne , M.W. Phillips , and V.J. Matsas , “ 320 fs soliton generation wit h passively mode-locked erbium fiber laser ”, Electron. Lett.   27 , 730 – 732 ( 1991 ).
[CrossRef]

I.N. Duling III , “ Subpicosecond all-fiber erbium laser ”, Electron. Lett.   27 , 544 – 545 ( 1991 ); D.J. Richardson , R.I. Laming , D.N. Payne , M.W. Phillips , and V.J. Matsas , “ 320 fs soliton generation wit h passively mode-locked erbium fiber laser ”, Electron. Lett.   27 , 730 – 732 ( 1991 ).
[CrossRef]

M. Hofer , M.E. Fermann , F. Haberl , M.H. Ober , and A.J. Schmidt , “ Modelocking with cross-phase and self-phase modulation ”, Opt. Lett.   16 , 502 – 504 ( 1991 ); C.J. Chen , P.K.A. Wai , and C.R. Menyuk , “ Soliton fiber ring laser ”, Opt. Lett.   17 , 417 – 419 ( 1992 ); V.J. Matsas , T.P. Newson , D.J. Richardson , and D.J. Payne , “ Selfstarting Passively Mode-Locked Fiber Ring Soliton Laser Exploiting Nonlinear Polarization Rotation ”, Electron. Lett.   28 , 1391 – 1393 ( 1992 ); K. Tamura , H.A. Haus , and E.P. Ippen , “ Self-starting additive pulse mode-locked erbium fiber ring laser ”, Electron. Lett.   28 , 2226 – 2228 ( 1992 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Hofer , M.E. Fermann , F. Haberl , M.H. Ober , and A.J. Schmidt , “ Modelocking with cross-phase and self-phase modulation ”, Opt. Lett.   16 , 502 – 504 ( 1991 ); C.J. Chen , P.K.A. Wai , and C.R. Menyuk , “ Soliton fiber ring laser ”, Opt. Lett.   17 , 417 – 419 ( 1992 ); V.J. Matsas , T.P. Newson , D.J. Richardson , and D.J. Payne , “ Selfstarting Passively Mode-Locked Fiber Ring Soliton Laser Exploiting Nonlinear Polarization Rotation ”, Electron. Lett.   28 , 1391 – 1393 ( 1992 ); K. Tamura , H.A. Haus , and E.P. Ippen , “ Self-starting additive pulse mode-locked erbium fiber ring laser ”, Electron. Lett.   28 , 2226 – 2228 ( 1992 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Hofer , M.E. Fermann , F. Haberl , M.H. Ober , and A.J. Schmidt , “ Modelocking with cross-phase and self-phase modulation ”, Opt. Lett.   16 , 502 – 504 ( 1991 ); C.J. Chen , P.K.A. Wai , and C.R. Menyuk , “ Soliton fiber ring laser ”, Opt. Lett.   17 , 417 – 419 ( 1992 ); V.J. Matsas , T.P. Newson , D.J. Richardson , and D.J. Payne , “ Selfstarting Passively Mode-Locked Fiber Ring Soliton Laser Exploiting Nonlinear Polarization Rotation ”, Electron. Lett.   28 , 1391 – 1393 ( 1992 ); K. Tamura , H.A. Haus , and E.P. Ippen , “ Self-starting additive pulse mode-locked erbium fiber ring laser ”, Electron. Lett.   28 , 2226 – 2228 ( 1992 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Hofer , M.E. Fermann , F. Haberl , M.H. Ober , and A.J. Schmidt , “ Modelocking with cross-phase and self-phase modulation ”, Opt. Lett.   16 , 502 – 504 ( 1991 ); C.J. Chen , P.K.A. Wai , and C.R. Menyuk , “ Soliton fiber ring laser ”, Opt. Lett.   17 , 417 – 419 ( 1992 ); V.J. Matsas , T.P. Newson , D.J. Richardson , and D.J. Payne , “ Selfstarting Passively Mode-Locked Fiber Ring Soliton Laser Exploiting Nonlinear Polarization Rotation ”, Electron. Lett.   28 , 1391 – 1393 ( 1992 ); K. Tamura , H.A. Haus , and E.P. Ippen , “ Self-starting additive pulse mode-locked erbium fiber ring laser ”, Electron. Lett.   28 , 2226 – 2228 ( 1992 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987 (1)

C.G. Menyuk , “ Nonlinear pulse propagation in birefringent optical fibers ”, IEEE J. Quant. Electron.   23 , 174 – 176 ( 1987 ); C.G. Menyuk , “ Stability of solitons in birefringent optical fibers. I: Equal propagation amplitudes ”, Opt. Lett.   12 , 614 – 616 ( 1987 ).
[CrossRef]

C.G. Menyuk , “ Nonlinear pulse propagation in birefringent optical fibers ”, IEEE J. Quant. Electron.   23 , 174 – 176 ( 1987 ); C.G. Menyuk , “ Stability of solitons in birefringent optical fibers. I: Equal propagation amplitudes ”, Opt. Lett.   12 , 614 – 616 ( 1987 ).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

H.G. Winful , “ Self-induced polarization changes in birefringent optical fiber ”, Appl. Phys. Lett.   47 , 213 – 215 ( 1985 ); H.G. Winful , “ Polarization instabilities in birefringent nonlinear media: application to fiber-optic devices ”, Opt. Lett.   11 , 33 – 35 ( 1986 ).
[CrossRef]

H.G. Winful , “ Self-induced polarization changes in birefringent optical fiber ”, Appl. Phys. Lett.   47 , 213 – 215 ( 1985 ); H.G. Winful , “ Polarization instabilities in birefringent nonlinear media: application to fiber-optic devices ”, Opt. Lett.   11 , 33 – 35 ( 1986 ).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

H.C. Lefevre , “ Single-mode fiber fractional wave devices and polarization controllers ”, Electron. Lett.   16 , 778 – 780 ( 1980 ).
[CrossRef]

Agrawal, G.P.

G.P. Agrawal , Nonlinear Fiber Optics ( Academic Press, San Diego , 1995 ).

Akhmediev, N.N.

Andersen, D.R.

Barad, Y.

Y. Barad and Y. Silberberg , “ Polarization Evolution and Polarization Instability of Solitons in a Birefringent Optical Fiber ”, Phys. Rev. Lett.   78 , 3290 – 3293 ( 1997 ).
[CrossRef]

Barnett, B.C.

E.A. De Souza , C.E. Soccolich , W. Pleibel , R.H. Stolen , J.R Simpson , and D.J. DiGiovanni , “ Saturable Absorber Modelocked Polarization Maintaining Erbium-Doped Fiber Laser ”, Electron. Lett.   29 , 447 – 449 ( 1993 ); B.C. Barnett , L. Rahman , M.N. Islam , Y.C. Chen , P. Bhattacharya , W. Riha , K.V. Reddy , A.T. Howe , K.A. Stair , H. Iwamura , S.R. Friberg , and T. Mukai , “ High-power erbium-doped fiber laser mode locked by a semiconductor saturable absorber ”, Opt. Lett.   20 , 471 – 473 ( 1995 ).
[CrossRef]

Bergano, N.S.

S.G. Evangelides , L.F. Mollenauer , J.P. Gordon , and N.S. Bergano , “ Polarization multiplexing with solitons ”, J. Lightwave Tech.   10 , 28 – 35 ( 1992 ).
[CrossRef]

Bergman, K.

B.C. Collings , K. Bergman , S. Tsuda , and W.H. Knox , “ Femtosecond short cavity 2.5 GHz fiber laser harmonically modelocked by a saturable Bragg reflector with low temporal jitter ”, presented at CLEO ’97, 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series   11 ( Optical Society of America, Washington DC , 1997 ) p. 343 – 344 .

B.C. Collings , K. Bergman , S.T. Cundiff , S. Tsuda , J.N. Kutz , J.E. Cunningham , W.Y. Jan , M. Koch , and W.H. Knox , “ Short Cavity Erbium/Ytterbium Fiber Lasers Modelocked with a Saturable Bragg Reflector ”, submitted for publication.

Bhattacharya, P.

E.A. De Souza , C.E. Soccolich , W. Pleibel , R.H. Stolen , J.R Simpson , and D.J. DiGiovanni , “ Saturable Absorber Modelocked Polarization Maintaining Erbium-Doped Fiber Laser ”, Electron. Lett.   29 , 447 – 449 ( 1993 ); B.C. Barnett , L. Rahman , M.N. Islam , Y.C. Chen , P. Bhattacharya , W. Riha , K.V. Reddy , A.T. Howe , K.A. Stair , H. Iwamura , S.R. Friberg , and T. Mukai , “ High-power erbium-doped fiber laser mode locked by a semiconductor saturable absorber ”, Opt. Lett.   20 , 471 – 473 ( 1995 ).
[CrossRef]

Buryak, A.V.

Chen, C.J.

Chen, Y.C.

E.A. De Souza , C.E. Soccolich , W. Pleibel , R.H. Stolen , J.R Simpson , and D.J. DiGiovanni , “ Saturable Absorber Modelocked Polarization Maintaining Erbium-Doped Fiber Laser ”, Electron. Lett.   29 , 447 – 449 ( 1993 ); B.C. Barnett , L. Rahman , M.N. Islam , Y.C. Chen , P. Bhattacharya , W. Riha , K.V. Reddy , A.T. Howe , K.A. Stair , H. Iwamura , S.R. Friberg , and T. Mukai , “ High-power erbium-doped fiber laser mode locked by a semiconductor saturable absorber ”, Opt. Lett.   20 , 471 – 473 ( 1995 ).
[CrossRef]

Collett, E.

See E. Collett , Polarized Light ( Marcel Dekker, New York , 1993 ).

Collings, B.C.

B.C. Collings , K. Bergman , S. Tsuda , and W.H. Knox , “ Femtosecond short cavity 2.5 GHz fiber laser harmonically modelocked by a saturable Bragg reflector with low temporal jitter ”, presented at CLEO ’97, 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series   11 ( Optical Society of America, Washington DC , 1997 ) p. 343 – 344 .

B.C. Collings , K. Bergman , S.T. Cundiff , S. Tsuda , J.N. Kutz , J.E. Cunningham , W.Y. Jan , M. Koch , and W.H. Knox , “ Short Cavity Erbium/Ytterbium Fiber Lasers Modelocked with a Saturable Bragg Reflector ”, submitted for publication.

Cundiff, S.T.

S.T. Cundiff , W.H. Knox , and M.C. Nuss , “ Active feed-forward channel equalization for chirped pulse wavelength division multiplexing ”, Electron. Lett.   33 , 10 – 11 ( 1997 ).
[CrossRef]

S. Tsuda , W.H. Knox , E.A. de Souza , W.Y. Jan , and J.E. Cunningham , “ Low-loss intracavity AlAs/AlGaAs saturable Bragg reflector for femtosecond modelocking in solid-state lasers ”, Opt. Lett.   20 , 1406 – 1408 ( 1995 ); S. Tsuda , W.H. Knox , S.T. Cundiff , W.Y. Jan , and J.E. Cunningham , “ Mode-Locking Ultrafast Solid-State Lasers with Saturable Bragg Reflectors ”, IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quant. Electron.   2 , 454 – 464 ( 1996 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B.C. Collings , K. Bergman , S.T. Cundiff , S. Tsuda , J.N. Kutz , J.E. Cunningham , W.Y. Jan , M. Koch , and W.H. Knox , “ Short Cavity Erbium/Ytterbium Fiber Lasers Modelocked with a Saturable Bragg Reflector ”, submitted for publication.

Cunningham, J.E.

de Souza, E.A.

Dennis, M.L.

I.N. Duling III and M.L. Dennis , Compact Sources of Ultrashort Pulses ( Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge , 1995 ).

DiGiovanni, D.J.

E.A. De Souza , C.E. Soccolich , W. Pleibel , R.H. Stolen , J.R Simpson , and D.J. DiGiovanni , “ Saturable Absorber Modelocked Polarization Maintaining Erbium-Doped Fiber Laser ”, Electron. Lett.   29 , 447 – 449 ( 1993 ); B.C. Barnett , L. Rahman , M.N. Islam , Y.C. Chen , P. Bhattacharya , W. Riha , K.V. Reddy , A.T. Howe , K.A. Stair , H. Iwamura , S.R. Friberg , and T. Mukai , “ High-power erbium-doped fiber laser mode locked by a semiconductor saturable absorber ”, Opt. Lett.   20 , 471 – 473 ( 1995 ).
[CrossRef]

Duling III, I.N.

I.N. Duling III , “ Subpicosecond all-fiber erbium laser ”, Electron. Lett.   27 , 544 – 545 ( 1991 ); D.J. Richardson , R.I. Laming , D.N. Payne , M.W. Phillips , and V.J. Matsas , “ 320 fs soliton generation wit h passively mode-locked erbium fiber laser ”, Electron. Lett.   27 , 730 – 732 ( 1991 ).
[CrossRef]

I.N. Duling III and M.L. Dennis , Compact Sources of Ultrashort Pulses ( Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge , 1995 ).

Evangelides, S.G.

S.G. Evangelides , L.F. Mollenauer , J.P. Gordon , and N.S. Bergano , “ Polarization multiplexing with solitons ”, J. Lightwave Tech.   10 , 28 – 35 ( 1992 ).
[CrossRef]

Evankow, J.D.

A.K. Srivastava , J.L. Zyskind , J.W. Sulhoff , J.D. Evankow , and M.A. Mills , “ Room temperature spectral hole burning in erbium-doped fiber amplifiers ”, OFC ’96, OSA Technical Digest Series   2 ( Optical Society of America, Washington DC , 1996 ) 33 – 34 .

Fermann, M.E.

Friberg, S.R.

E.A. De Souza , C.E. Soccolich , W. Pleibel , R.H. Stolen , J.R Simpson , and D.J. DiGiovanni , “ Saturable Absorber Modelocked Polarization Maintaining Erbium-Doped Fiber Laser ”, Electron. Lett.   29 , 447 – 449 ( 1993 ); B.C. Barnett , L. Rahman , M.N. Islam , Y.C. Chen , P. Bhattacharya , W. Riha , K.V. Reddy , A.T. Howe , K.A. Stair , H. Iwamura , S.R. Friberg , and T. Mukai , “ High-power erbium-doped fiber laser mode locked by a semiconductor saturable absorber ”, Opt. Lett.   20 , 471 – 473 ( 1995 ).
[CrossRef]

Gordon, J.P.

S.G. Evangelides , L.F. Mollenauer , J.P. Gordon , and N.S. Bergano , “ Polarization multiplexing with solitons ”, J. Lightwave Tech.   10 , 28 – 35 ( 1992 ).
[CrossRef]

Haberl, F.

Haus, H.A.

K. Tamura , E.P. Ippen , H.A. Haus , and L.E. Nelson , “ 77-fs pulse generation from a stretched-pulse mode-locked all-fiber ring laser ”, Opt. Lett.   18 , 1080 – 1082 ( 1993 ); K. Tamura , L.E. Nelson , H.A. Haus , and E.P. Ippen , “ Soliton versus nonsoliton operation of fiber ring lasers ”, Appl. Phys. Lett.   64 , 149 – 151 ( 1994 ); H.A. Haus , K. Tamura , L.E. Nelson , and E.P. Ippen , “ Stretched-Pulse Additive Pulse Mode-Locking in Fiber Ring Lasers: Theory and Experiment ”, IEEE J. Quant. Electron.   31 , 591 – 598 ( 1995 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Tamura , E.P. Ippen , H.A. Haus , and L.E. Nelson , “ 77-fs pulse generation from a stretched-pulse mode-locked all-fiber ring laser ”, Opt. Lett.   18 , 1080 – 1082 ( 1993 ); K. Tamura , L.E. Nelson , H.A. Haus , and E.P. Ippen , “ Soliton versus nonsoliton operation of fiber ring lasers ”, Appl. Phys. Lett.   64 , 149 – 151 ( 1994 ); H.A. Haus , K. Tamura , L.E. Nelson , and E.P. Ippen , “ Stretched-Pulse Additive Pulse Mode-Locking in Fiber Ring Lasers: Theory and Experiment ”, IEEE J. Quant. Electron.   31 , 591 – 598 ( 1995 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Tamura , E.P. Ippen , H.A. Haus , and L.E. Nelson , “ 77-fs pulse generation from a stretched-pulse mode-locked all-fiber ring laser ”, Opt. Lett.   18 , 1080 – 1082 ( 1993 ); K. Tamura , L.E. Nelson , H.A. Haus , and E.P. Ippen , “ Soliton versus nonsoliton operation of fiber ring lasers ”, Appl. Phys. Lett.   64 , 149 – 151 ( 1994 ); H.A. Haus , K. Tamura , L.E. Nelson , and E.P. Ippen , “ Stretched-Pulse Additive Pulse Mode-Locking in Fiber Ring Lasers: Theory and Experiment ”, IEEE J. Quant. Electron.   31 , 591 – 598 ( 1995 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Hofer , M.E. Fermann , F. Haberl , M.H. Ober , and A.J. Schmidt , “ Modelocking with cross-phase and self-phase modulation ”, Opt. Lett.   16 , 502 – 504 ( 1991 ); C.J. Chen , P.K.A. Wai , and C.R. Menyuk , “ Soliton fiber ring laser ”, Opt. Lett.   17 , 417 – 419 ( 1992 ); V.J. Matsas , T.P. Newson , D.J. Richardson , and D.J. Payne , “ Selfstarting Passively Mode-Locked Fiber Ring Soliton Laser Exploiting Nonlinear Polarization Rotation ”, Electron. Lett.   28 , 1391 – 1393 ( 1992 ); K. Tamura , H.A. Haus , and E.P. Ippen , “ Self-starting additive pulse mode-locked erbium fiber ring laser ”, Electron. Lett.   28 , 2226 – 2228 ( 1992 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hofer, M.

Howe, A.T.

E.A. De Souza , C.E. Soccolich , W. Pleibel , R.H. Stolen , J.R Simpson , and D.J. DiGiovanni , “ Saturable Absorber Modelocked Polarization Maintaining Erbium-Doped Fiber Laser ”, Electron. Lett.   29 , 447 – 449 ( 1993 ); B.C. Barnett , L. Rahman , M.N. Islam , Y.C. Chen , P. Bhattacharya , W. Riha , K.V. Reddy , A.T. Howe , K.A. Stair , H. Iwamura , S.R. Friberg , and T. Mukai , “ High-power erbium-doped fiber laser mode locked by a semiconductor saturable absorber ”, Opt. Lett.   20 , 471 – 473 ( 1995 ).
[CrossRef]

Ippen, E.P.

K. Tamura , E.P. Ippen , H.A. Haus , and L.E. Nelson , “ 77-fs pulse generation from a stretched-pulse mode-locked all-fiber ring laser ”, Opt. Lett.   18 , 1080 – 1082 ( 1993 ); K. Tamura , L.E. Nelson , H.A. Haus , and E.P. Ippen , “ Soliton versus nonsoliton operation of fiber ring lasers ”, Appl. Phys. Lett.   64 , 149 – 151 ( 1994 ); H.A. Haus , K. Tamura , L.E. Nelson , and E.P. Ippen , “ Stretched-Pulse Additive Pulse Mode-Locking in Fiber Ring Lasers: Theory and Experiment ”, IEEE J. Quant. Electron.   31 , 591 – 598 ( 1995 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Tamura , E.P. Ippen , H.A. Haus , and L.E. Nelson , “ 77-fs pulse generation from a stretched-pulse mode-locked all-fiber ring laser ”, Opt. Lett.   18 , 1080 – 1082 ( 1993 ); K. Tamura , L.E. Nelson , H.A. Haus , and E.P. Ippen , “ Soliton versus nonsoliton operation of fiber ring lasers ”, Appl. Phys. Lett.   64 , 149 – 151 ( 1994 ); H.A. Haus , K. Tamura , L.E. Nelson , and E.P. Ippen , “ Stretched-Pulse Additive Pulse Mode-Locking in Fiber Ring Lasers: Theory and Experiment ”, IEEE J. Quant. Electron.   31 , 591 – 598 ( 1995 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Tamura , E.P. Ippen , H.A. Haus , and L.E. Nelson , “ 77-fs pulse generation from a stretched-pulse mode-locked all-fiber ring laser ”, Opt. Lett.   18 , 1080 – 1082 ( 1993 ); K. Tamura , L.E. Nelson , H.A. Haus , and E.P. Ippen , “ Soliton versus nonsoliton operation of fiber ring lasers ”, Appl. Phys. Lett.   64 , 149 – 151 ( 1994 ); H.A. Haus , K. Tamura , L.E. Nelson , and E.P. Ippen , “ Stretched-Pulse Additive Pulse Mode-Locking in Fiber Ring Lasers: Theory and Experiment ”, IEEE J. Quant. Electron.   31 , 591 – 598 ( 1995 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Hofer , M.E. Fermann , F. Haberl , M.H. Ober , and A.J. Schmidt , “ Modelocking with cross-phase and self-phase modulation ”, Opt. Lett.   16 , 502 – 504 ( 1991 ); C.J. Chen , P.K.A. Wai , and C.R. Menyuk , “ Soliton fiber ring laser ”, Opt. Lett.   17 , 417 – 419 ( 1992 ); V.J. Matsas , T.P. Newson , D.J. Richardson , and D.J. Payne , “ Selfstarting Passively Mode-Locked Fiber Ring Soliton Laser Exploiting Nonlinear Polarization Rotation ”, Electron. Lett.   28 , 1391 – 1393 ( 1992 ); K. Tamura , H.A. Haus , and E.P. Ippen , “ Self-starting additive pulse mode-locked erbium fiber ring laser ”, Electron. Lett.   28 , 2226 – 2228 ( 1992 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Islam, M.N.

E.A. De Souza , C.E. Soccolich , W. Pleibel , R.H. Stolen , J.R Simpson , and D.J. DiGiovanni , “ Saturable Absorber Modelocked Polarization Maintaining Erbium-Doped Fiber Laser ”, Electron. Lett.   29 , 447 – 449 ( 1993 ); B.C. Barnett , L. Rahman , M.N. Islam , Y.C. Chen , P. Bhattacharya , W. Riha , K.V. Reddy , A.T. Howe , K.A. Stair , H. Iwamura , S.R. Friberg , and T. Mukai , “ High-power erbium-doped fiber laser mode locked by a semiconductor saturable absorber ”, Opt. Lett.   20 , 471 – 473 ( 1995 ).
[CrossRef]

Iwamura, H.

E.A. De Souza , C.E. Soccolich , W. Pleibel , R.H. Stolen , J.R Simpson , and D.J. DiGiovanni , “ Saturable Absorber Modelocked Polarization Maintaining Erbium-Doped Fiber Laser ”, Electron. Lett.   29 , 447 – 449 ( 1993 ); B.C. Barnett , L. Rahman , M.N. Islam , Y.C. Chen , P. Bhattacharya , W. Riha , K.V. Reddy , A.T. Howe , K.A. Stair , H. Iwamura , S.R. Friberg , and T. Mukai , “ High-power erbium-doped fiber laser mode locked by a semiconductor saturable absorber ”, Opt. Lett.   20 , 471 – 473 ( 1995 ).
[CrossRef]

Jan, W.Y.

Kelly, S.M.J.

N. Pandit , D.U. Noske , S.M.J. Kelly , and J.R. Taylor , “ Characteristic instability of fiber loop soliton lasers ”, Electron. Lett.   28 , 455 – 457 ( 1992 ); S.M.J. Kelly , “ Characteristic sideband instability of periodically amplified average soliton ”, Electron. Lett.   28 , 806 – 807 ( 1992 ).
[CrossRef]

N. Pandit , D.U. Noske , S.M.J. Kelly , and J.R. Taylor , “ Characteristic instability of fiber loop soliton lasers ”, Electron. Lett.   28 , 455 – 457 ( 1992 ); S.M.J. Kelly , “ Characteristic sideband instability of periodically amplified average soliton ”, Electron. Lett.   28 , 806 – 807 ( 1992 ).
[CrossRef]

Knox, W.H.

S.T. Cundiff , W.H. Knox , and M.C. Nuss , “ Active feed-forward channel equalization for chirped pulse wavelength division multiplexing ”, Electron. Lett.   33 , 10 – 11 ( 1997 ).
[CrossRef]

B.C. Collings , K. Bergman , S. Tsuda , and W.H. Knox , “ Femtosecond short cavity 2.5 GHz fiber laser harmonically modelocked by a saturable Bragg reflector with low temporal jitter ”, presented at CLEO ’97, 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series   11 ( Optical Society of America, Washington DC , 1997 ) p. 343 – 344 .

see M.C. Nuss , W.H. Knox , and U. Koren , “ Scaleable 32 channel chirped-pulse WDM source ”, Electron. Lett.   32 , 1311 – 1312 ( 1996 ).
[CrossRef]

S. Tsuda , W.H. Knox , E.A. de Souza , W.Y. Jan , and J.E. Cunningham , “ Low-loss intracavity AlAs/AlGaAs saturable Bragg reflector for femtosecond modelocking in solid-state lasers ”, Opt. Lett.   20 , 1406 – 1408 ( 1995 ); S. Tsuda , W.H. Knox , S.T. Cundiff , W.Y. Jan , and J.E. Cunningham , “ Mode-Locking Ultrafast Solid-State Lasers with Saturable Bragg Reflectors ”, IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quant. Electron.   2 , 454 – 464 ( 1996 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Tsuda , W.H. Knox , E.A. de Souza , W.Y. Jan , and J.E. Cunningham , “ Low-loss intracavity AlAs/AlGaAs saturable Bragg reflector for femtosecond modelocking in solid-state lasers ”, Opt. Lett.   20 , 1406 – 1408 ( 1995 ); S. Tsuda , W.H. Knox , S.T. Cundiff , W.Y. Jan , and J.E. Cunningham , “ Mode-Locking Ultrafast Solid-State Lasers with Saturable Bragg Reflectors ”, IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quant. Electron.   2 , 454 – 464 ( 1996 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Tsuda , W.H. Knox , J.L. Zyskind , J.E. Cunningham , W.Y. Jan , and R. Pathak , “ Broadband compact mode-locked Er/Yb fiber Laser ”, Conf. Laser Electro-Optics ’ 96 , OSA Tech. Digest Series 9, ( OSA, Washington DC , 1996 ) 494 .

B.C. Collings , K. Bergman , S.T. Cundiff , S. Tsuda , J.N. Kutz , J.E. Cunningham , W.Y. Jan , M. Koch , and W.H. Knox , “ Short Cavity Erbium/Ytterbium Fiber Lasers Modelocked with a Saturable Bragg Reflector ”, submitted for publication.

Koch, M.

B.C. Collings , K. Bergman , S.T. Cundiff , S. Tsuda , J.N. Kutz , J.E. Cunningham , W.Y. Jan , M. Koch , and W.H. Knox , “ Short Cavity Erbium/Ytterbium Fiber Lasers Modelocked with a Saturable Bragg Reflector ”, submitted for publication.

Koren, U.

see M.C. Nuss , W.H. Knox , and U. Koren , “ Scaleable 32 channel chirped-pulse WDM source ”, Electron. Lett.   32 , 1311 – 1312 ( 1996 ).
[CrossRef]

Kutz, J.N.

B.C. Collings , K. Bergman , S.T. Cundiff , S. Tsuda , J.N. Kutz , J.E. Cunningham , W.Y. Jan , M. Koch , and W.H. Knox , “ Short Cavity Erbium/Ytterbium Fiber Lasers Modelocked with a Saturable Bragg Reflector ”, submitted for publication.

Laming, R.I.

I.N. Duling III , “ Subpicosecond all-fiber erbium laser ”, Electron. Lett.   27 , 544 – 545 ( 1991 ); D.J. Richardson , R.I. Laming , D.N. Payne , M.W. Phillips , and V.J. Matsas , “ 320 fs soliton generation wit h passively mode-locked erbium fiber laser ”, Electron. Lett.   27 , 730 – 732 ( 1991 ).
[CrossRef]

Lefevre, H.C.

H.C. Lefevre , “ Single-mode fiber fractional wave devices and polarization controllers ”, Electron. Lett.   16 , 778 – 780 ( 1980 ).
[CrossRef]

Matsas, V.J.

Menyuk, C.G.

C.G. Menyuk , “ Nonlinear pulse propagation in birefringent optical fibers ”, IEEE J. Quant. Electron.   23 , 174 – 176 ( 1987 ); C.G. Menyuk , “ Stability of solitons in birefringent optical fibers. I: Equal propagation amplitudes ”, Opt. Lett.   12 , 614 – 616 ( 1987 ).
[CrossRef]

C.G. Menyuk , “ Nonlinear pulse propagation in birefringent optical fibers ”, IEEE J. Quant. Electron.   23 , 174 – 176 ( 1987 ); C.G. Menyuk , “ Stability of solitons in birefringent optical fibers. I: Equal propagation amplitudes ”, Opt. Lett.   12 , 614 – 616 ( 1987 ).
[CrossRef]

Menyuk, C.R.

Mills, M.A.

A.K. Srivastava , J.L. Zyskind , J.W. Sulhoff , J.D. Evankow , and M.A. Mills , “ Room temperature spectral hole burning in erbium-doped fiber amplifiers ”, OFC ’96, OSA Technical Digest Series   2 ( Optical Society of America, Washington DC , 1996 ) 33 – 34 .

Mollenauer, L.F.

S.G. Evangelides , L.F. Mollenauer , J.P. Gordon , and N.S. Bergano , “ Polarization multiplexing with solitons ”, J. Lightwave Tech.   10 , 28 – 35 ( 1992 ).
[CrossRef]

Mukai, T.

E.A. De Souza , C.E. Soccolich , W. Pleibel , R.H. Stolen , J.R Simpson , and D.J. DiGiovanni , “ Saturable Absorber Modelocked Polarization Maintaining Erbium-Doped Fiber Laser ”, Electron. Lett.   29 , 447 – 449 ( 1993 ); B.C. Barnett , L. Rahman , M.N. Islam , Y.C. Chen , P. Bhattacharya , W. Riha , K.V. Reddy , A.T. Howe , K.A. Stair , H. Iwamura , S.R. Friberg , and T. Mukai , “ High-power erbium-doped fiber laser mode locked by a semiconductor saturable absorber ”, Opt. Lett.   20 , 471 – 473 ( 1995 ).
[CrossRef]

Nelson, L.E.

K. Tamura , E.P. Ippen , H.A. Haus , and L.E. Nelson , “ 77-fs pulse generation from a stretched-pulse mode-locked all-fiber ring laser ”, Opt. Lett.   18 , 1080 – 1082 ( 1993 ); K. Tamura , L.E. Nelson , H.A. Haus , and E.P. Ippen , “ Soliton versus nonsoliton operation of fiber ring lasers ”, Appl. Phys. Lett.   64 , 149 – 151 ( 1994 ); H.A. Haus , K. Tamura , L.E. Nelson , and E.P. Ippen , “ Stretched-Pulse Additive Pulse Mode-Locking in Fiber Ring Lasers: Theory and Experiment ”, IEEE J. Quant. Electron.   31 , 591 – 598 ( 1995 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Tamura , E.P. Ippen , H.A. Haus , and L.E. Nelson , “ 77-fs pulse generation from a stretched-pulse mode-locked all-fiber ring laser ”, Opt. Lett.   18 , 1080 – 1082 ( 1993 ); K. Tamura , L.E. Nelson , H.A. Haus , and E.P. Ippen , “ Soliton versus nonsoliton operation of fiber ring lasers ”, Appl. Phys. Lett.   64 , 149 – 151 ( 1994 ); H.A. Haus , K. Tamura , L.E. Nelson , and E.P. Ippen , “ Stretched-Pulse Additive Pulse Mode-Locking in Fiber Ring Lasers: Theory and Experiment ”, IEEE J. Quant. Electron.   31 , 591 – 598 ( 1995 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Tamura , E.P. Ippen , H.A. Haus , and L.E. Nelson , “ 77-fs pulse generation from a stretched-pulse mode-locked all-fiber ring laser ”, Opt. Lett.   18 , 1080 – 1082 ( 1993 ); K. Tamura , L.E. Nelson , H.A. Haus , and E.P. Ippen , “ Soliton versus nonsoliton operation of fiber ring lasers ”, Appl. Phys. Lett.   64 , 149 – 151 ( 1994 ); H.A. Haus , K. Tamura , L.E. Nelson , and E.P. Ippen , “ Stretched-Pulse Additive Pulse Mode-Locking in Fiber Ring Lasers: Theory and Experiment ”, IEEE J. Quant. Electron.   31 , 591 – 598 ( 1995 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Newson, T.P.

Noske, D.U.

N. Pandit , D.U. Noske , S.M.J. Kelly , and J.R. Taylor , “ Characteristic instability of fiber loop soliton lasers ”, Electron. Lett.   28 , 455 – 457 ( 1992 ); S.M.J. Kelly , “ Characteristic sideband instability of periodically amplified average soliton ”, Electron. Lett.   28 , 806 – 807 ( 1992 ).
[CrossRef]

Nuss, M.C.

S.T. Cundiff , W.H. Knox , and M.C. Nuss , “ Active feed-forward channel equalization for chirped pulse wavelength division multiplexing ”, Electron. Lett.   33 , 10 – 11 ( 1997 ).
[CrossRef]

see M.C. Nuss , W.H. Knox , and U. Koren , “ Scaleable 32 channel chirped-pulse WDM source ”, Electron. Lett.   32 , 1311 – 1312 ( 1996 ).
[CrossRef]

Ober, M.H.

Pandit, N.

N. Pandit , D.U. Noske , S.M.J. Kelly , and J.R. Taylor , “ Characteristic instability of fiber loop soliton lasers ”, Electron. Lett.   28 , 455 – 457 ( 1992 ); S.M.J. Kelly , “ Characteristic sideband instability of periodically amplified average soliton ”, Electron. Lett.   28 , 806 – 807 ( 1992 ).
[CrossRef]

Pathak, R.

S. Tsuda , W.H. Knox , J.L. Zyskind , J.E. Cunningham , W.Y. Jan , and R. Pathak , “ Broadband compact mode-locked Er/Yb fiber Laser ”, Conf. Laser Electro-Optics ’ 96 , OSA Tech. Digest Series 9, ( OSA, Washington DC , 1996 ) 494 .

Payne, D.J.

Payne, D.N.

I.N. Duling III , “ Subpicosecond all-fiber erbium laser ”, Electron. Lett.   27 , 544 – 545 ( 1991 ); D.J. Richardson , R.I. Laming , D.N. Payne , M.W. Phillips , and V.J. Matsas , “ 320 fs soliton generation wit h passively mode-locked erbium fiber laser ”, Electron. Lett.   27 , 730 – 732 ( 1991 ).
[CrossRef]

Phillips, M.W.

I.N. Duling III , “ Subpicosecond all-fiber erbium laser ”, Electron. Lett.   27 , 544 – 545 ( 1991 ); D.J. Richardson , R.I. Laming , D.N. Payne , M.W. Phillips , and V.J. Matsas , “ 320 fs soliton generation wit h passively mode-locked erbium fiber laser ”, Electron. Lett.   27 , 730 – 732 ( 1991 ).
[CrossRef]

Pleibel, W.

E.A. De Souza , C.E. Soccolich , W. Pleibel , R.H. Stolen , J.R Simpson , and D.J. DiGiovanni , “ Saturable Absorber Modelocked Polarization Maintaining Erbium-Doped Fiber Laser ”, Electron. Lett.   29 , 447 – 449 ( 1993 ); B.C. Barnett , L. Rahman , M.N. Islam , Y.C. Chen , P. Bhattacharya , W. Riha , K.V. Reddy , A.T. Howe , K.A. Stair , H. Iwamura , S.R. Friberg , and T. Mukai , “ High-power erbium-doped fiber laser mode locked by a semiconductor saturable absorber ”, Opt. Lett.   20 , 471 – 473 ( 1995 ).
[CrossRef]

Rahman, L.

E.A. De Souza , C.E. Soccolich , W. Pleibel , R.H. Stolen , J.R Simpson , and D.J. DiGiovanni , “ Saturable Absorber Modelocked Polarization Maintaining Erbium-Doped Fiber Laser ”, Electron. Lett.   29 , 447 – 449 ( 1993 ); B.C. Barnett , L. Rahman , M.N. Islam , Y.C. Chen , P. Bhattacharya , W. Riha , K.V. Reddy , A.T. Howe , K.A. Stair , H. Iwamura , S.R. Friberg , and T. Mukai , “ High-power erbium-doped fiber laser mode locked by a semiconductor saturable absorber ”, Opt. Lett.   20 , 471 – 473 ( 1995 ).
[CrossRef]

Reddy, K.V.

E.A. De Souza , C.E. Soccolich , W. Pleibel , R.H. Stolen , J.R Simpson , and D.J. DiGiovanni , “ Saturable Absorber Modelocked Polarization Maintaining Erbium-Doped Fiber Laser ”, Electron. Lett.   29 , 447 – 449 ( 1993 ); B.C. Barnett , L. Rahman , M.N. Islam , Y.C. Chen , P. Bhattacharya , W. Riha , K.V. Reddy , A.T. Howe , K.A. Stair , H. Iwamura , S.R. Friberg , and T. Mukai , “ High-power erbium-doped fiber laser mode locked by a semiconductor saturable absorber ”, Opt. Lett.   20 , 471 – 473 ( 1995 ).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, D.J.

Riha, W.

E.A. De Souza , C.E. Soccolich , W. Pleibel , R.H. Stolen , J.R Simpson , and D.J. DiGiovanni , “ Saturable Absorber Modelocked Polarization Maintaining Erbium-Doped Fiber Laser ”, Electron. Lett.   29 , 447 – 449 ( 1993 ); B.C. Barnett , L. Rahman , M.N. Islam , Y.C. Chen , P. Bhattacharya , W. Riha , K.V. Reddy , A.T. Howe , K.A. Stair , H. Iwamura , S.R. Friberg , and T. Mukai , “ High-power erbium-doped fiber laser mode locked by a semiconductor saturable absorber ”, Opt. Lett.   20 , 471 – 473 ( 1995 ).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, A.J.

Silberberg, Y.

Y. Barad and Y. Silberberg , “ Polarization Evolution and Polarization Instability of Solitons in a Birefringent Optical Fiber ”, Phys. Rev. Lett.   78 , 3290 – 3293 ( 1997 ).
[CrossRef]

Simpson, J.R

E.A. De Souza , C.E. Soccolich , W. Pleibel , R.H. Stolen , J.R Simpson , and D.J. DiGiovanni , “ Saturable Absorber Modelocked Polarization Maintaining Erbium-Doped Fiber Laser ”, Electron. Lett.   29 , 447 – 449 ( 1993 ); B.C. Barnett , L. Rahman , M.N. Islam , Y.C. Chen , P. Bhattacharya , W. Riha , K.V. Reddy , A.T. Howe , K.A. Stair , H. Iwamura , S.R. Friberg , and T. Mukai , “ High-power erbium-doped fiber laser mode locked by a semiconductor saturable absorber ”, Opt. Lett.   20 , 471 – 473 ( 1995 ).
[CrossRef]

Soccolich, C.E.

E.A. De Souza , C.E. Soccolich , W. Pleibel , R.H. Stolen , J.R Simpson , and D.J. DiGiovanni , “ Saturable Absorber Modelocked Polarization Maintaining Erbium-Doped Fiber Laser ”, Electron. Lett.   29 , 447 – 449 ( 1993 ); B.C. Barnett , L. Rahman , M.N. Islam , Y.C. Chen , P. Bhattacharya , W. Riha , K.V. Reddy , A.T. Howe , K.A. Stair , H. Iwamura , S.R. Friberg , and T. Mukai , “ High-power erbium-doped fiber laser mode locked by a semiconductor saturable absorber ”, Opt. Lett.   20 , 471 – 473 ( 1995 ).
[CrossRef]

Soto-Crespo, J.M.

Souza, E.A. De

E.A. De Souza , C.E. Soccolich , W. Pleibel , R.H. Stolen , J.R Simpson , and D.J. DiGiovanni , “ Saturable Absorber Modelocked Polarization Maintaining Erbium-Doped Fiber Laser ”, Electron. Lett.   29 , 447 – 449 ( 1993 ); B.C. Barnett , L. Rahman , M.N. Islam , Y.C. Chen , P. Bhattacharya , W. Riha , K.V. Reddy , A.T. Howe , K.A. Stair , H. Iwamura , S.R. Friberg , and T. Mukai , “ High-power erbium-doped fiber laser mode locked by a semiconductor saturable absorber ”, Opt. Lett.   20 , 471 – 473 ( 1995 ).
[CrossRef]

Srivastava, A.K.

A.K. Srivastava , J.L. Zyskind , J.W. Sulhoff , J.D. Evankow , and M.A. Mills , “ Room temperature spectral hole burning in erbium-doped fiber amplifiers ”, OFC ’96, OSA Technical Digest Series   2 ( Optical Society of America, Washington DC , 1996 ) 33 – 34 .

Stair, K.A.

E.A. De Souza , C.E. Soccolich , W. Pleibel , R.H. Stolen , J.R Simpson , and D.J. DiGiovanni , “ Saturable Absorber Modelocked Polarization Maintaining Erbium-Doped Fiber Laser ”, Electron. Lett.   29 , 447 – 449 ( 1993 ); B.C. Barnett , L. Rahman , M.N. Islam , Y.C. Chen , P. Bhattacharya , W. Riha , K.V. Reddy , A.T. Howe , K.A. Stair , H. Iwamura , S.R. Friberg , and T. Mukai , “ High-power erbium-doped fiber laser mode locked by a semiconductor saturable absorber ”, Opt. Lett.   20 , 471 – 473 ( 1995 ).
[CrossRef]

Stolen, R.H.

E.A. De Souza , C.E. Soccolich , W. Pleibel , R.H. Stolen , J.R Simpson , and D.J. DiGiovanni , “ Saturable Absorber Modelocked Polarization Maintaining Erbium-Doped Fiber Laser ”, Electron. Lett.   29 , 447 – 449 ( 1993 ); B.C. Barnett , L. Rahman , M.N. Islam , Y.C. Chen , P. Bhattacharya , W. Riha , K.V. Reddy , A.T. Howe , K.A. Stair , H. Iwamura , S.R. Friberg , and T. Mukai , “ High-power erbium-doped fiber laser mode locked by a semiconductor saturable absorber ”, Opt. Lett.   20 , 471 – 473 ( 1995 ).
[CrossRef]

Sulhoff, J.W.

A.K. Srivastava , J.L. Zyskind , J.W. Sulhoff , J.D. Evankow , and M.A. Mills , “ Room temperature spectral hole burning in erbium-doped fiber amplifiers ”, OFC ’96, OSA Technical Digest Series   2 ( Optical Society of America, Washington DC , 1996 ) 33 – 34 .

Tamura, K.

K. Tamura , E.P. Ippen , H.A. Haus , and L.E. Nelson , “ 77-fs pulse generation from a stretched-pulse mode-locked all-fiber ring laser ”, Opt. Lett.   18 , 1080 – 1082 ( 1993 ); K. Tamura , L.E. Nelson , H.A. Haus , and E.P. Ippen , “ Soliton versus nonsoliton operation of fiber ring lasers ”, Appl. Phys. Lett.   64 , 149 – 151 ( 1994 ); H.A. Haus , K. Tamura , L.E. Nelson , and E.P. Ippen , “ Stretched-Pulse Additive Pulse Mode-Locking in Fiber Ring Lasers: Theory and Experiment ”, IEEE J. Quant. Electron.   31 , 591 – 598 ( 1995 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Tamura , E.P. Ippen , H.A. Haus , and L.E. Nelson , “ 77-fs pulse generation from a stretched-pulse mode-locked all-fiber ring laser ”, Opt. Lett.   18 , 1080 – 1082 ( 1993 ); K. Tamura , L.E. Nelson , H.A. Haus , and E.P. Ippen , “ Soliton versus nonsoliton operation of fiber ring lasers ”, Appl. Phys. Lett.   64 , 149 – 151 ( 1994 ); H.A. Haus , K. Tamura , L.E. Nelson , and E.P. Ippen , “ Stretched-Pulse Additive Pulse Mode-Locking in Fiber Ring Lasers: Theory and Experiment ”, IEEE J. Quant. Electron.   31 , 591 – 598 ( 1995 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Tamura , E.P. Ippen , H.A. Haus , and L.E. Nelson , “ 77-fs pulse generation from a stretched-pulse mode-locked all-fiber ring laser ”, Opt. Lett.   18 , 1080 – 1082 ( 1993 ); K. Tamura , L.E. Nelson , H.A. Haus , and E.P. Ippen , “ Soliton versus nonsoliton operation of fiber ring lasers ”, Appl. Phys. Lett.   64 , 149 – 151 ( 1994 ); H.A. Haus , K. Tamura , L.E. Nelson , and E.P. Ippen , “ Stretched-Pulse Additive Pulse Mode-Locking in Fiber Ring Lasers: Theory and Experiment ”, IEEE J. Quant. Electron.   31 , 591 – 598 ( 1995 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Hofer , M.E. Fermann , F. Haberl , M.H. Ober , and A.J. Schmidt , “ Modelocking with cross-phase and self-phase modulation ”, Opt. Lett.   16 , 502 – 504 ( 1991 ); C.J. Chen , P.K.A. Wai , and C.R. Menyuk , “ Soliton fiber ring laser ”, Opt. Lett.   17 , 417 – 419 ( 1992 ); V.J. Matsas , T.P. Newson , D.J. Richardson , and D.J. Payne , “ Selfstarting Passively Mode-Locked Fiber Ring Soliton Laser Exploiting Nonlinear Polarization Rotation ”, Electron. Lett.   28 , 1391 – 1393 ( 1992 ); K. Tamura , H.A. Haus , and E.P. Ippen , “ Self-starting additive pulse mode-locked erbium fiber ring laser ”, Electron. Lett.   28 , 2226 – 2228 ( 1992 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Taylor, J.R.

N. Pandit , D.U. Noske , S.M.J. Kelly , and J.R. Taylor , “ Characteristic instability of fiber loop soliton lasers ”, Electron. Lett.   28 , 455 – 457 ( 1992 ); S.M.J. Kelly , “ Characteristic sideband instability of periodically amplified average soliton ”, Electron. Lett.   28 , 806 – 807 ( 1992 ).
[CrossRef]

Tsuda, S.

B.C. Collings , K. Bergman , S. Tsuda , and W.H. Knox , “ Femtosecond short cavity 2.5 GHz fiber laser harmonically modelocked by a saturable Bragg reflector with low temporal jitter ”, presented at CLEO ’97, 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series   11 ( Optical Society of America, Washington DC , 1997 ) p. 343 – 344 .

S. Tsuda , W.H. Knox , E.A. de Souza , W.Y. Jan , and J.E. Cunningham , “ Low-loss intracavity AlAs/AlGaAs saturable Bragg reflector for femtosecond modelocking in solid-state lasers ”, Opt. Lett.   20 , 1406 – 1408 ( 1995 ); S. Tsuda , W.H. Knox , S.T. Cundiff , W.Y. Jan , and J.E. Cunningham , “ Mode-Locking Ultrafast Solid-State Lasers with Saturable Bragg Reflectors ”, IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quant. Electron.   2 , 454 – 464 ( 1996 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Tsuda , W.H. Knox , E.A. de Souza , W.Y. Jan , and J.E. Cunningham , “ Low-loss intracavity AlAs/AlGaAs saturable Bragg reflector for femtosecond modelocking in solid-state lasers ”, Opt. Lett.   20 , 1406 – 1408 ( 1995 ); S. Tsuda , W.H. Knox , S.T. Cundiff , W.Y. Jan , and J.E. Cunningham , “ Mode-Locking Ultrafast Solid-State Lasers with Saturable Bragg Reflectors ”, IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quant. Electron.   2 , 454 – 464 ( 1996 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B.C. Collings , K. Bergman , S.T. Cundiff , S. Tsuda , J.N. Kutz , J.E. Cunningham , W.Y. Jan , M. Koch , and W.H. Knox , “ Short Cavity Erbium/Ytterbium Fiber Lasers Modelocked with a Saturable Bragg Reflector ”, submitted for publication.

S. Tsuda , W.H. Knox , J.L. Zyskind , J.E. Cunningham , W.Y. Jan , and R. Pathak , “ Broadband compact mode-locked Er/Yb fiber Laser ”, Conf. Laser Electro-Optics ’ 96 , OSA Tech. Digest Series 9, ( OSA, Washington DC , 1996 ) 494 .

Wai, P.K.A.

Winful, H.G.

H.G. Winful , “ Self-induced polarization changes in birefringent optical fiber ”, Appl. Phys. Lett.   47 , 213 – 215 ( 1985 ); H.G. Winful , “ Polarization instabilities in birefringent nonlinear media: application to fiber-optic devices ”, Opt. Lett.   11 , 33 – 35 ( 1986 ).
[CrossRef]

H.G. Winful , “ Self-induced polarization changes in birefringent optical fiber ”, Appl. Phys. Lett.   47 , 213 – 215 ( 1985 ); H.G. Winful , “ Polarization instabilities in birefringent nonlinear media: application to fiber-optic devices ”, Opt. Lett.   11 , 33 – 35 ( 1986 ).
[CrossRef]

Zyskind, J.L.

A.K. Srivastava , J.L. Zyskind , J.W. Sulhoff , J.D. Evankow , and M.A. Mills , “ Room temperature spectral hole burning in erbium-doped fiber amplifiers ”, OFC ’96, OSA Technical Digest Series   2 ( Optical Society of America, Washington DC , 1996 ) 33 – 34 .

S. Tsuda , W.H. Knox , J.L. Zyskind , J.E. Cunningham , W.Y. Jan , and R. Pathak , “ Broadband compact mode-locked Er/Yb fiber Laser ”, Conf. Laser Electro-Optics ’ 96 , OSA Tech. Digest Series 9, ( OSA, Washington DC , 1996 ) 494 .

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

H.G. Winful , “ Self-induced polarization changes in birefringent optical fiber ”, Appl. Phys. Lett.   47 , 213 – 215 ( 1985 ); H.G. Winful , “ Polarization instabilities in birefringent nonlinear media: application to fiber-optic devices ”, Opt. Lett.   11 , 33 – 35 ( 1986 ).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (6)

N. Pandit , D.U. Noske , S.M.J. Kelly , and J.R. Taylor , “ Characteristic instability of fiber loop soliton lasers ”, Electron. Lett.   28 , 455 – 457 ( 1992 ); S.M.J. Kelly , “ Characteristic sideband instability of periodically amplified average soliton ”, Electron. Lett.   28 , 806 – 807 ( 1992 ).
[CrossRef]

I.N. Duling III , “ Subpicosecond all-fiber erbium laser ”, Electron. Lett.   27 , 544 – 545 ( 1991 ); D.J. Richardson , R.I. Laming , D.N. Payne , M.W. Phillips , and V.J. Matsas , “ 320 fs soliton generation wit h passively mode-locked erbium fiber laser ”, Electron. Lett.   27 , 730 – 732 ( 1991 ).
[CrossRef]

E.A. De Souza , C.E. Soccolich , W. Pleibel , R.H. Stolen , J.R Simpson , and D.J. DiGiovanni , “ Saturable Absorber Modelocked Polarization Maintaining Erbium-Doped Fiber Laser ”, Electron. Lett.   29 , 447 – 449 ( 1993 ); B.C. Barnett , L. Rahman , M.N. Islam , Y.C. Chen , P. Bhattacharya , W. Riha , K.V. Reddy , A.T. Howe , K.A. Stair , H. Iwamura , S.R. Friberg , and T. Mukai , “ High-power erbium-doped fiber laser mode locked by a semiconductor saturable absorber ”, Opt. Lett.   20 , 471 – 473 ( 1995 ).
[CrossRef]

see M.C. Nuss , W.H. Knox , and U. Koren , “ Scaleable 32 channel chirped-pulse WDM source ”, Electron. Lett.   32 , 1311 – 1312 ( 1996 ).
[CrossRef]

H.C. Lefevre , “ Single-mode fiber fractional wave devices and polarization controllers ”, Electron. Lett.   16 , 778 – 780 ( 1980 ).
[CrossRef]

S.T. Cundiff , W.H. Knox , and M.C. Nuss , “ Active feed-forward channel equalization for chirped pulse wavelength division multiplexing ”, Electron. Lett.   33 , 10 – 11 ( 1997 ).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quant. Electron. (1)

C.G. Menyuk , “ Nonlinear pulse propagation in birefringent optical fibers ”, IEEE J. Quant. Electron.   23 , 174 – 176 ( 1987 ); C.G. Menyuk , “ Stability of solitons in birefringent optical fibers. I: Equal propagation amplitudes ”, Opt. Lett.   12 , 614 – 616 ( 1987 ).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Tech. (1)

S.G. Evangelides , L.F. Mollenauer , J.P. Gordon , and N.S. Bergano , “ Polarization multiplexing with solitons ”, J. Lightwave Tech.   10 , 28 – 35 ( 1992 ).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Lett. (3)

S. Tsuda , W.H. Knox , E.A. de Souza , W.Y. Jan , and J.E. Cunningham , “ Low-loss intracavity AlAs/AlGaAs saturable Bragg reflector for femtosecond modelocking in solid-state lasers ”, Opt. Lett.   20 , 1406 – 1408 ( 1995 ); S. Tsuda , W.H. Knox , S.T. Cundiff , W.Y. Jan , and J.E. Cunningham , “ Mode-Locking Ultrafast Solid-State Lasers with Saturable Bragg Reflectors ”, IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quant. Electron.   2 , 454 – 464 ( 1996 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Hofer , M.E. Fermann , F. Haberl , M.H. Ober , and A.J. Schmidt , “ Modelocking with cross-phase and self-phase modulation ”, Opt. Lett.   16 , 502 – 504 ( 1991 ); C.J. Chen , P.K.A. Wai , and C.R. Menyuk , “ Soliton fiber ring laser ”, Opt. Lett.   17 , 417 – 419 ( 1992 ); V.J. Matsas , T.P. Newson , D.J. Richardson , and D.J. Payne , “ Selfstarting Passively Mode-Locked Fiber Ring Soliton Laser Exploiting Nonlinear Polarization Rotation ”, Electron. Lett.   28 , 1391 – 1393 ( 1992 ); K. Tamura , H.A. Haus , and E.P. Ippen , “ Self-starting additive pulse mode-locked erbium fiber ring laser ”, Electron. Lett.   28 , 2226 – 2228 ( 1992 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Tamura , E.P. Ippen , H.A. Haus , and L.E. Nelson , “ 77-fs pulse generation from a stretched-pulse mode-locked all-fiber ring laser ”, Opt. Lett.   18 , 1080 – 1082 ( 1993 ); K. Tamura , L.E. Nelson , H.A. Haus , and E.P. Ippen , “ Soliton versus nonsoliton operation of fiber ring lasers ”, Appl. Phys. Lett.   64 , 149 – 151 ( 1994 ); H.A. Haus , K. Tamura , L.E. Nelson , and E.P. Ippen , “ Stretched-Pulse Additive Pulse Mode-Locking in Fiber Ring Lasers: Theory and Experiment ”, IEEE J. Quant. Electron.   31 , 591 – 598 ( 1995 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

Y. Barad and Y. Silberberg , “ Polarization Evolution and Polarization Instability of Solitons in a Birefringent Optical Fiber ”, Phys. Rev. Lett.   78 , 3290 – 3293 ( 1997 ).
[CrossRef]

Other (7)

B.C. Collings , K. Bergman , S. Tsuda , and W.H. Knox , “ Femtosecond short cavity 2.5 GHz fiber laser harmonically modelocked by a saturable Bragg reflector with low temporal jitter ”, presented at CLEO ’97, 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series   11 ( Optical Society of America, Washington DC , 1997 ) p. 343 – 344 .

A.K. Srivastava , J.L. Zyskind , J.W. Sulhoff , J.D. Evankow , and M.A. Mills , “ Room temperature spectral hole burning in erbium-doped fiber amplifiers ”, OFC ’96, OSA Technical Digest Series   2 ( Optical Society of America, Washington DC , 1996 ) 33 – 34 .

See E. Collett , Polarized Light ( Marcel Dekker, New York , 1993 ).

G.P. Agrawal , Nonlinear Fiber Optics ( Academic Press, San Diego , 1995 ).

S. Tsuda , W.H. Knox , J.L. Zyskind , J.E. Cunningham , W.Y. Jan , and R. Pathak , “ Broadband compact mode-locked Er/Yb fiber Laser ”, Conf. Laser Electro-Optics ’ 96 , OSA Tech. Digest Series 9, ( OSA, Washington DC , 1996 ) 494 .

B.C. Collings , K. Bergman , S.T. Cundiff , S. Tsuda , J.N. Kutz , J.E. Cunningham , W.Y. Jan , M. Koch , and W.H. Knox , “ Short Cavity Erbium/Ytterbium Fiber Lasers Modelocked with a Saturable Bragg Reflector ”, submitted for publication.

I.N. Duling III and M.L. Dennis , Compact Sources of Ultrashort Pulses ( Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge , 1995 ).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Laser cavity and measurement setup. The laser cavity is shown in blue.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

RF spectra without (a) and with (b) the external linear polarizer. Δ denotes the polarization evolution frequency (PEF). (c) shows how the pulse-to-pulse evolution of the polarization ellipse is mapped into amplitude modulation , t is the cavity round-trip time.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Polarization evolution frequency as function of the angles of the two polarization controller paddles for CW operation of the laser.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Simulated PEF(Θ12). ϕ12 is the retardance of the two polarization controllers, ϕR is the residual retardance.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Modelocked PEF(Θ12). a) full map, b) higher resolution scan of polarization locking regions.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

High resolution scan of PEF vs. Θ2 for fixed Θ1 = 110°.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Optical (left) and corresponding RF (right) spectra for 3 different settings of Q1 and Q2. For the top two panels the polarization is not locked, for the bottom panel it is locked. In the optical spectra, CSB denotes sidebands that are due to the period perturbation by the cavity, while PSB denotes sidebands due to the period evolution of the polarization over several cavity round trips. The peak marked by C in the RF spectra is the fundamental repetition rate, while those marked by P are due to polarization evolution. The small peaks in the polarization locked case is due to mode beating in the pump laser, not polarization evolution.

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