Abstract

We present an evaluation of the parameters involved in designing low-loss right-angle waveguide bends based on a high index contrast materials system. We apply the finite difference time domain method (FDTD)to several two-dimensional bend structures and study the effects of varying the bend geometry. Such a study is relevant for the understanding of bend mechanisms and for the optimization and fabrication of high-density high-contrast integrated optical components. The study indicates that high bend transmission can be achieved with the addition of a low-Q resonant cavity; however, similar or even better performance can be achieved with a structure that combines a corner mirror with a phase retarder. The use of a double corner mirror structure is shown to further increase the bend transmission, with little increase in bend area.

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References

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  1. M. Naydenkov and B. Jalali, "Advances in silicon-on-insulator photonic integrated circuit (SOIPIC) technology," in IEEE International SOI Conference, (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, NJ, 1999), pp. 56-66.
  2. H. Nishihara, M. Haruna, and T. Suhara, Optical Integrated Circuits, (McGraw Hill, New York, NY 1989).
  3. P. Buchmann and H. Kaufmann, "GaAs Single-Mode Rib Waveguides with Reactive Ion-Etched Totally Reflecting Corner Mirrors," J. Lightwave Technol. LT-3, 785-788 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  4. W. Yang and A. Gopinath, "Design of planar optical waveguide corners with turning mirrors," in Proceedings of Integrated Optics, Technical Digest Series, Vol. 6 (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), pp. 58-63.
  5. Y. Chung and N. Dagli, "Experimental and theoretical study of turning mirrors and beam splitters with optimized waveguide structures," Opt. and Quantum Electron. 27, 395-403 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. Mekis, J. C. Chen, I. Kurland, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, and J. D. Joannopoulos, "High transmission through sharp bends in photonic crystal waveguides," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3787-3790 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. R. D. Meade, A. Devenyi, J. D. Joannopoulos, O. L. Alerhand, D. A Smith, and K. Kash, "Novel applications of photonic band gap materials: Low-loss bends and high Q cavities," J. Appl. Phys. 75, 4753-4755 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S-Y. Lin, E. Chow, V. Hietala, P. R. Villeneuve, and J. D. Joannopoulos, "Experimental demonstration of guiding and bending of electromagnetic waves in a photonic crystal," Science 282, 274-276 (1998).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. T. Baba, N. Fukaya, and J. Yonekura, "Observation of light propagation in photonic crystal optical waveguides with bends," Electronics Lett. 35, 654-655 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  10. C. Manolatou, S. G. Johnson, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, H. A. Haus, J. D. Joannopoulos, "High-density integrated optics," J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 1682-1692 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  11. H. A. Haus, Waves and Fields in Optoelectronics, (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ. 1984).
  12. E. G. Neumann, "Reducing radiation loss of tilts in dielectric optical waveguides," Electronics Lett. 3, 369-371 (1986).
  13. FullWAVE, RSoft Inc. Research Software, http://www.rsoftinc.com.
  14. J. P. Berenger, "A perfectly matched layer for the absorption of electromagnetic waves," J. Comp. Phy., 114, 185-200 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  15. B. E. Little, J. S. Foresi, G. Steinmeyer, E. R. Thoen, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, L. C. Kimerling, W. Greene, "Ultra-Compact Si-SiO 2 Microring Resonator Optical Channel Dropping Filters," Phot. Tech. Lett. 10, 549-551 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  16. M. Cai, G. Hunziker, K. Vahala, "Fiber-Optic Add-Drop Device Based on a Silica Microsphere-Whispering Gallery Mode System," Phot. Tech. Lett. 11, 686-687 (1999).
    [CrossRef]

Other (16)

M. Naydenkov and B. Jalali, "Advances in silicon-on-insulator photonic integrated circuit (SOIPIC) technology," in IEEE International SOI Conference, (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, NJ, 1999), pp. 56-66.

H. Nishihara, M. Haruna, and T. Suhara, Optical Integrated Circuits, (McGraw Hill, New York, NY 1989).

P. Buchmann and H. Kaufmann, "GaAs Single-Mode Rib Waveguides with Reactive Ion-Etched Totally Reflecting Corner Mirrors," J. Lightwave Technol. LT-3, 785-788 (1985).
[CrossRef]

W. Yang and A. Gopinath, "Design of planar optical waveguide corners with turning mirrors," in Proceedings of Integrated Optics, Technical Digest Series, Vol. 6 (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), pp. 58-63.

Y. Chung and N. Dagli, "Experimental and theoretical study of turning mirrors and beam splitters with optimized waveguide structures," Opt. and Quantum Electron. 27, 395-403 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Mekis, J. C. Chen, I. Kurland, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, and J. D. Joannopoulos, "High transmission through sharp bends in photonic crystal waveguides," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3787-3790 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. D. Meade, A. Devenyi, J. D. Joannopoulos, O. L. Alerhand, D. A Smith, and K. Kash, "Novel applications of photonic band gap materials: Low-loss bends and high Q cavities," J. Appl. Phys. 75, 4753-4755 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S-Y. Lin, E. Chow, V. Hietala, P. R. Villeneuve, and J. D. Joannopoulos, "Experimental demonstration of guiding and bending of electromagnetic waves in a photonic crystal," Science 282, 274-276 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Baba, N. Fukaya, and J. Yonekura, "Observation of light propagation in photonic crystal optical waveguides with bends," Electronics Lett. 35, 654-655 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Manolatou, S. G. Johnson, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, H. A. Haus, J. D. Joannopoulos, "High-density integrated optics," J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 1682-1692 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. A. Haus, Waves and Fields in Optoelectronics, (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ. 1984).

E. G. Neumann, "Reducing radiation loss of tilts in dielectric optical waveguides," Electronics Lett. 3, 369-371 (1986).

FullWAVE, RSoft Inc. Research Software, http://www.rsoftinc.com.

J. P. Berenger, "A perfectly matched layer for the absorption of electromagnetic waves," J. Comp. Phy., 114, 185-200 (1994).
[CrossRef]

B. E. Little, J. S. Foresi, G. Steinmeyer, E. R. Thoen, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, L. C. Kimerling, W. Greene, "Ultra-Compact Si-SiO 2 Microring Resonator Optical Channel Dropping Filters," Phot. Tech. Lett. 10, 549-551 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Cai, G. Hunziker, K. Vahala, "Fiber-Optic Add-Drop Device Based on a Silica Microsphere-Whispering Gallery Mode System," Phot. Tech. Lett. 11, 686-687 (1999).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1:
Fig. 1:

Schematics of bend designs that were studied. The characteristic dimensions a and b are used as variables in the designs below.

Fig. 2:
Fig. 2:

Field output for the three placements, outer, central, and inner, for input/output waveguides on a square resonator.

Fig. 3:
Fig. 3:

Transmission spectra of the square cavity corresponding to three positions of the input/output waveguides. The right inset shows the three different positions used to generate the three plots. The left inset shows an example of optimization of the cavity size for the inner placement of the waveguides.

Fig. 4:
Fig. 4:

Variation of the corner mirror width. Five mirrors are considered, from 0.2–0.5 µm in width, as indicated in the legend.

Fig. 5:
Fig. 5:

Variation of the double mirror width. Five mirrors are examined, from 0.230–0.405 µm in width.

Fig. 6:
Fig. 6:

Transmission spectrum of the circular bend at λ=1.55 µm versus the bend radius of curvature. In addition, peak transmission values of the optimized double (a=0.79µm) and single mirror (a=0.74µm) bend are shown for comparison.

Fig. 7:
Fig. 7:

Transmission spectrum of three bend structures: resonator bend, corner mirror bend, and double corner mirror bend.

Fig. 8:
Fig. 8:

Dimensional tolerance, at λ=1.55 µm, for the width, d, and bend factor, a, of the three bend structures presented in Fig. 7.

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