Abstract

Tire debris particles from low severity laboratory wear tests have been investigated by the TAOS optical scattering facility at Yale University. The incident wavelength is 532 nm. After the TAOS event some particle samples have been imaged by a scanning electron microscope and microanalyzed. The TAOS intensity patterns recorded within a solid angle in the backward sector have been processed by cluster analysis and compared with the patterns computed by a T-matrix code. Preliminary agreement has been found between TAOS data and the particle models (size, shape, refractive index). The purpose of the investigation is to obtain signatures of the material, based on its TAOS pattern.

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References

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  1. Commissione Delle Comunità Europee, “Documento informativo sugli pneumatici usati” (Direzione Generale Ambiente, Sicurezza Nucleare e Protezione Civile delle Comunità Europee: Brussels, B, 1991)
  2. Environmental Protection Agency, “Summary of Nationwide Emission Estimates of Air Pollutants, 1969”, (Office of Air Programs, Div of Appl Technol: Washington, DC, May 1971)
  3. M.I. Mishchenko, J.W. Hovenieru, L.D. Travis, Light Scattering by Nonspherical Particles,(Academic Press: New York, NY, 2000)
  4. G.Videen,Q.Fu,P.Chylek,Eds,Light Scattering by Non Spherical Particles: Halifax Contributions, (ARL: Adelphi, MD, 2000)
  5. S. Holler, Y. Pan, R.K. Chang, J.R. Bottiger, S.C. Hill, D.B. Hillis “Two Dimensional Angular Optical Scattering for the Characterization of Airborne Micro Particles” Opt. Let. 23 #18,1489 - 91, (1998)
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. Camatini, G.F. Crosta, T. Dolukhanyan, C. Sung, G. P. Giuliani, G. M. Corbetta, S. Cencetti, C. Regazzoni, “Microcharacterization and Identification of Tire Debris in Heterogeneous Laboratory and Environmental Specimens”, to appear in Materials Characterization, (2001)
  7. L.Reimer,Scanning Electron Microscopy - Physics of Image Formation and Microanalysis, (II Edition, Springer: Berlin 1998)
  8. M. I. Mishchenko, J.W. Hovenier, L.D. Travis, Light Scattering by Nonspherical Particles,(Academic Press: New York, NY, 2000), Ch. 6.
  9. M. I. Mishchenko, L. D. Travis, D. W. Mackowski, T Matrix Codes for Computing Electromagnetic Scattering by Nonspherical and Aggregated Particles http://www.giss.nasa.gov/~crmim/t_matrix.html
  10. P.C. Waterman, “Symmetry, Unitarity and Geometry in Electromagnetic Scattering”, Phys. Rev. D, 3, 825 -839 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  11. A.G. Ramm, “Multidimensional Inverse Scattering Problems”, Pitman Monographs and Surveys in Pure and Applied Mathematics, vol. 51, (Longman: Harlow 1992)
  12. G.F.Crosta,S.Zomer,Numerical Simulation of Forward Electromagnetic Obstacle Scattering, http://web.tiscalinet.it/_TAOS/index.html.

Other

Commissione Delle Comunità Europee, “Documento informativo sugli pneumatici usati” (Direzione Generale Ambiente, Sicurezza Nucleare e Protezione Civile delle Comunità Europee: Brussels, B, 1991)

Environmental Protection Agency, “Summary of Nationwide Emission Estimates of Air Pollutants, 1969”, (Office of Air Programs, Div of Appl Technol: Washington, DC, May 1971)

M.I. Mishchenko, J.W. Hovenieru, L.D. Travis, Light Scattering by Nonspherical Particles,(Academic Press: New York, NY, 2000)

G.Videen,Q.Fu,P.Chylek,Eds,Light Scattering by Non Spherical Particles: Halifax Contributions, (ARL: Adelphi, MD, 2000)

S. Holler, Y. Pan, R.K. Chang, J.R. Bottiger, S.C. Hill, D.B. Hillis “Two Dimensional Angular Optical Scattering for the Characterization of Airborne Micro Particles” Opt. Let. 23 #18,1489 - 91, (1998)
[CrossRef]

M. Camatini, G.F. Crosta, T. Dolukhanyan, C. Sung, G. P. Giuliani, G. M. Corbetta, S. Cencetti, C. Regazzoni, “Microcharacterization and Identification of Tire Debris in Heterogeneous Laboratory and Environmental Specimens”, to appear in Materials Characterization, (2001)

L.Reimer,Scanning Electron Microscopy - Physics of Image Formation and Microanalysis, (II Edition, Springer: Berlin 1998)

M. I. Mishchenko, J.W. Hovenier, L.D. Travis, Light Scattering by Nonspherical Particles,(Academic Press: New York, NY, 2000), Ch. 6.

M. I. Mishchenko, L. D. Travis, D. W. Mackowski, T Matrix Codes for Computing Electromagnetic Scattering by Nonspherical and Aggregated Particles http://www.giss.nasa.gov/~crmim/t_matrix.html

P.C. Waterman, “Symmetry, Unitarity and Geometry in Electromagnetic Scattering”, Phys. Rev. D, 3, 825 -839 (1971).
[CrossRef]

A.G. Ramm, “Multidimensional Inverse Scattering Problems”, Pitman Monographs and Surveys in Pure and Applied Mathematics, vol. 51, (Longman: Harlow 1992)

G.F.Crosta,S.Zomer,Numerical Simulation of Forward Electromagnetic Obstacle Scattering, http://web.tiscalinet.it/_TAOS/index.html.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Triggering and TAOS optics; (b) the reference frame; (c) the ABBE sine condition.

FIGURE 2.
FIGURE 2.

TAOS pattern produced by a PS sphere of nominal radius=5 µm (psl10b1b). The intensity scale, in arbitrary units, is the same for all TAOS images.

FIGURE 3.
FIGURE 3.

TAOS pattern produced by particle LS01 of material b.

FIGURE 4.
FIGURE 4.

TAOS pattern produced by particle LS04 of material b.

FIGURE 5.
FIGURE 5.

SE micrograph of particle yfa2, material b.

FIGURE 6.
FIGURE 6.

SE micrograph of particle yfa6.

FIGURE 7.
FIGURE 7.

Rounded cone Th14Sj (height 1.4 µm, Im[m]=0.1) and its scattering pattern inΩ. . The pattern fits in cluster # 1. From G.F. Crosta, S. Zomer, Numerical Simulation of Forward Obstacle Scattering, http://web.tiscalinet.it/_TAOS/index.html

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Normalized peak intensities above background of the elements detected in material b Values normalized separately, for each particle, with respect to that Kα peak, which exhibits the highest intensity. Neither Ca nor Fe could be detected in any particle. ND=not detectable.

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