Abstract

We present results of the isoplanatic performance of an astronomical adaptive optics system in the laboratory, by using a dual layer turbulence simulator. We describe how the performance of adaptive correction degrades with off-axis angle. These experiments demonstrate that it is now possible to produce quantifiable multi-layer turbulence in the laboratory as a precursor to constructing multi-conjugate adaptive optics.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. M. Beckers, “Increasing the size of the isoplanatic patch with multi-conjugate adaptive optics,” in ESO Symposium on Large Telescopes and Their InstrumentationM.-H. Ulrich, ed. (ESO Proc, Garching) 693–703 (1988)
  2. B. Ellerbroek, “First-order performance evaluation of adaptive-optics systems for atmospheric-turbulence compensation in extended-field-of-view astronomical telescopes,”J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 783–805 (1994)
    [CrossRef]
  3. R. Ragazzoni, E. Marchetti, and G. Valente, “Adaptive-optics corrections available for the whole sky,”Nature (London) 403, 54–56 (2000)
    [CrossRef]
  4. D. C. Johnston and B. M. Welsh, “Analysis of multiconjugate adaptive optics,”J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11394–408 (1994)
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. A. A. Neil, M. J. Booth, and T. Wilson, “Dynamic wave-front generation for the characterization and testing of optical systems,”Opt. Lett. 231849–1851 (1998)
    [CrossRef]
  6. R. J. Lane, A. Glindemann, and J. C. Dainty, “Simulation of a Kolmogorov phase screen,”Waves Random Media 2, 209–224 (1992)
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. Zadrozny, M.P.J.L. Chang, D.F. Buscher, R.M. Myers, A.P. Doel, C.N. Dunlop, R.M. Sharples, and R.L. Arnold. In ESO/SPIE Topical Meeting on Astronomy with Adaptive Optics, ed. D. Bonaccini. (1999)
  8. N. Doble, G.D. Love, D.F. Buscher, R.M. Myers, and A. Purvis, “The use of image quality metrics for correction of non-common path errors in the ELECTRA adaptive optics system,”Proc. SPIE 3749785, ICO 18th Congress (1999)
    [CrossRef]
  9. F. Roddier, M.J. Northcott, J.E. Graves, and D.L. McKenna. “One-dimensional spectra of turbulence-induced Zernike aberrations: time delay and isoplanicity error in partial adaptive compensation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10957–965 (1993)
    [CrossRef]

2000 (1)

R. Ragazzoni, E. Marchetti, and G. Valente, “Adaptive-optics corrections available for the whole sky,”Nature (London) 403, 54–56 (2000)
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

N. Doble, G.D. Love, D.F. Buscher, R.M. Myers, and A. Purvis, “The use of image quality metrics for correction of non-common path errors in the ELECTRA adaptive optics system,”Proc. SPIE 3749785, ICO 18th Congress (1999)
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

1994 (2)

1993 (1)

1992 (1)

R. J. Lane, A. Glindemann, and J. C. Dainty, “Simulation of a Kolmogorov phase screen,”Waves Random Media 2, 209–224 (1992)
[CrossRef]

Arnold, R.L.

A. Zadrozny, M.P.J.L. Chang, D.F. Buscher, R.M. Myers, A.P. Doel, C.N. Dunlop, R.M. Sharples, and R.L. Arnold. In ESO/SPIE Topical Meeting on Astronomy with Adaptive Optics, ed. D. Bonaccini. (1999)

Beckers, J. M.

J. M. Beckers, “Increasing the size of the isoplanatic patch with multi-conjugate adaptive optics,” in ESO Symposium on Large Telescopes and Their InstrumentationM.-H. Ulrich, ed. (ESO Proc, Garching) 693–703 (1988)

Booth, M. J.

Buscher, D.F.

N. Doble, G.D. Love, D.F. Buscher, R.M. Myers, and A. Purvis, “The use of image quality metrics for correction of non-common path errors in the ELECTRA adaptive optics system,”Proc. SPIE 3749785, ICO 18th Congress (1999)
[CrossRef]

A. Zadrozny, M.P.J.L. Chang, D.F. Buscher, R.M. Myers, A.P. Doel, C.N. Dunlop, R.M. Sharples, and R.L. Arnold. In ESO/SPIE Topical Meeting on Astronomy with Adaptive Optics, ed. D. Bonaccini. (1999)

Chang, M.P.J.L.

A. Zadrozny, M.P.J.L. Chang, D.F. Buscher, R.M. Myers, A.P. Doel, C.N. Dunlop, R.M. Sharples, and R.L. Arnold. In ESO/SPIE Topical Meeting on Astronomy with Adaptive Optics, ed. D. Bonaccini. (1999)

Dainty, J. C.

R. J. Lane, A. Glindemann, and J. C. Dainty, “Simulation of a Kolmogorov phase screen,”Waves Random Media 2, 209–224 (1992)
[CrossRef]

Doble, N.

N. Doble, G.D. Love, D.F. Buscher, R.M. Myers, and A. Purvis, “The use of image quality metrics for correction of non-common path errors in the ELECTRA adaptive optics system,”Proc. SPIE 3749785, ICO 18th Congress (1999)
[CrossRef]

Doel, A.P.

A. Zadrozny, M.P.J.L. Chang, D.F. Buscher, R.M. Myers, A.P. Doel, C.N. Dunlop, R.M. Sharples, and R.L. Arnold. In ESO/SPIE Topical Meeting on Astronomy with Adaptive Optics, ed. D. Bonaccini. (1999)

Dunlop, C.N.

A. Zadrozny, M.P.J.L. Chang, D.F. Buscher, R.M. Myers, A.P. Doel, C.N. Dunlop, R.M. Sharples, and R.L. Arnold. In ESO/SPIE Topical Meeting on Astronomy with Adaptive Optics, ed. D. Bonaccini. (1999)

Ellerbroek, B.

Glindemann, A.

R. J. Lane, A. Glindemann, and J. C. Dainty, “Simulation of a Kolmogorov phase screen,”Waves Random Media 2, 209–224 (1992)
[CrossRef]

Graves, J.E.

Johnston, D. C.

Lane, R. J.

R. J. Lane, A. Glindemann, and J. C. Dainty, “Simulation of a Kolmogorov phase screen,”Waves Random Media 2, 209–224 (1992)
[CrossRef]

Love, G.D.

N. Doble, G.D. Love, D.F. Buscher, R.M. Myers, and A. Purvis, “The use of image quality metrics for correction of non-common path errors in the ELECTRA adaptive optics system,”Proc. SPIE 3749785, ICO 18th Congress (1999)
[CrossRef]

Marchetti, E.

R. Ragazzoni, E. Marchetti, and G. Valente, “Adaptive-optics corrections available for the whole sky,”Nature (London) 403, 54–56 (2000)
[CrossRef]

McKenna, D.L.

Myers, R.M.

N. Doble, G.D. Love, D.F. Buscher, R.M. Myers, and A. Purvis, “The use of image quality metrics for correction of non-common path errors in the ELECTRA adaptive optics system,”Proc. SPIE 3749785, ICO 18th Congress (1999)
[CrossRef]

A. Zadrozny, M.P.J.L. Chang, D.F. Buscher, R.M. Myers, A.P. Doel, C.N. Dunlop, R.M. Sharples, and R.L. Arnold. In ESO/SPIE Topical Meeting on Astronomy with Adaptive Optics, ed. D. Bonaccini. (1999)

Neil, M. A. A.

Northcott, M.J.

Purvis, A.

N. Doble, G.D. Love, D.F. Buscher, R.M. Myers, and A. Purvis, “The use of image quality metrics for correction of non-common path errors in the ELECTRA adaptive optics system,”Proc. SPIE 3749785, ICO 18th Congress (1999)
[CrossRef]

Ragazzoni, R.

R. Ragazzoni, E. Marchetti, and G. Valente, “Adaptive-optics corrections available for the whole sky,”Nature (London) 403, 54–56 (2000)
[CrossRef]

Roddier, F.

Sharples, R.M.

A. Zadrozny, M.P.J.L. Chang, D.F. Buscher, R.M. Myers, A.P. Doel, C.N. Dunlop, R.M. Sharples, and R.L. Arnold. In ESO/SPIE Topical Meeting on Astronomy with Adaptive Optics, ed. D. Bonaccini. (1999)

Valente, G.

R. Ragazzoni, E. Marchetti, and G. Valente, “Adaptive-optics corrections available for the whole sky,”Nature (London) 403, 54–56 (2000)
[CrossRef]

Welsh, B. M.

Wilson, T.

Zadrozny, A.

A. Zadrozny, M.P.J.L. Chang, D.F. Buscher, R.M. Myers, A.P. Doel, C.N. Dunlop, R.M. Sharples, and R.L. Arnold. In ESO/SPIE Topical Meeting on Astronomy with Adaptive Optics, ed. D. Bonaccini. (1999)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (3)

Nature (London) (1)

R. Ragazzoni, E. Marchetti, and G. Valente, “Adaptive-optics corrections available for the whole sky,”Nature (London) 403, 54–56 (2000)
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. SPIE (1)

N. Doble, G.D. Love, D.F. Buscher, R.M. Myers, and A. Purvis, “The use of image quality metrics for correction of non-common path errors in the ELECTRA adaptive optics system,”Proc. SPIE 3749785, ICO 18th Congress (1999)
[CrossRef]

Waves Random Media (1)

R. J. Lane, A. Glindemann, and J. C. Dainty, “Simulation of a Kolmogorov phase screen,”Waves Random Media 2, 209–224 (1992)
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

A. Zadrozny, M.P.J.L. Chang, D.F. Buscher, R.M. Myers, A.P. Doel, C.N. Dunlop, R.M. Sharples, and R.L. Arnold. In ESO/SPIE Topical Meeting on Astronomy with Adaptive Optics, ed. D. Bonaccini. (1999)

J. M. Beckers, “Increasing the size of the isoplanatic patch with multi-conjugate adaptive optics,” in ESO Symposium on Large Telescopes and Their InstrumentationM.-H. Ulrich, ed. (ESO Proc, Garching) 693–703 (1988)

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Optical setup for dual-conjugate wavefront generation. P1 to P3 polarizers; BS, beamsplitter; M1 and M2 mirrors. f1 to f4 are the focal lengths of lenses L1 to L4.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Point spread functions for single layer turbulence with D/r 0=6. (i) Uncorrected on—axis, (ii) uncorrected off—axis, (iii) corrected on—axis, (iv) corrected off—axis.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Point spread functions for dual layer turbulence with both layers having D/r 0=6. (i) Uncorrected on—axis, (ii) uncorrected off—axis, (iii) corrected on—axis, (iv) corrected off—axis. with increasing angle.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Corrected Strehl ratio as a function of off—axis angle. Turbulence 1 (diamonds) and 2 (squares) - single layer turbulence. Turbulence 3 (crosses) and 4 (triangles) - dual layer turbulence. The turbulence strength for each curve is described in the text.

Equations (4)

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θ 0 = 0.31 r 0 h ̅
r 0 = [ r i 5 3 ] 3 5
h ̅ = [ 0 h 5 3 C n 2 ( h ) dh 0 C n 2 ( h ) dh ] 3 5
S exp [ ( θ θ 0 ) 5 3 ] .

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