Abstract

We show that the usual phase-matching-bandwidth constraint in ultrashort-laser-pulse measurement techniques is overly restrictive. Specifically, the phase-matching bandwidth need not exceed the pulse bandwidth on every pulse. Instead, only the phase-matching bandwidth integrated over the measurement period need exceed the pulse bandwidth. We show that angle-dithering a second-harmonic-generation crystal that is otherwise too narrowband (that is, too thick) can yield sufficient phase-matching bandwidth and an accurate pulse measurement. We apply this technique to frequency-resolved optical gating (FROG) and show that accurate pulse measurements can be made using a comparatively very thick and hence narrowband crystal. An additional advantage of using a thick crystal is increased signal strength.

© Optical Society of America

PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |

  1. J. L. A. Chilla and O. E. Martinez, "Direct Determination of the Amplitude and the Phase of Femtosecond Light Pulses," Opt. Lett. 16, 39-41 (1991).
  2. K. W. DeLong, R. Trebino, J. Hunter, and W. E. White, "Frequency-Resolved Optical Gating With the Use of Second-Harmonic Generation," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 11, 2206-2215 (1994).
  3. R. Trebino and D. J. Kane, "Using Phase Retrieval to Measure the Intensity and Phase of Ultrashort Pulses: Frequency-Resolved Optical Gating," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A 10, 1101-1111 (1993).
  4. D. N. Fittinghoff, J. L. Bowie, J. N. Sweetser, R. T. Jennings, M. A. Krumbügel, K. W. DeLong, R. Trebino, and I. A. Walmsley, "Measurement of the Intensity and Phase of Ultraweak, Ultrashort Laser Pulse," Opt. Lett. 21, 884-886 (1996).
  5. R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbügel, and D. J. Kane, "Measuring Ultrashort Laser Pulses in the Time-Frequency Domain Using Frequency-Resolved Optical Gating," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277-3295 (1997).
  6. T. S. Clement, A. J. Taylor, and D. J. Kane, "Single-shot measurement of the amplitude and phase of ultrashort laser pulses in the violet," Opt. Lett. 20, 70-72 (1995).
  7. K. W. DeLong, C. L. Ladera, R. Trebino, B. Kohler, and K. R. Wilson, "Ultrashort-Pulse Measurement Using Noninstantaneous Nonlinearities: Raman Effects in Frequency-Resolved Optical Gating," Opt. Lett. 20, 486-488 (1995).
  8. K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, and R. Trebino, "Practical Issues in Ultrashort-Laser-Pulse Measurement Using Frequency-Resolved Optical Gating," IEEE J. Quant. Electron. 32, 1253-1264 (1996).
  9. S. A. Diddams, H. K. Eaton, A. A. Zozulya, and T. S. Clement, "Amplitude and phase measurements of femtosecond pulse splitting in nonlinear dispersive media," Opt. Lett. 23, 379-381 (1998).
  10. D. N. Fittinghoff, J. A. Squier, C. P. T. Barty, J. N. Sweetser, R. Trebino, and M. Muller, "Collinear type II second-harmonic-generation frequency-resolved optical gating for use with high-numerical-aperture objectives," Opt. Lett. 23, 1046-1048 (1998).
  11. D. J. Kane and R. Trebino, "Single-Shot Measurement of the Intensity and Phase of an Arbitrary Ultrashort Pulse By Using Frequency-Resolved Optical Gating," Opt. Lett. 18, 823-825 (1993).
  12. G. Taft, A. Rundquist, M. M. Murnane, I. P. Christov, H. C. Kapteyn, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, M. A. Krumbügel, J. N. Sweetser, and R. Trebino, "Measurement of 10-fs Laser Pulses," Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics 2, Special Issue on Ultrafast Phenomena, 575-585 (1996).
  13. D. N. Fittinghoff, K. W. DeLong, R. Trebino, and C. L. Ladera, "Noise Sensitivity in Frequency-Resolved-Optical- Gating Measurements of Ultrashort Pulses," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 12, 1955-1967 (1995).
  14. A. M. Weiner, "Effect of Group Velocity Mismatch on the Measurement of Ultrashort Optical Pulses via Second Harmonic Generation," IEEE J. Quant. Electronics QE-19, 1276-1283 (1983).
  15. C. Nacke, W. Bathe, F. Kieseling, M. Seemann, H. Stolz, C. Heyn, S. Bargstaedt-Franke, W. Hansen, and D. Heitmann, "Phase sensitive resonant ultrafast reflection from GaAs quantum wells," Physica Status Solidi B Conference Title: Phys. Status Solidi B (Germany) 206, 307-314 (1998).
  16. D. J. Kane and R. Trebino, "Characterization of Arbitrary Femtosecond Pulses Using Frequency Resolved Optical Gating," IEEE J. Quant. Electron. 29, 571-579 (1993).
  17. A. Baltuska, M. S. Pshenichnikov, and D. A. Wiersma, "Second-Harmonic Generation Frequency-Resolved Optical Gating in the Single-Cycle Regime," IEEE J. Quant. Electron. 35, 459-478 (1999).
  18. C. Iaconis and I. A. Walmsley, "Self-Referencing Spectral Interferometry for Measuring Ultrashort Optical Pulses," IEEE J. Quant. Electron. 35, 501-509 (1999).

Other (18)

J. L. A. Chilla and O. E. Martinez, "Direct Determination of the Amplitude and the Phase of Femtosecond Light Pulses," Opt. Lett. 16, 39-41 (1991).

K. W. DeLong, R. Trebino, J. Hunter, and W. E. White, "Frequency-Resolved Optical Gating With the Use of Second-Harmonic Generation," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 11, 2206-2215 (1994).

R. Trebino and D. J. Kane, "Using Phase Retrieval to Measure the Intensity and Phase of Ultrashort Pulses: Frequency-Resolved Optical Gating," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A 10, 1101-1111 (1993).

D. N. Fittinghoff, J. L. Bowie, J. N. Sweetser, R. T. Jennings, M. A. Krumbügel, K. W. DeLong, R. Trebino, and I. A. Walmsley, "Measurement of the Intensity and Phase of Ultraweak, Ultrashort Laser Pulse," Opt. Lett. 21, 884-886 (1996).

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbügel, and D. J. Kane, "Measuring Ultrashort Laser Pulses in the Time-Frequency Domain Using Frequency-Resolved Optical Gating," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277-3295 (1997).

T. S. Clement, A. J. Taylor, and D. J. Kane, "Single-shot measurement of the amplitude and phase of ultrashort laser pulses in the violet," Opt. Lett. 20, 70-72 (1995).

K. W. DeLong, C. L. Ladera, R. Trebino, B. Kohler, and K. R. Wilson, "Ultrashort-Pulse Measurement Using Noninstantaneous Nonlinearities: Raman Effects in Frequency-Resolved Optical Gating," Opt. Lett. 20, 486-488 (1995).

K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, and R. Trebino, "Practical Issues in Ultrashort-Laser-Pulse Measurement Using Frequency-Resolved Optical Gating," IEEE J. Quant. Electron. 32, 1253-1264 (1996).

S. A. Diddams, H. K. Eaton, A. A. Zozulya, and T. S. Clement, "Amplitude and phase measurements of femtosecond pulse splitting in nonlinear dispersive media," Opt. Lett. 23, 379-381 (1998).

D. N. Fittinghoff, J. A. Squier, C. P. T. Barty, J. N. Sweetser, R. Trebino, and M. Muller, "Collinear type II second-harmonic-generation frequency-resolved optical gating for use with high-numerical-aperture objectives," Opt. Lett. 23, 1046-1048 (1998).

D. J. Kane and R. Trebino, "Single-Shot Measurement of the Intensity and Phase of an Arbitrary Ultrashort Pulse By Using Frequency-Resolved Optical Gating," Opt. Lett. 18, 823-825 (1993).

G. Taft, A. Rundquist, M. M. Murnane, I. P. Christov, H. C. Kapteyn, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, M. A. Krumbügel, J. N. Sweetser, and R. Trebino, "Measurement of 10-fs Laser Pulses," Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics 2, Special Issue on Ultrafast Phenomena, 575-585 (1996).

D. N. Fittinghoff, K. W. DeLong, R. Trebino, and C. L. Ladera, "Noise Sensitivity in Frequency-Resolved-Optical- Gating Measurements of Ultrashort Pulses," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 12, 1955-1967 (1995).

A. M. Weiner, "Effect of Group Velocity Mismatch on the Measurement of Ultrashort Optical Pulses via Second Harmonic Generation," IEEE J. Quant. Electronics QE-19, 1276-1283 (1983).

C. Nacke, W. Bathe, F. Kieseling, M. Seemann, H. Stolz, C. Heyn, S. Bargstaedt-Franke, W. Hansen, and D. Heitmann, "Phase sensitive resonant ultrafast reflection from GaAs quantum wells," Physica Status Solidi B Conference Title: Phys. Status Solidi B (Germany) 206, 307-314 (1998).

D. J. Kane and R. Trebino, "Characterization of Arbitrary Femtosecond Pulses Using Frequency Resolved Optical Gating," IEEE J. Quant. Electron. 29, 571-579 (1993).

A. Baltuska, M. S. Pshenichnikov, and D. A. Wiersma, "Second-Harmonic Generation Frequency-Resolved Optical Gating in the Single-Cycle Regime," IEEE J. Quant. Electron. 35, 459-478 (1999).

C. Iaconis and I. A. Walmsley, "Self-Referencing Spectral Interferometry for Measuring Ultrashort Optical Pulses," IEEE J. Quant. Electron. 35, 501-509 (1999).

Supplementary Material (1)

» Media 1: MOV (96 KB)     

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Metrics