Abstract

Photonic Crystal Fibers (PCFs) have appeared as a new class of optical waveguides, which have attracted large scientific and commercial interest during the last years. PCFs are microstructured waveguides, usually in silica, with a large number of air holes located in the cladding region of the fiber. The size and location of these air holes opens up for a large degree of design freedom within optical waveguide design. Further, the existence of air holes in the PCF gives access close to the fiber core and by introducing new materials into the air holes, a high interaction between light and hole material can be obtained, while maintaining the microstructure of the waveguide. In this paper, we describe what we call Liquid Crystal Photonic Bandgap Fibers, which are PCFs infiltrated with Liquid Crystals (LCs) in order to obtain increased fiber functionality. We describe a thermo-optic fiber switch with an extinction ratio of 60dB and tunable PBGs using thermo-optic tuning of the LC. These devices operate by the PBG effect and are therefore highly sensitive to the refractive index distributions in the holes.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. D. B. Keck, R. D. Maurer, and P. C. Schultz, “On the ultimate lower limit of attenuation in glass optical waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 307–309 (1973).
    [Crossref]
  2. R. Syms and J. Cozens, Optical Guided Waves and Devices, (McGraw-Hill Book Company England, 1992).
  3. J. C. Knight, J. Broeng, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, “Photonic bandgap guidance in optical fibers,” Science 283, 1476–1478 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  4. E. Yablonovitch, “Inhibited spontaneous emission in solid-state physics and electronics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2059–2062 (1987).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. J. D. Joannopoulos, R. D. Meade, and J. N. Winn, Photonic Crystals: Molding the Flow of Light, (Princeton Univ. Press, 1995).
  6. P. Russell, “Photonic crystal fibers,” Science 299, 358–362 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. K. P. Hansen, et al., “Highly nonlinear photonic crystal fiber with zero-dispersion at 1.55µm,” Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002) PDFA9.
  8. R.F. Creganet al., “Single-mode photonic band gap guidance of light in air,” Science 285, 1537–1539 (1999).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. B. Temelkuran, S. D. Hart, G. Benolt, J. D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, “Wavelength-scalable hollow optical fibres with large photonics bandgaps for CO2 laser transmission,” Nature 420, 650–653 (2002).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. J. Limpert, et al., “High-power air-clad large-mode-area photonic crystal fiber laser,” Opt. Express 11, 818 (2003), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-7-818
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. J. Jasapara, R. Bise, T. Her, and J. Nicholson, “Effect of Mode Cut-Off on Dispersion in Photonic Bandgap Fibers,” Optical Fiber Communication Conference ThI3 (2003).
  12. P. S. Westbrook, et al., “Cladding-mode resonances in hybrid polymer-silica microstructured optical fiber gratings,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 12, (2000).
    [Crossref]
  13. B. J. Eggleton, C. Kerbage, P. S. Westbrook, R. S. Windeler, and A. Hale, “Microstructured optical fiber devices”, Optics Express 9, 698–713 (2001).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. E. Yablonovitch, “Liquid versus photonics crystals,” Nature 401, 539–541 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  15. K. Busch and S. John, “Liquid-Crystal Photonic-Band-Gap Materials: The Tuneable Electromagnetic Vacuum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 967–970 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  16. C. Wenyi, A. Munoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and B. Taheri, “Lasing in a three-dimensional photonics crystal of the liquid crystal blue phase II,” Nature Materials 1, 111–113 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  17. P. G. de Gennes and J. ProstJ. The Physics of liquid crystals, 2nd edition, (Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1993).
  18. S. Chandrasekhar, Liquid crystals, (Cambridge University Press, 1977).
  19. P. Rudquist, M. Buivydas, L. Komitov, and S. T. Lagerwall, “Linear electro-optic effect based on flexoelectricity in a cholesteric with sign change of dielectric anisotropy,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, (1994).
    [Crossref]
  20. H. -S. Kitzerow, B. Liu, F. Xu, and P. P. Crooker, “Effect on chirality on liquid crystals in capillary tubes with parallel and perpendicular anchoring,” Phys. Rev. E 54, 568–575, (1996).
    [Crossref]
  21. S. K. Lo, L. M. Galarneau, D. J. Rogers, and S. R. Flom, “Smectic Liquid Crystal Waveguides with cylindrical Geometry,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 201, 137–145 (1991).
    [Crossref]
  22. J. T. Mang, K. Sakamoto, and S. Kumar, “Smectic Layer Orientation in Confined Geometries,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 223, 133–142 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  23. S. Kralj and S. Zumer, “Smectic-A structures in submicrometer cylindrical cavities,” Phys. Rev. E,  54(2), 1610–1617 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  24. K. Abeeluck, N. M. Litchinitser, C. Headley, and B. J. Eggleton, “Analysis of spectral characteristics of photonic bandgap waveguides,” Opt. Express 10, 1320–1333 (2002), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-10-23-1320
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  25. J. B. Jensen, et al. “Photonic Crystal Fibre based evanescent-wave sensor for detection of aqueous solutions,” Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2003).
  26. V. K. Gupta, J. J. Skaife, T. B. Dubrowsky, and N. L. Abbott, “Optical Amplification of Ligand-Receptor Binding Using Liquid Crystals,” Science 278, 2077–2080 (1998).
    [Crossref]

2003 (2)

2002 (3)

B. Temelkuran, S. D. Hart, G. Benolt, J. D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, “Wavelength-scalable hollow optical fibres with large photonics bandgaps for CO2 laser transmission,” Nature 420, 650–653 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Wenyi, A. Munoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and B. Taheri, “Lasing in a three-dimensional photonics crystal of the liquid crystal blue phase II,” Nature Materials 1, 111–113 (2002).
[Crossref]

K. Abeeluck, N. M. Litchinitser, C. Headley, and B. J. Eggleton, “Analysis of spectral characteristics of photonic bandgap waveguides,” Opt. Express 10, 1320–1333 (2002), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-10-23-1320
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

B. J. Eggleton, C. Kerbage, P. S. Westbrook, R. S. Windeler, and A. Hale, “Microstructured optical fiber devices”, Optics Express 9, 698–713 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

P. S. Westbrook, et al., “Cladding-mode resonances in hybrid polymer-silica microstructured optical fiber gratings,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 12, (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (3)

R.F. Creganet al., “Single-mode photonic band gap guidance of light in air,” Science 285, 1537–1539 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Yablonovitch, “Liquid versus photonics crystals,” Nature 401, 539–541 (1999).
[Crossref]

K. Busch and S. John, “Liquid-Crystal Photonic-Band-Gap Materials: The Tuneable Electromagnetic Vacuum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 967–970 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (2)

J. C. Knight, J. Broeng, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, “Photonic bandgap guidance in optical fibers,” Science 283, 1476–1478 (1998).
[Crossref]

V. K. Gupta, J. J. Skaife, T. B. Dubrowsky, and N. L. Abbott, “Optical Amplification of Ligand-Receptor Binding Using Liquid Crystals,” Science 278, 2077–2080 (1998).
[Crossref]

1996 (2)

H. -S. Kitzerow, B. Liu, F. Xu, and P. P. Crooker, “Effect on chirality on liquid crystals in capillary tubes with parallel and perpendicular anchoring,” Phys. Rev. E 54, 568–575, (1996).
[Crossref]

S. Kralj and S. Zumer, “Smectic-A structures in submicrometer cylindrical cavities,” Phys. Rev. E,  54(2), 1610–1617 (1996).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

P. Rudquist, M. Buivydas, L. Komitov, and S. T. Lagerwall, “Linear electro-optic effect based on flexoelectricity in a cholesteric with sign change of dielectric anisotropy,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, (1994).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

J. T. Mang, K. Sakamoto, and S. Kumar, “Smectic Layer Orientation in Confined Geometries,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 223, 133–142 (1992).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

S. K. Lo, L. M. Galarneau, D. J. Rogers, and S. R. Flom, “Smectic Liquid Crystal Waveguides with cylindrical Geometry,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 201, 137–145 (1991).
[Crossref]

1987 (1)

E. Yablonovitch, “Inhibited spontaneous emission in solid-state physics and electronics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2059–2062 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1973 (1)

D. B. Keck, R. D. Maurer, and P. C. Schultz, “On the ultimate lower limit of attenuation in glass optical waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 307–309 (1973).
[Crossref]

Abbott, N. L.

V. K. Gupta, J. J. Skaife, T. B. Dubrowsky, and N. L. Abbott, “Optical Amplification of Ligand-Receptor Binding Using Liquid Crystals,” Science 278, 2077–2080 (1998).
[Crossref]

Abeeluck, K.

Benolt, G.

B. Temelkuran, S. D. Hart, G. Benolt, J. D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, “Wavelength-scalable hollow optical fibres with large photonics bandgaps for CO2 laser transmission,” Nature 420, 650–653 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Birks, T. A.

J. C. Knight, J. Broeng, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, “Photonic bandgap guidance in optical fibers,” Science 283, 1476–1478 (1998).
[Crossref]

Bise, R.

J. Jasapara, R. Bise, T. Her, and J. Nicholson, “Effect of Mode Cut-Off on Dispersion in Photonic Bandgap Fibers,” Optical Fiber Communication Conference ThI3 (2003).

Broeng, J.

J. C. Knight, J. Broeng, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, “Photonic bandgap guidance in optical fibers,” Science 283, 1476–1478 (1998).
[Crossref]

Buivydas, M.

P. Rudquist, M. Buivydas, L. Komitov, and S. T. Lagerwall, “Linear electro-optic effect based on flexoelectricity in a cholesteric with sign change of dielectric anisotropy,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, (1994).
[Crossref]

Busch, K.

K. Busch and S. John, “Liquid-Crystal Photonic-Band-Gap Materials: The Tuneable Electromagnetic Vacuum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 967–970 (1999).
[Crossref]

Chandrasekhar, S.

S. Chandrasekhar, Liquid crystals, (Cambridge University Press, 1977).

Cozens, J.

R. Syms and J. Cozens, Optical Guided Waves and Devices, (McGraw-Hill Book Company England, 1992).

Cregan, R.F.

R.F. Creganet al., “Single-mode photonic band gap guidance of light in air,” Science 285, 1537–1539 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Crooker, P. P.

H. -S. Kitzerow, B. Liu, F. Xu, and P. P. Crooker, “Effect on chirality on liquid crystals in capillary tubes with parallel and perpendicular anchoring,” Phys. Rev. E 54, 568–575, (1996).
[Crossref]

de Gennes, P. G.

P. G. de Gennes and J. ProstJ. The Physics of liquid crystals, 2nd edition, (Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1993).

Dubrowsky, T. B.

V. K. Gupta, J. J. Skaife, T. B. Dubrowsky, and N. L. Abbott, “Optical Amplification of Ligand-Receptor Binding Using Liquid Crystals,” Science 278, 2077–2080 (1998).
[Crossref]

Eggleton, B. J.

Fink, Y.

B. Temelkuran, S. D. Hart, G. Benolt, J. D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, “Wavelength-scalable hollow optical fibres with large photonics bandgaps for CO2 laser transmission,” Nature 420, 650–653 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Flom, S. R.

S. K. Lo, L. M. Galarneau, D. J. Rogers, and S. R. Flom, “Smectic Liquid Crystal Waveguides with cylindrical Geometry,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 201, 137–145 (1991).
[Crossref]

Galarneau, L. M.

S. K. Lo, L. M. Galarneau, D. J. Rogers, and S. R. Flom, “Smectic Liquid Crystal Waveguides with cylindrical Geometry,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 201, 137–145 (1991).
[Crossref]

Gupta, V. K.

V. K. Gupta, J. J. Skaife, T. B. Dubrowsky, and N. L. Abbott, “Optical Amplification of Ligand-Receptor Binding Using Liquid Crystals,” Science 278, 2077–2080 (1998).
[Crossref]

Hale, A.

B. J. Eggleton, C. Kerbage, P. S. Westbrook, R. S. Windeler, and A. Hale, “Microstructured optical fiber devices”, Optics Express 9, 698–713 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hansen, K. P.

K. P. Hansen, et al., “Highly nonlinear photonic crystal fiber with zero-dispersion at 1.55µm,” Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002) PDFA9.

Hart, S. D.

B. Temelkuran, S. D. Hart, G. Benolt, J. D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, “Wavelength-scalable hollow optical fibres with large photonics bandgaps for CO2 laser transmission,” Nature 420, 650–653 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Headley, C.

Her, T.

J. Jasapara, R. Bise, T. Her, and J. Nicholson, “Effect of Mode Cut-Off on Dispersion in Photonic Bandgap Fibers,” Optical Fiber Communication Conference ThI3 (2003).

Jasapara, J.

J. Jasapara, R. Bise, T. Her, and J. Nicholson, “Effect of Mode Cut-Off on Dispersion in Photonic Bandgap Fibers,” Optical Fiber Communication Conference ThI3 (2003).

Jensen, J. B.

J. B. Jensen, et al. “Photonic Crystal Fibre based evanescent-wave sensor for detection of aqueous solutions,” Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2003).

Joannopoulos, J. D.

B. Temelkuran, S. D. Hart, G. Benolt, J. D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, “Wavelength-scalable hollow optical fibres with large photonics bandgaps for CO2 laser transmission,” Nature 420, 650–653 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. D. Joannopoulos, R. D. Meade, and J. N. Winn, Photonic Crystals: Molding the Flow of Light, (Princeton Univ. Press, 1995).

John, S.

K. Busch and S. John, “Liquid-Crystal Photonic-Band-Gap Materials: The Tuneable Electromagnetic Vacuum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 967–970 (1999).
[Crossref]

Keck, D. B.

D. B. Keck, R. D. Maurer, and P. C. Schultz, “On the ultimate lower limit of attenuation in glass optical waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 307–309 (1973).
[Crossref]

Kerbage, C.

B. J. Eggleton, C. Kerbage, P. S. Westbrook, R. S. Windeler, and A. Hale, “Microstructured optical fiber devices”, Optics Express 9, 698–713 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kitzerow, H. -S.

H. -S. Kitzerow, B. Liu, F. Xu, and P. P. Crooker, “Effect on chirality on liquid crystals in capillary tubes with parallel and perpendicular anchoring,” Phys. Rev. E 54, 568–575, (1996).
[Crossref]

Knight, J. C.

J. C. Knight, J. Broeng, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, “Photonic bandgap guidance in optical fibers,” Science 283, 1476–1478 (1998).
[Crossref]

Komitov, L.

P. Rudquist, M. Buivydas, L. Komitov, and S. T. Lagerwall, “Linear electro-optic effect based on flexoelectricity in a cholesteric with sign change of dielectric anisotropy,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, (1994).
[Crossref]

Kralj, S.

S. Kralj and S. Zumer, “Smectic-A structures in submicrometer cylindrical cavities,” Phys. Rev. E,  54(2), 1610–1617 (1996).
[Crossref]

Kumar, S.

J. T. Mang, K. Sakamoto, and S. Kumar, “Smectic Layer Orientation in Confined Geometries,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 223, 133–142 (1992).
[Crossref]

Lagerwall, S. T.

P. Rudquist, M. Buivydas, L. Komitov, and S. T. Lagerwall, “Linear electro-optic effect based on flexoelectricity in a cholesteric with sign change of dielectric anisotropy,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, (1994).
[Crossref]

Limpert, J.

Litchinitser, N. M.

Liu, B.

H. -S. Kitzerow, B. Liu, F. Xu, and P. P. Crooker, “Effect on chirality on liquid crystals in capillary tubes with parallel and perpendicular anchoring,” Phys. Rev. E 54, 568–575, (1996).
[Crossref]

Lo, S. K.

S. K. Lo, L. M. Galarneau, D. J. Rogers, and S. R. Flom, “Smectic Liquid Crystal Waveguides with cylindrical Geometry,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 201, 137–145 (1991).
[Crossref]

Mang, J. T.

J. T. Mang, K. Sakamoto, and S. Kumar, “Smectic Layer Orientation in Confined Geometries,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 223, 133–142 (1992).
[Crossref]

Maurer, R. D.

D. B. Keck, R. D. Maurer, and P. C. Schultz, “On the ultimate lower limit of attenuation in glass optical waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 307–309 (1973).
[Crossref]

Meade, R. D.

J. D. Joannopoulos, R. D. Meade, and J. N. Winn, Photonic Crystals: Molding the Flow of Light, (Princeton Univ. Press, 1995).

Munoz, A.

C. Wenyi, A. Munoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and B. Taheri, “Lasing in a three-dimensional photonics crystal of the liquid crystal blue phase II,” Nature Materials 1, 111–113 (2002).
[Crossref]

Nicholson, J.

J. Jasapara, R. Bise, T. Her, and J. Nicholson, “Effect of Mode Cut-Off on Dispersion in Photonic Bandgap Fibers,” Optical Fiber Communication Conference ThI3 (2003).

Palffy-Muhoray, P.

C. Wenyi, A. Munoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and B. Taheri, “Lasing in a three-dimensional photonics crystal of the liquid crystal blue phase II,” Nature Materials 1, 111–113 (2002).
[Crossref]

Prost, J.

P. G. de Gennes and J. ProstJ. The Physics of liquid crystals, 2nd edition, (Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1993).

Rogers, D. J.

S. K. Lo, L. M. Galarneau, D. J. Rogers, and S. R. Flom, “Smectic Liquid Crystal Waveguides with cylindrical Geometry,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 201, 137–145 (1991).
[Crossref]

Rudquist, P.

P. Rudquist, M. Buivydas, L. Komitov, and S. T. Lagerwall, “Linear electro-optic effect based on flexoelectricity in a cholesteric with sign change of dielectric anisotropy,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, (1994).
[Crossref]

Russell, P.

P. Russell, “Photonic crystal fibers,” Science 299, 358–362 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Russell, P. St. J.

J. C. Knight, J. Broeng, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, “Photonic bandgap guidance in optical fibers,” Science 283, 1476–1478 (1998).
[Crossref]

Sakamoto, K.

J. T. Mang, K. Sakamoto, and S. Kumar, “Smectic Layer Orientation in Confined Geometries,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 223, 133–142 (1992).
[Crossref]

Schultz, P. C.

D. B. Keck, R. D. Maurer, and P. C. Schultz, “On the ultimate lower limit of attenuation in glass optical waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 307–309 (1973).
[Crossref]

Skaife, J. J.

V. K. Gupta, J. J. Skaife, T. B. Dubrowsky, and N. L. Abbott, “Optical Amplification of Ligand-Receptor Binding Using Liquid Crystals,” Science 278, 2077–2080 (1998).
[Crossref]

Syms, R.

R. Syms and J. Cozens, Optical Guided Waves and Devices, (McGraw-Hill Book Company England, 1992).

Taheri, B.

C. Wenyi, A. Munoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and B. Taheri, “Lasing in a three-dimensional photonics crystal of the liquid crystal blue phase II,” Nature Materials 1, 111–113 (2002).
[Crossref]

Temelkuran, B.

B. Temelkuran, S. D. Hart, G. Benolt, J. D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, “Wavelength-scalable hollow optical fibres with large photonics bandgaps for CO2 laser transmission,” Nature 420, 650–653 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wenyi, C.

C. Wenyi, A. Munoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and B. Taheri, “Lasing in a three-dimensional photonics crystal of the liquid crystal blue phase II,” Nature Materials 1, 111–113 (2002).
[Crossref]

Westbrook, P. S.

B. J. Eggleton, C. Kerbage, P. S. Westbrook, R. S. Windeler, and A. Hale, “Microstructured optical fiber devices”, Optics Express 9, 698–713 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. S. Westbrook, et al., “Cladding-mode resonances in hybrid polymer-silica microstructured optical fiber gratings,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 12, (2000).
[Crossref]

Windeler, R. S.

B. J. Eggleton, C. Kerbage, P. S. Westbrook, R. S. Windeler, and A. Hale, “Microstructured optical fiber devices”, Optics Express 9, 698–713 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Winn, J. N.

J. D. Joannopoulos, R. D. Meade, and J. N. Winn, Photonic Crystals: Molding the Flow of Light, (Princeton Univ. Press, 1995).

Xu, F.

H. -S. Kitzerow, B. Liu, F. Xu, and P. P. Crooker, “Effect on chirality on liquid crystals in capillary tubes with parallel and perpendicular anchoring,” Phys. Rev. E 54, 568–575, (1996).
[Crossref]

Yablonovitch, E.

E. Yablonovitch, “Liquid versus photonics crystals,” Nature 401, 539–541 (1999).
[Crossref]

E. Yablonovitch, “Inhibited spontaneous emission in solid-state physics and electronics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2059–2062 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zumer, S.

S. Kralj and S. Zumer, “Smectic-A structures in submicrometer cylindrical cavities,” Phys. Rev. E,  54(2), 1610–1617 (1996).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

D. B. Keck, R. D. Maurer, and P. C. Schultz, “On the ultimate lower limit of attenuation in glass optical waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 307–309 (1973).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

P. S. Westbrook, et al., “Cladding-mode resonances in hybrid polymer-silica microstructured optical fiber gratings,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 12, (2000).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

P. Rudquist, M. Buivydas, L. Komitov, and S. T. Lagerwall, “Linear electro-optic effect based on flexoelectricity in a cholesteric with sign change of dielectric anisotropy,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, (1994).
[Crossref]

Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (2)

S. K. Lo, L. M. Galarneau, D. J. Rogers, and S. R. Flom, “Smectic Liquid Crystal Waveguides with cylindrical Geometry,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 201, 137–145 (1991).
[Crossref]

J. T. Mang, K. Sakamoto, and S. Kumar, “Smectic Layer Orientation in Confined Geometries,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 223, 133–142 (1992).
[Crossref]

Nature (2)

B. Temelkuran, S. D. Hart, G. Benolt, J. D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, “Wavelength-scalable hollow optical fibres with large photonics bandgaps for CO2 laser transmission,” Nature 420, 650–653 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Yablonovitch, “Liquid versus photonics crystals,” Nature 401, 539–541 (1999).
[Crossref]

Nature Materials (1)

C. Wenyi, A. Munoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and B. Taheri, “Lasing in a three-dimensional photonics crystal of the liquid crystal blue phase II,” Nature Materials 1, 111–113 (2002).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (2)

Optics Express (1)

B. J. Eggleton, C. Kerbage, P. S. Westbrook, R. S. Windeler, and A. Hale, “Microstructured optical fiber devices”, Optics Express 9, 698–713 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. E (2)

S. Kralj and S. Zumer, “Smectic-A structures in submicrometer cylindrical cavities,” Phys. Rev. E,  54(2), 1610–1617 (1996).
[Crossref]

H. -S. Kitzerow, B. Liu, F. Xu, and P. P. Crooker, “Effect on chirality on liquid crystals in capillary tubes with parallel and perpendicular anchoring,” Phys. Rev. E 54, 568–575, (1996).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

K. Busch and S. John, “Liquid-Crystal Photonic-Band-Gap Materials: The Tuneable Electromagnetic Vacuum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 967–970 (1999).
[Crossref]

E. Yablonovitch, “Inhibited spontaneous emission in solid-state physics and electronics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2059–2062 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Science (4)

P. Russell, “Photonic crystal fibers,” Science 299, 358–362 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. C. Knight, J. Broeng, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, “Photonic bandgap guidance in optical fibers,” Science 283, 1476–1478 (1998).
[Crossref]

R.F. Creganet al., “Single-mode photonic band gap guidance of light in air,” Science 285, 1537–1539 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. K. Gupta, J. J. Skaife, T. B. Dubrowsky, and N. L. Abbott, “Optical Amplification of Ligand-Receptor Binding Using Liquid Crystals,” Science 278, 2077–2080 (1998).
[Crossref]

Other (7)

J. B. Jensen, et al. “Photonic Crystal Fibre based evanescent-wave sensor for detection of aqueous solutions,” Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2003).

K. P. Hansen, et al., “Highly nonlinear photonic crystal fiber with zero-dispersion at 1.55µm,” Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002) PDFA9.

J. D. Joannopoulos, R. D. Meade, and J. N. Winn, Photonic Crystals: Molding the Flow of Light, (Princeton Univ. Press, 1995).

R. Syms and J. Cozens, Optical Guided Waves and Devices, (McGraw-Hill Book Company England, 1992).

P. G. de Gennes and J. ProstJ. The Physics of liquid crystals, 2nd edition, (Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1993).

S. Chandrasekhar, Liquid crystals, (Cambridge University Press, 1977).

J. Jasapara, R. Bise, T. Her, and J. Nicholson, “Effect of Mode Cut-Off on Dispersion in Photonic Bandgap Fibers,” Optical Fiber Communication Conference ThI3 (2003).

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Micrograph of the end facet of a liquid-crystal-filled photonic crystal fibre. The periodic structure, consisting of silica and liquid crystal, gives rise to a cladding with photonic bandgaps, and the fibre supports only guided modes at certain wavelength bands. In this case, a blue mode is supported in the visible region of the spectrum.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Examples of phases of thermotropic liquid crystals: Nematic, Smectic A and Smectic C phases (non-chiral molecules), appearing in that order upon cooling, if the same material possesses all of these phases. If the molecules are chiral, we instead have N* (=cholesteric), SmA* and SmC*. These phases all lack mirror planes. A helical superstructure due to the molecular chirality appears in the N* and SmC* phases (shown), but not in the SmA* phase (not shown).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Device principle. The voids of a triangular structured PCF is filled with a liquid crystal and coated with a thin conducting layer, which forms a resistive microheater. Upper left inset shows a polarized micrograph of a liquid crystal inside a PCF void. (b) Mode index simulation of rod-type photonic crystal. At short wavelengths, the individual rods form isolated waveguides, for increasing wavelength the rods become resonant and finally strongly coupled waveguides. A forbidden region with mode index below the low-index background material (blue line) appears for narrow spectral ranges. These spectral ranges are utilized to guide light in the core and they are highly dependent on the exact composition of the rod material. Liquid crystals provide a very high sensitivity to the spectral location of these ‘light-guide’ ranges, thereby opening up the possibilities of low-voltage driven all-optical functional devices. Field distributions of a high-index cladding mode (left), a defect mode guided by the core (middle), and a low-index cladding mode (right) are shown in the top panel.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Micrographs of the guided modes in a PCF filled with a short-pitch cholesteric LC.(MDA-00-1445). Well below the N* to Isotropic phase transition temperature (Tc=94°C), the bandgap location sensitivity is approximately 1nm/°C and 3 nm/°C in the visible and infrared region, respectively. Closer to Tc, the transmission characteristics changes more rapidly, and the color of the guided modes changes from a) green@T=77°C to b) yellow@T=89°C and then into an c) off state@T=91°C for thereafter to change to d) blue@T=94°C

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) Transmission spectrum for a triangular structured PCF filled with a liquid crystal (TM216). Spectrum is shown for 3 temperatures around the SmA* to N* phase transition temperature: 26.1°C, 26.5°C and 26.9°C. (b) Spectrum of a 974nm pump laser beam coupled into the fiber and shows an extinction ratio of 60dB with a switching temperature difference of 0.4°C.

Metrics