Abstract

We report on the control of visible harmonic generation in microstructured fiber through the polarization state of the fundamental radiation. By coupling λ=1.55 µm femtosecond pulses that have the same peak power into a short length (Z=20 cm) of high-Δ microstructured fiber, we observe the generation of distinct visible spectral components in the visible at the output of the fiber in dependence of the input pulse’s polarization state.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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  1. J.C. Knight, T.A. Birks, P.St. J. Russell, and D.M. Atkin, “All-silica single-mode optical fiber with photonic crystal cladding,” Opt. Lett. 211547 (1996)
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. J. C. Knight, J. Broeng, T.A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell., “Photonic band gap guidance in optical fibers,” Science 282, 1476 (1998)
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, and A. J. Stenz, “Visible continuum generation in air-silica microstructure optical fibers with anomalous dispersion at 800 nm,” Opt., Lett. 25 (1),25,2000
    [Crossref]
  4. J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, and A. J. Stenz, “Optical properties of high-delta air-silica microstructure optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 25 (11),796, 2000
    [Crossref]
  5. F. G. Omenetto, A. Taylor, M. D. Moores, J.C. Knight, P.St. J. Russell, and J. Arriaga, “Simultaneous generation of spectrally distinct third harmonics in a photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett. 26 (15),1558, 2001
    [Crossref]
  6. J. Herrmann, U. Griebner, N. Zhavornokov, A. Hukasow, D. Nickel, J.C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russell, and G. Korn, “Experimental evidence for supercontinuum generation by fission of higher-order solitons in photonic fibers,”. Phys. Rev. Lett. 88 (17), 173901, 2002
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. R. H. Stolen, J. E. Bjorkholm, and A. Ashkin, “Phase-matched three-wave mixing in silica fiber optical waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.,  24, 308, 1974
    [Crossref]
  8. J. Sharping, M. Fiorentino, A. Coker, P. Kumar, and R. Windeler, “Four-wave mixing in microstructure fiber,” Opt. Lett. 26 (14), 1048 (2001)
    [Crossref]
  9. N. Akhmediev and M. Karlsson, “Cherenkov radiation emitted by solitons in optical fibers,” Phys. Rev. A,  51 (3), 2602, 1995
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. J. Thogersen and J. Mark, “THG in standard and erbium-doped fibers,” Optics Comm. 110 (3–4), 435, 1994
  11. A. Ferrando, E. Silvestre, J.J. Miret, P. Andres, and M.V. Andres, “Full-vector analysis of a realistic photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett,  24, 276 (1999)
    [Crossref]

2001 (2)

F. G. Omenetto, A. Taylor, M. D. Moores, J.C. Knight, P.St. J. Russell, and J. Arriaga, “Simultaneous generation of spectrally distinct third harmonics in a photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett. 26 (15),1558, 2001
[Crossref]

J. Sharping, M. Fiorentino, A. Coker, P. Kumar, and R. Windeler, “Four-wave mixing in microstructure fiber,” Opt. Lett. 26 (14), 1048 (2001)
[Crossref]

2000 (2)

J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, and A. J. Stenz, “Visible continuum generation in air-silica microstructure optical fibers with anomalous dispersion at 800 nm,” Opt., Lett. 25 (1),25,2000
[Crossref]

J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, and A. J. Stenz, “Optical properties of high-delta air-silica microstructure optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 25 (11),796, 2000
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

A. Ferrando, E. Silvestre, J.J. Miret, P. Andres, and M.V. Andres, “Full-vector analysis of a realistic photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett,  24, 276 (1999)
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

J. C. Knight, J. Broeng, T.A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell., “Photonic band gap guidance in optical fibers,” Science 282, 1476 (1998)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

1995 (1)

N. Akhmediev and M. Karlsson, “Cherenkov radiation emitted by solitons in optical fibers,” Phys. Rev. A,  51 (3), 2602, 1995
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

J. Thogersen and J. Mark, “THG in standard and erbium-doped fibers,” Optics Comm. 110 (3–4), 435, 1994

1974 (1)

R. H. Stolen, J. E. Bjorkholm, and A. Ashkin, “Phase-matched three-wave mixing in silica fiber optical waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.,  24, 308, 1974
[Crossref]

Akhmediev, N.

N. Akhmediev and M. Karlsson, “Cherenkov radiation emitted by solitons in optical fibers,” Phys. Rev. A,  51 (3), 2602, 1995
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Andres, M.V.

A. Ferrando, E. Silvestre, J.J. Miret, P. Andres, and M.V. Andres, “Full-vector analysis of a realistic photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett,  24, 276 (1999)
[Crossref]

Andres, P.

A. Ferrando, E. Silvestre, J.J. Miret, P. Andres, and M.V. Andres, “Full-vector analysis of a realistic photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett,  24, 276 (1999)
[Crossref]

Arriaga, J.

F. G. Omenetto, A. Taylor, M. D. Moores, J.C. Knight, P.St. J. Russell, and J. Arriaga, “Simultaneous generation of spectrally distinct third harmonics in a photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett. 26 (15),1558, 2001
[Crossref]

Ashkin, A.

R. H. Stolen, J. E. Bjorkholm, and A. Ashkin, “Phase-matched three-wave mixing in silica fiber optical waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.,  24, 308, 1974
[Crossref]

Atkin, D.M.

Birks, T.A.

J. C. Knight, J. Broeng, T.A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell., “Photonic band gap guidance in optical fibers,” Science 282, 1476 (1998)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J.C. Knight, T.A. Birks, P.St. J. Russell, and D.M. Atkin, “All-silica single-mode optical fiber with photonic crystal cladding,” Opt. Lett. 211547 (1996)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bjorkholm, J. E.

R. H. Stolen, J. E. Bjorkholm, and A. Ashkin, “Phase-matched three-wave mixing in silica fiber optical waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.,  24, 308, 1974
[Crossref]

Broeng, J.

J. C. Knight, J. Broeng, T.A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell., “Photonic band gap guidance in optical fibers,” Science 282, 1476 (1998)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Coker, A.

Ferrando, A.

A. Ferrando, E. Silvestre, J.J. Miret, P. Andres, and M.V. Andres, “Full-vector analysis of a realistic photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett,  24, 276 (1999)
[Crossref]

Fiorentino, M.

Griebner, U.

J. Herrmann, U. Griebner, N. Zhavornokov, A. Hukasow, D. Nickel, J.C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russell, and G. Korn, “Experimental evidence for supercontinuum generation by fission of higher-order solitons in photonic fibers,”. Phys. Rev. Lett. 88 (17), 173901, 2002
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Herrmann, J.

J. Herrmann, U. Griebner, N. Zhavornokov, A. Hukasow, D. Nickel, J.C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russell, and G. Korn, “Experimental evidence for supercontinuum generation by fission of higher-order solitons in photonic fibers,”. Phys. Rev. Lett. 88 (17), 173901, 2002
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hukasow, A.

J. Herrmann, U. Griebner, N. Zhavornokov, A. Hukasow, D. Nickel, J.C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russell, and G. Korn, “Experimental evidence for supercontinuum generation by fission of higher-order solitons in photonic fibers,”. Phys. Rev. Lett. 88 (17), 173901, 2002
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Karlsson, M.

N. Akhmediev and M. Karlsson, “Cherenkov radiation emitted by solitons in optical fibers,” Phys. Rev. A,  51 (3), 2602, 1995
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Knight, J. C.

J. C. Knight, J. Broeng, T.A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell., “Photonic band gap guidance in optical fibers,” Science 282, 1476 (1998)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Knight, J.C.

F. G. Omenetto, A. Taylor, M. D. Moores, J.C. Knight, P.St. J. Russell, and J. Arriaga, “Simultaneous generation of spectrally distinct third harmonics in a photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett. 26 (15),1558, 2001
[Crossref]

J.C. Knight, T.A. Birks, P.St. J. Russell, and D.M. Atkin, “All-silica single-mode optical fiber with photonic crystal cladding,” Opt. Lett. 211547 (1996)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Herrmann, U. Griebner, N. Zhavornokov, A. Hukasow, D. Nickel, J.C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russell, and G. Korn, “Experimental evidence for supercontinuum generation by fission of higher-order solitons in photonic fibers,”. Phys. Rev. Lett. 88 (17), 173901, 2002
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Korn, G.

J. Herrmann, U. Griebner, N. Zhavornokov, A. Hukasow, D. Nickel, J.C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russell, and G. Korn, “Experimental evidence for supercontinuum generation by fission of higher-order solitons in photonic fibers,”. Phys. Rev. Lett. 88 (17), 173901, 2002
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kumar, P.

Mark, J.

J. Thogersen and J. Mark, “THG in standard and erbium-doped fibers,” Optics Comm. 110 (3–4), 435, 1994

Miret, J.J.

A. Ferrando, E. Silvestre, J.J. Miret, P. Andres, and M.V. Andres, “Full-vector analysis of a realistic photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett,  24, 276 (1999)
[Crossref]

Moores, M. D.

F. G. Omenetto, A. Taylor, M. D. Moores, J.C. Knight, P.St. J. Russell, and J. Arriaga, “Simultaneous generation of spectrally distinct third harmonics in a photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett. 26 (15),1558, 2001
[Crossref]

Nickel, D.

J. Herrmann, U. Griebner, N. Zhavornokov, A. Hukasow, D. Nickel, J.C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russell, and G. Korn, “Experimental evidence for supercontinuum generation by fission of higher-order solitons in photonic fibers,”. Phys. Rev. Lett. 88 (17), 173901, 2002
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Omenetto, F. G.

F. G. Omenetto, A. Taylor, M. D. Moores, J.C. Knight, P.St. J. Russell, and J. Arriaga, “Simultaneous generation of spectrally distinct third harmonics in a photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett. 26 (15),1558, 2001
[Crossref]

Ranka, J. K.

J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, and A. J. Stenz, “Visible continuum generation in air-silica microstructure optical fibers with anomalous dispersion at 800 nm,” Opt., Lett. 25 (1),25,2000
[Crossref]

J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, and A. J. Stenz, “Optical properties of high-delta air-silica microstructure optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 25 (11),796, 2000
[Crossref]

Russell, P. St. J.

J. Herrmann, U. Griebner, N. Zhavornokov, A. Hukasow, D. Nickel, J.C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russell, and G. Korn, “Experimental evidence for supercontinuum generation by fission of higher-order solitons in photonic fibers,”. Phys. Rev. Lett. 88 (17), 173901, 2002
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Russell, P.St. J.

F. G. Omenetto, A. Taylor, M. D. Moores, J.C. Knight, P.St. J. Russell, and J. Arriaga, “Simultaneous generation of spectrally distinct third harmonics in a photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett. 26 (15),1558, 2001
[Crossref]

J.C. Knight, T.A. Birks, P.St. J. Russell, and D.M. Atkin, “All-silica single-mode optical fiber with photonic crystal cladding,” Opt. Lett. 211547 (1996)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Russell., P. St. J.

J. C. Knight, J. Broeng, T.A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell., “Photonic band gap guidance in optical fibers,” Science 282, 1476 (1998)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sharping, J.

Silvestre, E.

A. Ferrando, E. Silvestre, J.J. Miret, P. Andres, and M.V. Andres, “Full-vector analysis of a realistic photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett,  24, 276 (1999)
[Crossref]

Stenz, A. J.

J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, and A. J. Stenz, “Visible continuum generation in air-silica microstructure optical fibers with anomalous dispersion at 800 nm,” Opt., Lett. 25 (1),25,2000
[Crossref]

J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, and A. J. Stenz, “Optical properties of high-delta air-silica microstructure optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 25 (11),796, 2000
[Crossref]

Stolen, R. H.

R. H. Stolen, J. E. Bjorkholm, and A. Ashkin, “Phase-matched three-wave mixing in silica fiber optical waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.,  24, 308, 1974
[Crossref]

Taylor, A.

F. G. Omenetto, A. Taylor, M. D. Moores, J.C. Knight, P.St. J. Russell, and J. Arriaga, “Simultaneous generation of spectrally distinct third harmonics in a photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett. 26 (15),1558, 2001
[Crossref]

Thogersen, J.

J. Thogersen and J. Mark, “THG in standard and erbium-doped fibers,” Optics Comm. 110 (3–4), 435, 1994

Wadsworth, W. J.

J. Herrmann, U. Griebner, N. Zhavornokov, A. Hukasow, D. Nickel, J.C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russell, and G. Korn, “Experimental evidence for supercontinuum generation by fission of higher-order solitons in photonic fibers,”. Phys. Rev. Lett. 88 (17), 173901, 2002
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Windeler, R.

Windeler, R. S.

J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, and A. J. Stenz, “Optical properties of high-delta air-silica microstructure optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 25 (11),796, 2000
[Crossref]

J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, and A. J. Stenz, “Visible continuum generation in air-silica microstructure optical fibers with anomalous dispersion at 800 nm,” Opt., Lett. 25 (1),25,2000
[Crossref]

Zhavornokov, N.

J. Herrmann, U. Griebner, N. Zhavornokov, A. Hukasow, D. Nickel, J.C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russell, and G. Korn, “Experimental evidence for supercontinuum generation by fission of higher-order solitons in photonic fibers,”. Phys. Rev. Lett. 88 (17), 173901, 2002
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

R. H. Stolen, J. E. Bjorkholm, and A. Ashkin, “Phase-matched three-wave mixing in silica fiber optical waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.,  24, 308, 1974
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett (1)

A. Ferrando, E. Silvestre, J.J. Miret, P. Andres, and M.V. Andres, “Full-vector analysis of a realistic photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett,  24, 276 (1999)
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (4)

Opt., Lett. (1)

J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, and A. J. Stenz, “Visible continuum generation in air-silica microstructure optical fibers with anomalous dispersion at 800 nm,” Opt., Lett. 25 (1),25,2000
[Crossref]

Optics Comm. (1)

J. Thogersen and J. Mark, “THG in standard and erbium-doped fibers,” Optics Comm. 110 (3–4), 435, 1994

Phys. Rev. A (1)

N. Akhmediev and M. Karlsson, “Cherenkov radiation emitted by solitons in optical fibers,” Phys. Rev. A,  51 (3), 2602, 1995
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Science (1)

J. C. Knight, J. Broeng, T.A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell., “Photonic band gap guidance in optical fibers,” Science 282, 1476 (1998)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (1)

J. Herrmann, U. Griebner, N. Zhavornokov, A. Hukasow, D. Nickel, J.C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russell, and G. Korn, “Experimental evidence for supercontinuum generation by fission of higher-order solitons in photonic fibers,”. Phys. Rev. Lett. 88 (17), 173901, 2002
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Far field mode profiles detected at the ouput of the microstructured fiber for polarization states directed along the two previously identified principal axes α and β. The input to the fiber are pulses at λ=1550 nm, τ~170 fs, with maximum average power of 25 mW (for these experiments). The two outputs are centered at (a) λ= 533 nm and (b) λ=514 nm.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Plot of modal indices (N=5-25) for λ= 510 nm (black squares), λ= 520 nm (red circles), λ= 530 (green triangles), and modal index for the fundamental as a function of wavelength (black solid line). Phase matching conditions can be identified for the N=21 mode. For further details see text.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Comparison of the experimentally acquired image of the near field profile of the guided λ=514 nm mode and the calculated profile of the N=21 high order mode supported by the MF in that wavelength range.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Detected spectra of the fundamental (λ=1550 nm)radiation at the output of the microstructured fiber as a function of power for linearly polarized light along the directions α and β. The shift at P=25 mW (indicated by the arrow) is the same for both polarization states.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Detected spectra of the visible radiation components at the output of the microstructured fiber as a function of power for both polarization states α and β. The component at 533 nm appears only in one polarization state.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Scanning electron microscope image of the fiber tip used in the experiment. Various calibrated measurements performed with the microscope reveal mismatches in the 8 to 10% range between the dimensions indicated as a and b in the Figure, resulting in a slight ellipticity of the core of the microstructured fiber.

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