Abstract

In this paper, a mode matching technique for highly efficient coupling between dielectric silica waveguides (SWG) and planar photonic crystal (PPC) waveguides based on setting localized defects in a PPC tapered waveguide is reported. The introduction of multiple defects is designed properly depending on mode mismatching arising from the different widths of the SWG and the PPC waveguide. The procedure to obtain the optimum defects configuration is described. Transmission efficiencies above 80% at a wavelength of 1.55μm are reported improving significantly the transmission efficiencies achieved with conventional PPC tapered structures without defects. Furthermore, the feasibility of the coupling technique for both input/output coupling over a large frequency band is shown.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref]
  2. D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel, and R. Baets, “An out-of-pale grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers,” IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics 38, 949–955 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  3. W. Kuang, C. Kim, A. Stapleton, and J.D. O’Brien, “Grating-assisted coupling of optical fibers and photonic crystal waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 27, 1604–1606 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  4. M.E. Potter and R.W. Ziolkowski, “Two compact structures for perpendicular coupling of optical signals between dielectric and photonic crystal waveguides,” Opt. Express,  10691, (2002) http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-10-15-691
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
  14. A. Taflove, Computational Electrodynamics (Artech, Norwood, MA, 1995).
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    [Crossref]

2002 (8)

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel, and R. Baets, “An out-of-pale grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers,” IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics 38, 949–955 (2002).
[Crossref]

P. Sanchis, J. Martí, A. García, A. Martínez, and J. Blasco, “High efficiency coupling technique for planar photonic crystal waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 38, 961–962 (2002).
[Crossref]

S. Boscolo, C. Conti, M. Midirio, and C.G. Someda, “Numerical analysis of propagation and impedance matching in 2-D photonic crystal waveguides with finite length,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 304–310 (2002).
[Crossref]

Ph. Lalanne and A. Talneau, “Modal conversion with artificial materials for photonic-crystal waveguides,” Opt. Express 10, 354 (2002). http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-10-8-354
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M.E. Potter and R.W. Ziolkowski, “Two compact structures for perpendicular coupling of optical signals between dielectric and photonic crystal waveguides,” Opt. Express,  10691, (2002) http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-10-15-691
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Talneau, Ph. Lalanne, M. Agio, and C.M. Soukoulis, “Low-reflection photonic-crystal taper for efficient coupling between guide sections of arbitrary widths,” Opt. Lett. 27, 1522–1524 (2002)
[Crossref]

W. Kuang, C. Kim, A. Stapleton, and J.D. O’Brien, “Grating-assisted coupling of optical fibers and photonic crystal waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 27, 1604–1606 (2002).
[Crossref]

D.W. Prather, J. Murakowski, S. Shi, S. Venkataram, A. Sharkawy, C. Chen, and D. Pustai, “High-effciency coupling structure for a single-line-defect photonic-crystal waveguide,” Opt. Lett. 27, 1601–1603 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (3)

2000 (1)

1996 (1)

T. F. Krauss, R. M. De La Rue, and S. Brand, “Two-dimensional photonic bandgap structures operating at near-infrared wavelengths,” Nature 383, 699–702 (1996).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

J. P. Berenger, “A perfectly matched layer for the absorption for electromagnetic waves,” J. Comput. Phys. 114, 185–200 (1994).
[Crossref]

Agio, M.

Baets, R.

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel, and R. Baets, “An out-of-pale grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers,” IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics 38, 949–955 (2002).
[Crossref]

Berenger, J. P.

J. P. Berenger, “A perfectly matched layer for the absorption for electromagnetic waves,” J. Comput. Phys. 114, 185–200 (1994).
[Crossref]

Bienstman, P.

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel, and R. Baets, “An out-of-pale grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers,” IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics 38, 949–955 (2002).
[Crossref]

Blasco, J.

P. Sanchis, J. Martí, A. García, A. Martínez, and J. Blasco, “High efficiency coupling technique for planar photonic crystal waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 38, 961–962 (2002).
[Crossref]

Bogaerts, W.

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel, and R. Baets, “An out-of-pale grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers,” IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics 38, 949–955 (2002).
[Crossref]

Boscolo, S.

S. Boscolo, C. Conti, M. Midirio, and C.G. Someda, “Numerical analysis of propagation and impedance matching in 2-D photonic crystal waveguides with finite length,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 304–310 (2002).
[Crossref]

Brand, S.

T. F. Krauss, R. M. De La Rue, and S. Brand, “Two-dimensional photonic bandgap structures operating at near-infrared wavelengths,” Nature 383, 699–702 (1996).
[Crossref]

Chen, C.

Conti, C.

S. Boscolo, C. Conti, M. Midirio, and C.G. Someda, “Numerical analysis of propagation and impedance matching in 2-D photonic crystal waveguides with finite length,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 304–310 (2002).
[Crossref]

De La Rue, R. M.

T. F. Krauss, R. M. De La Rue, and S. Brand, “Two-dimensional photonic bandgap structures operating at near-infrared wavelengths,” Nature 383, 699–702 (1996).
[Crossref]

De Mesel, K.

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel, and R. Baets, “An out-of-pale grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers,” IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics 38, 949–955 (2002).
[Crossref]

Forchel, A.

García, A.

P. Sanchis, J. Martí, A. García, A. Martínez, and J. Blasco, “High efficiency coupling technique for planar photonic crystal waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 38, 961–962 (2002).
[Crossref]

Happ, T.D.

Joannopoulos, J. D.

Joannopoulos, J.D.

A. Mekis and J.D. Joannopoulos, “Tapered couplers for efficient interfacing between dielectric and photonic crystal waveguides,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 861–865 (2001).
[Crossref]

Johnson, S. G.

Kamp, M.

Kim, C.

Krauss, T. F.

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel, and R. Baets, “An out-of-pale grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers,” IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics 38, 949–955 (2002).
[Crossref]

T. F. Krauss, R. M. De La Rue, and S. Brand, “Two-dimensional photonic bandgap structures operating at near-infrared wavelengths,” Nature 383, 699–702 (1996).
[Crossref]

Kuang, W.

Lalanne, Ph.

Lee, R.

Martí, J.

P. Sanchis, J. Martí, A. García, A. Martínez, and J. Blasco, “High efficiency coupling technique for planar photonic crystal waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 38, 961–962 (2002).
[Crossref]

Martínez, A.

P. Sanchis, J. Martí, A. García, A. Martínez, and J. Blasco, “High efficiency coupling technique for planar photonic crystal waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 38, 961–962 (2002).
[Crossref]

Mekis, A.

A. Mekis and J.D. Joannopoulos, “Tapered couplers for efficient interfacing between dielectric and photonic crystal waveguides,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 861–865 (2001).
[Crossref]

Midirio, M.

S. Boscolo, C. Conti, M. Midirio, and C.G. Someda, “Numerical analysis of propagation and impedance matching in 2-D photonic crystal waveguides with finite length,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 304–310 (2002).
[Crossref]

Moerman, I.

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel, and R. Baets, “An out-of-pale grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers,” IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics 38, 949–955 (2002).
[Crossref]

Murakowski, J.

O’Brien, J.D.

Potter, M.E.

Prather, D.W.

Pustai, D.

Sanchis, P.

P. Sanchis, J. Martí, A. García, A. Martínez, and J. Blasco, “High efficiency coupling technique for planar photonic crystal waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 38, 961–962 (2002).
[Crossref]

Sharkawy, A.

Shi, S.

Someda, C.G.

S. Boscolo, C. Conti, M. Midirio, and C.G. Someda, “Numerical analysis of propagation and impedance matching in 2-D photonic crystal waveguides with finite length,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 304–310 (2002).
[Crossref]

Soukoulis, C.M.

Stapleton, A.

Taflove, A.

A. Taflove, Computational Electrodynamics (Artech, Norwood, MA, 1995).

Taillaert, D.

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel, and R. Baets, “An out-of-pale grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers,” IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics 38, 949–955 (2002).
[Crossref]

Talneau, A.

Van Daele, P.

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel, and R. Baets, “An out-of-pale grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers,” IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics 38, 949–955 (2002).
[Crossref]

Venkataram, S.

Verstuyft, S.

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel, and R. Baets, “An out-of-pale grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers,” IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics 38, 949–955 (2002).
[Crossref]

Xu, Y.

Yariv, A.

Ziolkowski, R.W.

Electron. Lett. (1)

P. Sanchis, J. Martí, A. García, A. Martínez, and J. Blasco, “High efficiency coupling technique for planar photonic crystal waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 38, 961–962 (2002).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

S. Boscolo, C. Conti, M. Midirio, and C.G. Someda, “Numerical analysis of propagation and impedance matching in 2-D photonic crystal waveguides with finite length,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 304–310 (2002).
[Crossref]

A. Mekis and J.D. Joannopoulos, “Tapered couplers for efficient interfacing between dielectric and photonic crystal waveguides,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 861–865 (2001).
[Crossref]

IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics (1)

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel, and R. Baets, “An out-of-pale grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers,” IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics 38, 949–955 (2002).
[Crossref]

J. Comput. Phys. (1)

J. P. Berenger, “A perfectly matched layer for the absorption for electromagnetic waves,” J. Comput. Phys. 114, 185–200 (1994).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

T. F. Krauss, R. M. De La Rue, and S. Brand, “Two-dimensional photonic bandgap structures operating at near-infrared wavelengths,” Nature 383, 699–702 (1996).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (5)

Other (1)

A. Taflove, Computational Electrodynamics (Artech, Norwood, MA, 1995).

Supplementary Material (2)

» Media 1: MOV (1576 KB)     
» Media 2: MOV (1570 KB)     

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic view of the structures considered. (a) a 2μm-wide/ 0.5μm-long and (b) a 4μm-wide/1μm-long planar photonic crystal (PPC) taper each one with a different defects configuration are used to couple light both into and out of a finite PPC waveguide from a silica waveguide (SWG). The lattice constant of the PPC is a and the radius of the rods is R.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Transmission spectra as a function of the normalized frequency for the structure shown in Fig.1(a) taking into account different SWG widths, w=1.5μm and w= 3μm, and with and without the proposed coupling technique.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Normalized transmitted power as a function of the relative position of a localized defect in the z-axis normalized to the lattice constant and (b) as a function of the radius of the defects, rext and rint , normalized to the radius of the rods, R, and located the former at zext =0.59a and the latter at zint =1.52a, both for the PPC taper shown in Fig.1(b).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Movies (both 1.6 MB) of the electric field intensity input coupling from the SWG to the PPC waveguide employing the PPC taper shown in Fig. 1(b), (a) without and (b) with the optimized two-defects configuration. [Media 2]

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Transmission spectra as a function of the normalized frequency for the structure shown in Fig.1(b) for a SWG width of 3 μm with and without the proposed coupling technique. In the former case, two spectra are depicted showing the influence of the normalized frequency employed in the optimization procedure.

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